NitiAayog–CentreForPolicyResearchOpenSeminar Series
 
“Conceptualising Zero-Waste in India under Swachh Bharat:
Possibil...
Date: 29.06.2015
Pathways to Zero Waste in India
Ashish Chaturvedi
Research Fellow
Green Transformations Cluster and ESRC ...
Global Material Consumption per Capita: range 1.5 to >50 t
19.1
8.5
4.6
2.8
1.1
1.1
Domestic Material Consumption (DMC) pe...
Domestic Material Consumption
Source: http://www.unep.org
Where will resources come from in the
future?
  Keep digging deeper and further on the planet
  Start rethinking about cur...
A circular economy is an
alternative to a traditional
linear economy (make, use,
dispose) in which we keep
resources in us...
Circular Economy/ Zero Waste
  In open systems, it is impossible to close loops within a
ward, city, state, country.
–  Lo...
Circular Economy Gaining Traction
  Germany and Japan – manufacturing giants have
extensive laws on the promotion of a cir...
What is happening in China?
What is happening in China?
Lessons from China
  Waste profile is similar
  Private Sector is similar; local implementation
capacities are similarly c...
What is happening in the EU?
Lessons from the EU?
  Our waste is different – calorific value of residual waste is
almost half of that in EU
  Our capac...
Another Dimension in India (and China)
  Waste Management provides jobs to 1-2% of the
urban population in the informal se...
Pathway 1: Techno-Nirvana
Attitudes to waste Waste management process Key issues
Focus is on recovering the
maximum value ...
Pathway 2: Green Transformations
Attitudes to waste Waste management process Consequences Key issues
Focus on inclusive
re...
Implications for Design and Implementation
of Swachch Bharat
Local Government
  Source segregation is critical
–  Not segr...
Implications for Design and Implementation
of Swachch Bharat
Central Government
  Inter-ministerial coordination for Trans...
Questions/ Comments
A.Chaturvedi@ids.ac.uk
Ashish.Chaturvedi@outlook.com
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Pathways to Zero Waste in India (by Ashish Chaturvedi Research Fellow Green Transformations Cluster and ESRC STEPS Centre)

Presentation from the 2nd CPR-NITI Aayog Seminar on Zero Waste
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Government & Nonprofit      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Pathways to Zero Waste in India (by Ashish Chaturvedi Research Fellow Green Transformations Cluster and ESRC STEPS Centre)

  • 1. NitiAayog–CentreForPolicyResearchOpenSeminar Series   “Conceptualising Zero-Waste in India under Swachh Bharat: Possibilities & Challenges”   Monday,29th June 2015,15:00–16:30 hrs   Room 122 Niti Aayog,Sansad Marg,New Delhi 110001
  • 2. Date: 29.06.2015 Pathways to Zero Waste in India Ashish Chaturvedi Research Fellow Green Transformations Cluster and ESRC STEPS Centre
  • 3. Global Material Consumption per Capita: range 1.5 to >50 t 19.1 8.5 4.6 2.8 1.1 1.1 Domestic Material Consumption (DMC) per capita, 2008 very low: < 5 t /cap low: 5 - 9 t /cap average: 9 - 13 t /cap high: 13 - 20 t /cap very high: 21 - 30 t /cap extremly high: > 30 t /cap 1,9 3,1 4,0 4,1 11,0 12,5 14,3 14,4 14,5 14,1 21,8 42,3 51,3 28,1 16,5 14,3 7,0 7,1 10,2 10,3 7,9 16,6 5,7 19,0 10,4
  • 4. Domestic Material Consumption Source: http://www.unep.org
  • 5. Where will resources come from in the future?   Keep digging deeper and further on the planet   Start rethinking about current consumption and production patterns Transformation: From a Throw-Away to a Circular Economy
  • 6. A circular economy is an alternative to a traditional linear economy (make, use, dispose) in which we keep resources in use for as long as possible, extract the maximum value from them whilst in use, then recover and regenerate products and materials at the end of each service life. Source: http://www.wrap.org.uk/content/wrap-and-circular-economy
  • 7. Circular Economy/ Zero Waste   In open systems, it is impossible to close loops within a ward, city, state, country. –  Loops are generally closed across borders   What do we talk about when we talk about Zero Waste? –  Waste minimization within a geography (village, city etc) –  Is that the most efficient solution?   Zero waste might need to explicitly understand urban-peri- urban-rural linkages –  Biological nutrients entering and leaving a city
  • 8. Circular Economy Gaining Traction   Germany and Japan – manufacturing giants have extensive laws on the promotion of a circular economy.   China announced a Law in 2008, established a high level Circular Economy Institute in 2013.   In India – lots of initiatives, two recent agreements between the MoEFCC with the EU and Germany to set up working groups for Circular Economy.
  • 9. What is happening in China?
  • 10. What is happening in China?
  • 11. Lessons from China   Waste profile is similar   Private Sector is similar; local implementation capacities are similarly constrained   Scale is different   Solutions would have to be adapted to our context
  • 12. What is happening in the EU?
  • 13. Lessons from the EU?   Our waste is different – calorific value of residual waste is almost half of that in EU   Our capacities are different – levels of finance and number of staff.   Our private sector involved in waste management is different   Our knowledge attitudes and practices towards waste are different Off the shelf solutions from the EU not relevant for the Indian context
  • 14. Another Dimension in India (and China)   Waste Management provides jobs to 1-2% of the urban population in the informal sector   Organized and efficient collection, segregation and material extraction   Do not always adhere to environmental/ occupational health and safety standards
  • 15. Pathway 1: Techno-Nirvana Attitudes to waste Waste management process Key issues Focus is on recovering the maximum value from the waste through large scale and capital intensive technology Local government collaborates with formal private sector to recover value out of waste and introduces technology- based interventions for resource management. Contractual agreements, (through public private partnerships), are for whole waste value chain. Households segregate waste at source into multiple categories. Door to door collection organized by formal private sector through motorized pick-up vehicles. Large centralized material recovery facilities segregate recyclables and compost organic fractions of waste. Non-recyclable and inorganic fractions sent for energy recovery in large capital intensive incinerators Informal re-use and repair industry suffers because extended producer responsibility is interpreted to extend producer property rights to entire product life cycle. Waste management infrastructure highly capital intensive, large-scale, mechanised, as well as carbon and energy intensive Cost passed on by local government to waste generators – households, commercial establishments, and non- commercial organisations. Additional increased costs for pollution control and monitoring the infrastructure Financial intermediaries support innovative entrepreneurs or large waste management companies to set up waste management infrastructure. Potential conflict between environmental groups and local government, inexperienced in the consequences of large infrastructure
  • 16. Pathway 2: Green Transformations Attitudes to waste Waste management process Consequences Key issues Focus on inclusive resource management Local government values resource-saving potential of skills, networks and decentralized infrastructure as well as potential for job creation which results from this partnership with informal sector collective. Waste segregated at source by generators (households, commerce, etc) with door to door collection managed by an informal sector collective. Collections monitored and material is transferred to decentralized material sorting facilities, also managed by the collective in partnership with NGOs and technology start-ups. Local government pays waste pickers, operates state-of-the-art landfills, and actively encourages repair and refurbishment markets through incentives like providing space for weekly markets selling second-hand and repaired goods. Financial and regulatory instruments make landfilling of recyclables and energy-rich materials prohibitively expensive for the waste disposer. Repair and re-use industry actively promoted and works in close partnership with product manufacturers Manufacturers work with informal collectives setting up take back programmes for end of life products, making them a crucial link in their value chains Local government can enforce environmentally sound and occupational health and safety compliant processes. Process is facilitated by simplified regimes of taxation to informal sector enterprises who are members of the collective. Incinerators not considered viable for developing country context Other Waste to Energy technologies – Biomethanation - possible. Minimal conflict between formal and informal sectors since the former benefits from the latter’s participation in the value chain. However, such participation needs active intervention from local government and other policy enablers to ensure materials do not leak back into unregulated markets.
  • 17. Implications for Design and Implementation of Swachch Bharat Local Government   Source segregation is critical –  Not segregated, not collected   Create decentralized material recovery facilities and compost facilities   Develop predictable/ consistent approaches - important for private sector (both formal and informal) participation   Engage with a broader set of stakeholders for technology appraisal   Explore co-incineration of (currently) non-recyclable waste in cement kilns as a climate friendly option for waste management
  • 18. Implications for Design and Implementation of Swachch Bharat Central Government   Inter-ministerial coordination for Transformation to a Circular Economy   A National Level Panel for developing a Road Map for the efficient management of Secondary Raw Materials   Infrastructure investments in Swachch Bharat directed towards low-carbon technologies   Initiate dialogue with Manufacturers whose products lead to waste –  Elimination of hazardous substances –  Elimination of non-recyclable packaging   Create a platform for dialogue over waste incineration –  Unpack Waste to Energy – Waste to Energy ≠ Incineration –  Incineration is a technology of yesterday –  Discourages higher order processes in the WM hierarchy
  • 19. Questions/ Comments A.Chaturvedi@ids.ac.uk Ashish.Chaturvedi@outlook.com

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