Adam Rissien
Agricultural & Water Policy Director
arissien@theOEC.org
(614) 487-7506
Preventing Harmful Algal Blooms:
How ...
Ohio Environmental Council
Our Mission:
To secure healthy air,
land, and water for all
who call Ohio home.
About the OEC
 Founded in 1969
 Statewide, non-profit, non-
government
 Membership organization –
3,000+ individuals, 1...
Key Issues
Clean Water Program
 Reduce Nutrient Pollution
 Prevent Spread of Asian Carp
Environmental Health Program
 P...
PRESENTED BY DR. JEFFERY REUTTER,
Annex 4 Task Team Co-chair, Special
Advisor Ohio Sea Grant College Program
Available for...
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
Preventing Harmful Algal
Blooms: How Much Phosphor...
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
2015 Lake Erie HAB Forecast, 9 July 2015
Objectives and Targets Task Team
Recommendati...
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
Lake Ecosystem Objectives
Location Issue Lake Ecosystem Objective
Central Basin Low ox...
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
Objectives & Targets Task Team Report
The draft phosphorus targets are now
available t...
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
Lake Erie and Other Great Lakes
•Southernmost
•Shallowest
•Warmest
•Most agricultural ...
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
Lake Erie Stats•Lake Erie
•9,906 sq. miles
•11th in area 17th volume
•241 miles long 5...
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
80:10:10 Rule
•80% of water from upper lakes
•10% direct precipitation
•10% from Lake ...
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
OSU’s Island
Campus
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
Blue-green Algae Bloom circa 1971,
Lake Erie
Photo: Forsythe and Reutter
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
What brought about the rebirth
(dead lake to Walleye Capital)?
•Phosphorus reductions ...
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
Nutrient Loading
•P discharges from sewage treatment plants
vary little from year to y...
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
Distribution of annual TP load for the 2008 water year
from the Maumee and Detroit Riv...
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORYWhere did the dissolved phosphorus
come from?
Indicators of non-point sources
e.g., lan...
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
Joe DePinto,
LimnoTech
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
• Reference Dose =
amount that can be
ingested orally by a
person, above which a
toxic...
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
13 Years of Satellite Bloom Data
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
Photos: Jeff Reutter
Microcystis, Stone Lab, 8/10/10
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
Photo: NOAA Satellite Image
October 9, 2011
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
Microcystis, Stone Lab, 9/20/13
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
HABs Goal and Strategy
•Produce HABs smaller or equal to 2004/2012
9 years out of 10
•...
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
HABs Strategy—Continued 1
•Western Basin HABs can be accurately forecast based
on spri...
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
Expect Rapid HABS Recovery in
Lake Erie, but must act quickly
•Due to rapid flush out
...
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
HABs Strategy—Continued 2
•Flow Weighted Mean Concentrations of P should
be used as th...
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
Hypoxia Goal and Strategy
•Hypoxia occurs in the Central Basin
hypolimnion and can be ...
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
Hypoxia Strategy—Continued 1
•Focus on annual P loading
•Use 2008 as base year
•All 6 ...
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
13 Years of Satellite Bloom Data
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
Maumee spring total P target load
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
Maumee spring total P target load and FWMC
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
Maumee spring dissolved P target load
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
Maumee spring dissolved P target load and FWMC
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
- Ann. discharge = 8.0 billion m3
- Spring dischar...
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
2015 NOAA Forecast
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
Discharge
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
TP
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
DRP
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
HAB on 7/23/15
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
High Water and HAB on Stone Lab Dock, 7/25/15
Photo Credit:
Dr. Darren Bade
OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
For more information:
Dr. Jeff Reutter, Special Advisor
Ohio Sea Grant and
Stone Lab
O...
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Preventing Harmful Algal Blooms: How Much Phosphorus Reduction Do We Need?

In September 2013, a group of scientists and specialists came together under the 2012 Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement’s Nutrient Annex 4 Objectives and Targets Task Team to determine how much phosphorus reduction is necessary to restore Lake Erie’s water quality, reduce the occurrences harmful algal blooms in western Lake Erie, as well as the extent of the central basin’s hypoxic zone. The Annex 4 task team released their report in late June 2015 and Dr. Jeffery Reutter, task team co-chair, will present the group’s findings and what it means to the lake if the loading and concentration targets are met. Santina Wortman, an official from the U.S. EPA Region 5 office will also be on hand to answer questions and explain next steps for the agency.
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Science      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Preventing Harmful Algal Blooms: How Much Phosphorus Reduction Do We Need?

  • 1. Adam Rissien Agricultural & Water Policy Director arissien@theOEC.org (614) 487-7506 Preventing Harmful Algal Blooms: How Much Phosphorus Reduction Do We Need?
  • 2. Ohio Environmental Council Our Mission: To secure healthy air, land, and water for all who call Ohio home.
  • 3. About the OEC  Founded in 1969  Statewide, non-profit, non- government  Membership organization – 3,000+ individuals, 100+ group members  Budget of $1.5 million – funded primarily by grants & donations  Volunteer Board of Directors; 16 staff members
  • 4. Key Issues Clean Water Program  Reduce Nutrient Pollution  Prevent Spread of Asian Carp Environmental Health Program  Protecting People from Toxic Chemicals Clean Air Program  Promoting Renewable Energy Sources Natural Resources  Protecting State Parks & Nature Preserves Green Jobs / Green Economy  Promoting Environmentally Sustainable Careers Oil & Gas Drilling  Fight Fracking
  • 5. PRESENTED BY DR. JEFFERY REUTTER, Annex 4 Task Team Co-chair, Special Advisor Ohio Sea Grant College Program Available for Questions: Santina Wortman, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 5 Office Annex 4 Objectives and Targets Task Team Recommendations
  • 6. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Preventing Harmful Algal Blooms: How Much Phosphorus Reduction Do We Need? Dr. Jeffrey M. Reutter Special Advisor, Ohio Sea Grant College Program
  • 7. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY 2015 Lake Erie HAB Forecast, 9 July 2015 Objectives and Targets Task Team Recommendations
  • 8. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Lake Ecosystem Objectives Location Issue Lake Ecosystem Objective Central Basin Low oxygen issues Minimize the extent of low-oxygen zones. Eastern Basin Benthic Algae (Cladaphora) Maintain the levels of algae below nuisance conditions Nearshore Blue-Green Algae (Cyanobacteria) Maintain algal species consistent with healthy aquatic ecosystems in the near shore waters of the Great Lakes. Western basin Blue-Green Algae (Cyanobacteria) Maintain cyanobacteria at levels that do not produce concentrations of toxins that pose a threat to human or ecosystem health in the waters of the Great Lakes. Entire lake Maintain mesotrophic conditions in the open waters of the western and central basins of Lake Erie, and oligotrophic conditions in the eastern basin of Lake Erie. 8
  • 9. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Objectives & Targets Task Team Report The draft phosphorus targets are now available to the public for comment at: http://binational.net/ “Adaptive Management” 9
  • 10. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Lake Erie and Other Great Lakes •Southernmost •Shallowest •Warmest •Most agricultural land and least forest •Most nutrients and sediment •Most biologically productive
  • 11. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Lake Erie Stats•Lake Erie •9,906 sq. miles •11th in area 17th volume •241 miles long 57 wide •Western Basin •Ave. depth 24 ft. •13% area, 5% volume •Central Basin •Ave. depth 60 ft. •63% area and volume •Eastern Basin •Ave. 80 ft., Max 210 ft. •24% area, 32% volume
  • 12. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY 80:10:10 Rule •80% of water from upper lakes •10% direct precipitation •10% from Lake Erie tributaries •Maumee •Largest tributary to Great Lakes •Drains 4.2 million acres of ag land •3% of flow into Lake Erie
  • 13. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
  • 14. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY OSU’s Island Campus
  • 15. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Blue-green Algae Bloom circa 1971, Lake Erie Photo: Forsythe and Reutter
  • 16. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY What brought about the rebirth (dead lake to Walleye Capital)? •Phosphorus reductions from point sources (29,000 metric tons to 11,000).
  • 17. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
  • 18. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Nutrient Loading •P discharges from sewage treatment plants vary little from year to year •P discharges from ag tributaries vary greatly from year to year depending on rainfall • Majority of P loading occurs during storm events •80-90% of P loading occurs 10-20% of time
  • 19. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Distribution of annual TP load for the 2008 water year from the Maumee and Detroit Rivers by source category (Maccoux unpublished data).
  • 20. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
  • 21. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORYWhere did the dissolved phosphorus come from? Indicators of non-point sources e.g., land runoff Example: Maumee River Indicators of point sources e.g., effluent Example: Cuyahoga River 1) Concentration increases during storms 2) Concentration increases with flow 1) Concentration increases during low flow 2) Concentration decreases with flow Dissolved phosphorus is highly bioavailable to algae
  • 22. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Joe DePinto, LimnoTech
  • 23. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY • Reference Dose = amount that can be ingested orally by a person, above which a toxic effect may occur, on a milligram per kilogram body weight per day basis. Toxicity of Algal Toxins Relative to Other Toxic Compounds found in Water Dioxin (0.000001 mg/kg-d) Microcystin LR (0.000003 mg/kg-d) Saxitoxin (0.000005 mg/kg-d) PCBs (0.00002 mg/kg-d) Cylindrospermopsin (0.00003 mg/kg-d) Methylmercury (0.0001 mg/kg-d) Anatoxin-A (0.0005 mg/kg-d) DDT (0.0005 mg/kg-d) Selenium (0.005 mg/kg-d) Alachlor (0.01 mg/kg-d) Cyanide (0.02 mg/kg-d) Atrazine (0.04 mg/kg-d) Fluoride (0.06 mg/kg-d) Chlorine (0.1 mg/kg-d) Aluminum (1 mg/kg-d) Ethylene Glycol (2 mg/kg-d) Botulinum toxin A (0.001 mg/kg-d) Toxin Reference Doses
  • 24. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY 13 Years of Satellite Bloom Data
  • 25. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Photos: Jeff Reutter Microcystis, Stone Lab, 8/10/10
  • 26. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Photo: NOAA Satellite Image October 9, 2011
  • 27. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Microcystis, Stone Lab, 9/20/13
  • 28. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY HABs Goal and Strategy •Produce HABs smaller or equal to 2004/2012 9 years out of 10 •2008 will be the base year •Discharge was only exceeded 10% of time •Approximately equal to discharge during the wettest years •Good dataset for loading numbers •Models were run for that year •Loading data from the Maumee River is most reliable, therefore, use it as surrogate for all tributaries
  • 29. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY HABs Strategy—Continued 1 •Western Basin HABs can be accurately forecast based on spring P load (1 March to 31 July) from Maumee River •Spring TP load of 860 tons & DRP of 186 tons (FWMC of 0.23 mg/L TP and 0.05 mg/L of DRP) or less produces desired result. That is a 40% reduction of Maumee load and FWMC in 2008. •HABs can be observed at mouths of all Western Basin tributaries and TT believes that all tributaries contribute is some way to Western Basin HAB •Therefore, goal should be to reduce loading from all Western Basin tributaries by 40% from their 2008 base load
  • 30. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Expect Rapid HABS Recovery in Lake Erie, but must act quickly •Due to rapid flush out rate •Lake Erie = 2.7 years •Western Basin = 20- 50 days •Other Great Lakes could be over 100 years
  • 31. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY HABs Strategy—Continued 2 •Flow Weighted Mean Concentrations of P should be used as the indicator to track our progress in achieving goals.
  • 32. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Hypoxia Goal and Strategy •Hypoxia occurs in the Central Basin hypolimnion and can be reduced by reducing annual P loading •P loading to the Central Basin comes from Western Basin and Central Basin tributaries and point sources •Reduce P loading to a point where average hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen will be 2.0 mg/l or higher
  • 33. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Hypoxia Strategy—Continued 1 •Focus on annual P loading •Use 2008 as base year •All 6 models agree that a load of 6,000 tons will raise average hypolimnetic D.O. to 2.0 mg/l or more. •6,000 tons is approximately a 40% reduction of the 2008 load •Hypolimnetic D.O. above 2.0 should result in reduced internal loading of P from sediment •Reduce annual P load from all WB and CB tributaries and point sources by 40%
  • 34. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY 13 Years of Satellite Bloom Data
  • 35. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Maumee spring total P target load
  • 36. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Maumee spring total P target load and FWMC
  • 37. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Maumee spring dissolved P target load
  • 38. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Maumee spring dissolved P target load and FWMC
  • 39. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY - Ann. discharge = 8.0 billion m3 - Spring discharge = 3.4 billion m3 - Ann. P load = 3,812 tonnes - Spring P load = 1,400 tonnes - Ann. discharge = 6.2 billion m3 - Spring discharge = 5.0 billion m3 - Ann. P load = 3,007 tonnes - Spring P load = 2,300 tonnes - Ann. discharge = 6.1 billion m3 - Spring discharge = 1.0 billion m3 - Ann. P load = 2,411 tonnes - Spring P load = 400 tonnes
  • 40. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY 2015 NOAA Forecast
  • 41. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Discharge
  • 42. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY TP
  • 43. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY DRP
  • 44. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY HAB on 7/23/15
  • 45. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY High Water and HAB on Stone Lab Dock, 7/25/15 Photo Credit: Dr. Darren Bade
  • 46. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY For more information: Dr. Jeff Reutter, Special Advisor Ohio Sea Grant and Stone Lab Ohio State Univ. 1314 Kinnear Rd. Col, OH 43212 614-292-8949 Reutter.1@osu.edu ohioseagrant.osu.edu Stone Laboratory Ohio State Univ. Box 119 Put-in-Bay, OH 43456 614-247-6500

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