a b
Prices and
earnings 2015
Do I earn enough for the life I want?
Chief Investment Office WM
September 2015
Do I earn enough for the life I want?
Africa
Cairo (Egypt)
Johannesburg (South Africa)
Nairobi (Kenya)
Asia
Bangkok (Thail...
Tokyo
Beijing Seoul
Shanghai
Taipei
Hong Kong
Manila
Kuala Lumpur
Jakarta
Bangkok
New Delhi
Mumbai
Manama
Doha
Dubai
Sydne...
4 Prices and earnings 2015
Contents
Editorial 5
Methodology 6
Overview
Price levels 8
Wage levels 9
Domestic purchasing p...
5Prices and earnings 2015
Dear reader
Global exchange rates moved sufficiently of late
to prompt talk of a “currency war”....
6 Prices and earnings 2015
Comparison of
prices and earnings
Between the end of March and end of April 2015, we
completed...
Overview
8 Prices and earnings 2015
Price
levels
The price level rankings reveal the relative cost of goods
and services worldwide...
9Prices and earnings 2015
Wage
levels
Wage levels indicate earnings worldwide. Workers in cities
with high relative gross ...
10 Prices and earnings 2015
Domestic
purchasing
power
Taken separately, price and earnings data has proven inter-
esting ...
11Prices and earnings 2015
Price level
Domestic purchasing power
Wage level
Ranking
by index
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
1...
12 Prices and earnings 2015
Working time
required to
buy...
Some consumer goods are available all over the globe. We
deci...
13Prices and earnings 2015
Zurich Tokyo New York City
London Frankfurt Paris
Hong Kong Rio de Janeiro Beijing
Warsaw Nairo...
14 Prices and earnings 2015
Exchange rates
used and
inflation
Changing exchange rates should – in theory and in the
long ...
15Prices and earnings 2015
Exchange rates 
Cities
Local
currency
(LC)
Comparison
Exchange
Value
USD/LC
2015 1
USD/LC ∆%
∆2...
16 Prices and earnings 2015
Inflation 2012 – 2014 1
Cities 2012 2013 2014
Amsterdam 2.5 2.5 1.0
Athens 1.5 –0.9 –1.3
Auck...
Price comparison
18 Prices and earnings 2015
Total expenditure
on goods and
services
Price comparison
Total expenditure on goods and servi...
19Prices and earnings 2015
1,500
750
2,250
0
3,000
3,750
Total
expenditure on
goods and
services
Zurich
Mumbai
Warsaw
Nair...
20 Prices and earnings 2015
Price comparison
Food
Food prices are especially useful for studies like this one.
Although f...
21Prices and earnings 2015
How many baskets of food can you buy around
the world for the price of one in New York City?
Zu...
22 Prices and earnings 2015
Price comparison
Women’s
and men’s
clothing
The business attire worn by men and women – usual...
23Prices and earnings 2015
Household
appliances
Equipping your kitchen is a costly investment. In Tokyo, you
may pay as mu...
24 Prices and earnings 2015
Price comparison
Home electronics
Home electronics are essential to everyday life in Europe,
...
25Prices and earnings 2015
Housing
Housing is a basic need, and its prices depend greatly on
regional preferences and demo...
26 Prices and earnings 2015
Price comparison
Public
transport
Public transport is a big expense for international travele...
27Prices and earnings 2015
Restaurants
and hotels
The cost of dinner for two varies. The price in Tokyo is
enough for six ...
28 Prices and earnings 2015
Services
Cities1
USD Index
Haircut
women
Haircut
men
Amsterdam 555 74.7 49.37 36.76
Athens 46...
29Prices and earnings 2015
Zurich Tokyo New York City
London
Hong Kong
Frankfurt Paris
Rio de Janeiro Beijing
Warsaw Nairo...
30 Prices and earnings 2015
City breaks
Avid international travelers may be interested in the cost
of a trip to one of ou...
Wage comparison
32 Prices and earnings 2015
Wages differ greatly across geographic regions
and professions, making them vital for deter-
...
33Prices and earnings 2015
40
30
20
Gross and net
hourly pay
Gross hourly pay in USD
Net hourly pay in USD
Amsterdam
Zuric...
34 Prices and earnings 2015
Most countries rely on taxes, social security pay-
ments and other deductions to finance thei...
35Prices and earnings 2015
28.1%
18.0%
26.7%
15.5%
24.5%
18.5%
1.4%
0.0%
15.5%
4.0%
5.0%
2.8%
6.3%
29.9%
21.9%
10.5%
35.0%...
36 Prices and earnings 2015
Working hours
and vacation
days
Annual working hours have a great impact on purchasing
power ...
Appendix
38 Prices and earnings 2015
Industrial sector
Construction worker
Unskilled or semi-skilled laborer without technical
tra...
39Prices and earnings 2015
AppendixGross annual incomes (in USD) in the industrial sector
Cities
Department
manager
Female...
40 Prices and earnings 2015
Appendix Gross annual incomes (in USD) in the services sector
Cities
Bus
driver
Automobile
me...
41Prices and earnings 2015
Gross annual incomes (in USD) in the services sector
Cities Bank credit clerk Product manager
S...
Prices and Earnings 2015 UBS
Prices and Earnings 2015 UBS
Prices and Earnings 2015 UBS
of 44

Prices and Earnings 2015 UBS

Do I earn enough for the life I want? In Zurich, Geneva, New York City, Oslo, Copenhagen, London, Chicago, Tokyo, Auckland, Sydney, Toronto, Milan, Stockholm, Montreal, Miami, Los Angeles, Helsinki, Hong Kong, Paris, Luxembourg, Tel Aviv, Dubai, Buenos Aires, Dublin, Taipei, Brussels, Rome, Manama, Frankfurt, Munich, Vienna, Amsterdam, Shanghai, Istanbul, Doha, Lyon, Berlin, Barcelona, Beijing, Madrid, Nicosia, Sao Paulo, Athens, Rio de Janeiro, Bangkok, Lisbon, Mexico City, Tallinn, Ljubljana, Bogotá, Jakarta, Bratislava, Santiago de Chile, Lima, Kuala Lumpur, Moscow, Manila, Vilnius, Nairobi, Warsaw, Cairo, Budapest, Johannesburg, Riga, Prague, New Delhi, Mumbai, Bucharest, Sofia, Kiev
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Data & Analytics      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Prices and Earnings 2015 UBS

  • 1. a b Prices and earnings 2015 Do I earn enough for the life I want? Chief Investment Office WM September 2015
  • 2. Do I earn enough for the life I want? Africa Cairo (Egypt) Johannesburg (South Africa) Nairobi (Kenya) Asia Bangkok (Thailand) Beijing (China) Hong Kong (China) Jakarta (Indonesia) Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) Manila (Philippines) Mumbai (India) New Delhi (India) Seoul (South Korea) Shanghai (China) Taipei (Taiwan) Tokyo (Japan) North America Chicago (United States) Los Angeles (United States) Mexico City (Mexico) Miami (United States) Montreal (Canada) New York City (United States) Toronto (Canada) Oceania Auckland (New Zealand) Sydney (Australia) Prices and earnings 2015 Eastern Europe Bratislava (Slovakia) Bucharest (Romania) Budapest (Hungary) Kiev (Ukraine) Ljubljana (Slovenia) Moscow (Russia) Prague (Czech Republic) Riga (Latvia) Sofia (Bulgaria) Tallinn (Estonia) Vilnius (Lithuania) Warsaw (Poland) Middle East Doha (Qatar) Dubai (United Arab Emirates) Istanbul (Turkey) Manama (Bahrain) Nicosia (Cyprus) Tel Aviv (Israel) South America Bogotá (Colombia) Buenos Aires (Argentina) Lima (Peru) Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) Santiago de Chile (Chile) São Paulo (Brazil) Western Europe Amsterdam (Netherlands) Athens (Greece) Barcelona (Spain) Berlin (Germany) Brussels (Belgium) Copenhagen (Denmark) Dublin (Ireland) Frankfurt (Germany) Geneva (Switzerland) Helsinki (Finland) Lisbon (Portugal) London (Great Britain) Luxembourg (Luxembourg) Lyon (France) Madrid (Spain) Milan (Italy) Munich (Germany) Oslo (Norway) Paris (France) Rome (Italy) Stockholm (Sweden) Vienna (Austria) Zurich (Switzerland) Toronto Mexico City São Paulo Rio de Janeiro Johannesburg Bogotá Lima Montreal Chicago Miami Los Angeles New York City Santiago de Chile Buenos Aires Nairobi Cairo Istanbul Nicosia Tel Aviv
  • 3. Tokyo Beijing Seoul Shanghai Taipei Hong Kong Manila Kuala Lumpur Jakarta Bangkok New Delhi Mumbai Manama Doha Dubai Sydney Auckland Zurich Vienna Lisbon Madrid Dublin Milan Paris Amsterdam Brussels Frankfurt Geneva Luxembourg Lyon Athens London Munich Oslo Berlin Helsinki Rome Kiev Bucharest Moscow Prague Riga Tallinn Vilnius Warsaw Ljubljana Sofia Bratislava Budapest Copenhagen Barcelona Stockholm
  • 4. 4 Prices and earnings 2015 Contents Editorial 5 Methodology 6 Overview Price levels 8 Wage levels 9 Domestic purchasing power 10 Working time required to buy…12 Exchange rates used and inflation 14 Price comparison Total expenditure on goods and services 18 Food 20 Women’s and men’s clothing 22 Household appliances 23 Home electronics 24 Housing25 Public transport 26 Restaurants and hotels 27 Services28 City breaks 30 Wage comparison International wage comparison 32 Taxes and social security contributions 34 Working hours and vacation days 36 Appendix38
  • 5. 5Prices and earnings 2015 Dear reader Global exchange rates moved sufficiently of late to prompt talk of a “currency war”. States and currency zones are hoping for a weak currency to generate momentum in their economies, especially in the export sector. The measures of various central banks aimed at staving off deflation are also affecting exchange rates. These circumstances make it more difficult to compare purchasing power in different currency zones. Against this backdrop, we are particularly pleased to present you with the 16th edition of our Prices and earnings study, in which we compare purchasing power in 71 cities across the globe. Our analysis of more than 68,000 datapoints highlights the effects of political and economic events on prices and earnings, and reveals significant changes compared with the previous study three years ago. The cities of Zurich and Geneva, for instance, have become markedly more expensive since the last study – mainly due to the Swiss National Bank‘s ­decision to abandon the EURCHF minimum exchange rate early this year. Three years ago, the minimum exchange rate was set at CHF 1.20. Life in cities within the eurozone and in Tokyo, on the other hand, has become less expensive as the euro and yen have depreciated against the US dollar. And with the currencies of certain emerging markets falling significantly, price drops have been even more pronounced in those parts of the world. Prices and earnings is now available at www. ubs.com/pricesandearnings, from the UBS Newsstand and in the iOS app. We are also launching new open data options, so you can download all raw data from the first report in 1971 to the most recent 2015 figures for free. We would like to thank all the participants in our survey, including students, UBS employees and various people around the world who tire- lessly collected first-rate data for this report. We would also like to thank our colleagues at Com- munications Branding and WM Innovation for their cooperation in producing this report. We hope you find it interesting and informative reading. Editorial Daniel Kalt Chief Economist Switzerland Andreas Höfert Chief Economist Frank-Stephan Graef Project Manager Prices and earnings Caroline Steiblin Project Manager Prices and earnings
  • 6. 6 Prices and earnings 2015 Comparison of prices and earnings Between the end of March and end of April 2015, we completed a standardized survey on prices of 122 goods and services, and earnings for 15 professions in 71 cities worldwide. The survey was conducted locally by mutually independent observers. More than 68,000 data points were collected and included in our calculations of the indi- cators in this report. To effectively compare cities, we converted all prices and earnings in local currencies to a common currency, the US dollar (USD). Average exchange rates from the data collection period were used to minimize the effect of daily price fluctuations. The exchange rates are listed on pages 14 –15. While we originally started the survey with 72 cities, we needed to remove Caracas, Venezuela. Due to the current complex political and economic situation in the country, with large fluctuations in inflation and exchange rates, we decided that the results for it would not represent current circumstances. Reference basket of goods To make an effective comparison of purchasing power worldwide, a standardized basket of goods and services is required, even though consumer habits and preferences vary greatly. Our reference basket of 122 goods and ser- vices is based on the monthly consumption habits of a European three-person family. If products were not avail- able in some cities, or deviated too far from our parame- ters, local representative substitutes were sometimes used. To make up for the missing coverage, individual items were weighted ­differently as a correction. We attained a coverage level of almost 70% of the EU’s harmonized index of consumer prices (HCIP) this year. Changes in consumer habits stemming from technological developments were accounted for by updated specifica- tions for electronic products. The iPhone 4S from 2012, for instance, was replaced with an iPhone 6. We also expanded data collection possibilities for our housing sec- tion to get a more accurate picture of local accommoda- tion worldwide. Also, the furnished four-room apartment was changed to a furnished two-room apartment. Reference profile of working populations As with our prices section, we created a reference profile of 15 professions, representing the structure of the work- ing population in Europe. We included profiles of workers of varying ages, family status, work experience and educa- tion levels. To offer a fuller picture, we introduced the profession of a hospital nurse to replace the financial ana- lyst. This change affected our weighting of the other pro- fessions, a fact to consider when comparing this version of the report to those of previous years. We also expanded our social security contributions section considerably to encapsulate both employee and employer contributions, providing a more realistic cost of the global workforce. Methodology Note Individual cities by geographical region are found on the map on pages 2–3. Price, earnings, index, time, and percentage figures are rounded off in most cases to improve readability. The index values are calculated on data collected in the sur- vey, relative to a reference city. The sample size per city may not be statistically represen- tative for single data points. Our weightings are based on Eurostat data for EU coun- tries.
  • 7. Overview
  • 8. 8 Prices and earnings 2015 Price levels The price level rankings reveal the relative cost of goods and services worldwide. Zurich, Geneva, and New York City have the highest prices, over 2.5 times higher than those in Bucharest, Sofia, and Kiev, with the lowest. Istan- bul, Doha, and Lyon are middle-ranking cities; prices there are somewhat closer to those of high-ranking cities than to those of lower ranked ones. Do I live in an expensive city? When rents are included in the price level index, almost all city indices decrease in relation to New York City, with an average decrease of 17%. Hong Kong is the only excep- tion, gaining over 5% due to high rents, and moving up 13 spots in our ranking. Rents also make New York City the most expensive city, and Sofia the least expensive. Price levels including rents show how large an impact rents have on monthly spending. Assuming similar incomes, residents of Hong Kong must allocate almost 8% more of their income to housing than those in New York City. By com- parison, residents in Zurich spend almost 8% less on rent than New York City residents. Price levels Cities1 Excl. rent Incl. rent Zurich 108.7 92.6 Geneva 106.1 91.8 New York City 100.0 100.0 Oslo 92.9 79.9 Copenhagen 88.0 74.3 London 84.7 79.5 Chicago 83.5 76.7 Tokyo 83.1 70.6 Auckland 82.8 67.6 Sydney 80.5 72.5 Seoul 79.2 64.2 Toronto 78.1 63.7 Milan 77.9 64.5 Stockholm 76.9 62.8 Montreal 76.2 58.9 Miami 76.1 67.7 Los Angeles 76.0 67.4 Helsinki 74.3 63.2 Hong Kong 72.9 76.8 Paris 72.6 63.8 Luxembourg 72.3 66.1 Tel Aviv 72.0 61.4 Dubai 71.1 66.1 Buenos Aires 70.4 56.1 Dublin 70.3 63.1 Taipei 67.3 62.7 Brussels 67.2 57.3 Rome 67.1 57.1 Manama 66.6 55.4 Frankfurt 65.8 55.1 Munich 65.5 56.1 Vienna 65.4 53.4 Amsterdam 65.3 55.5 Shanghai 64.9 54.3 Istanbul 64.8 53.0 Doha 64.8 61.4 Lyon 64.8 51.2 Berlin 63.3 51.3 Barcelona 63.2 50.5 Beijing 61.4 53.2 Madrid 60.6 50.4 Nicosia 60.3 48.4 Sao Paulo 59.4 49.5 Athens 58.9 47.5 Rio de Janeiro 57.9 49.2 Bangkok 57.5 46.4 Lisbon 55.5 45.3 Mexico City 54.7 46.2 Tallinn 54.4 44.0 Ljubljana 54.0 44.0 Bogotá 53.6 43.7 Jakarta 53.3 41.6 Bratislava 53.3 42.6 Santiago de Chile 52.8 44.0 Lima 52.2 42.8 Kuala Lumpur 52.0 41.2 Moscow 51.9 45.2 Manila 51.3 41.1 Vilnius 50.9 40.9 Nairobi 50.3 40.5 Warsaw 48.8 39.6 Cairo 48.1 38.7 Budapest 47.6 38.6 Johannesburg 46.6 40.5 Riga 45.8 37.1 Prague 45.6 36.4 New Delhi 45.5 36.9 Mumbai 44.9 37.2 Bucharest 43.8 34.5 Sofia 39.0 30.0 Kiev 38.1 30.3 Overview Methodology The composition of our reference basket of goods and services represents the spending habits of a three-person European family. The prices of the 122 goods and ser- vices are weighted by monthly consumption. For exam- ple, we assume that a family in Europe consumes almost 15 kilos (33 pounds) of vegetables every month, but only buys a new personal computer every 2.5 years. Price level calculations are based on the cost of a basket of 122 goods and services including rent. For our index, these reference basket prices are shown as relative to our reference city, New York City. Rent values were cal- culated by weighting the prices of our three types of housing equally (see page 25 for more details). 1 Listed according to value of indexed (price level excluding rent) * New York City = Index 100
  • 9. 9Prices and earnings 2015 Wage levels Wage levels indicate earnings worldwide. Workers in cities with high relative gross salaries (Zurich, Geneva and Lux- embourg) receive pay that is on average 19 times those in Nairobi, Jakarta and Kiev. Cities such as Tel Aviv, Barcelona and Seoul ended up in the middle of our rankings. Their workers receive nominal gross salaries a little under one- half of those living in the highest-ranking cities, but seven times those from the lowest-ranking ­cities. Would I earn more in another city? Net wages take into account deductions, and will usually shift all cities down in rankings compared to New York City. Relatively high deductions, stemming from significant social security contributions and taxes, are seen in Copen- hagen, Brussels and Milan. If one considers net instead of gross wages, wage-level ranking drops an average of 22%. Then there are cities, such as Manama, Doha and Dubai, whose net-wage index rises by an average of 16% due to comparatively lower deductions. Net wages are a good indication of expendable income: a worker in Zurich will have almost 23 times the amount of money to spend than a similar worker in Kiev. Wage levels Cities1 Gross Net Zurich 131.5 141.7 Geneva 130.3 135.1 Luxembourg 106.4 97.0 New York City 100.0 100.0 Miami 92.7 93.0 Copenhagen 92.4 59.0 Sydney 89.8 83.8 Oslo 87.9 80.4 Los Angeles 87.6 88.2 Chicago 85.4 84.5 Montreal 77.4 78.2 Stockholm 76.1 63.8 London 75.8 72.3 Brussels 72.9 60.9 Toronto 71.7 69.4 Auckland 70.1 68.6 Tokyo 70.1 70.5 Dublin 68.8 64.2 Vienna 68.5 69.7 Helsinki 67.8 62.7 Munich 67.8 68.3 Frankfurt 66.6 67.2 Amsterdam 65.3 55.4 Berlin 64.0 64.6 Paris 62.7 67.2 Rome 60.2 54.2 Nicosia 59.2 64.2 Lyon 58.6 62.7 Milan 58.6 53.1 Barcelona 51.6 46.9 Madrid 51.0 46.1 Hong Kong 49.4 51.3 Tel Aviv 46.5 47.2 Manama 45.9 53.1 Seoul 45.9 50.2 Dubai 40.4 46.9 Taipei 35.0 38.7 Sao Paulo 34.7 38.7 Ljubljana 33.8 32.8 Johannesburg 32.8 30.6 Doha 32.2 37.3 Lisbon 31.8 32.1 Athens 29.9 28.0 Bratislava 28.3 27.7 Rio de Janeiro 26.8 30.3 Istanbul 26.4 25.8 Tallinn 26.1 24.4 Santiago de Chile 23.2 25.1 Warsaw 23.2 22.5 Buenos Aires 22.6 26.2 Vilnius 21.7 21.4 Moscow 21.3 21.4 Prague 20.1 20.3 Riga 18.2 17.0 Shanghai 18.2 19.2 Kuala Lumpur 17.8 20.3 Bogota 17.5 20.3 Bangkok 16.9 18.8 Lima 16.2 18.8 Budapest 15.9 15.9 Bucharest 14.0 14.0 Beijing 13.4 14.4 Mexico City 12.1 12.9 Sofia 11.5 12.2 Manila 9.6 9.2 Cairo 8.3 8.9 Mumbai 8.3 9.2 New Delhi 7.6 8.5 Nairobi 6.7 6.3 Jakarta 6.4 7.0 Kiev 6.1 6.3 Methodology Gross hourly wages are calculated from the survey’s gross annual earnings data divided by the annual num- ber of working hours. Net hourly earnings are calculated by removing taxes, social security and other special deductions from gross annual income for each city, and dividing it by annual working hours. Hourly wages are weighted according to the distribution of our 15 profes- sions. 1 Listed according to gross value of the index * New York City = Index 100
  • 10. 10 Prices and earnings 2015 Domestic purchasing power Taken separately, price and earnings data has proven inter- esting to interpret, but, when compared, such data enables us to reach conclusions about worldwide purchas- ing power. If one takes net hourly pay as the benchmark, earners in Luxembourg have the highest purchasing power, more than 10 times greater than for earners in Jakarta, the city exhibiting the lowest purchasing power of all surveyed ­cities in 2015. What are my wages actually worth? Our basket of goods represents the monthly consumption of a three-person family in Europe. The residents of major cities in Switzerland and the USA can afford 20 and 18 baskets per year respectively, while those of Western Euro- pean ­cities such as London, Lyon and Oslo can buy a bas- ket every month. Our basket becomes a challenge for the inhabitants of cities in Asia and Africa (who can afford only a basket every four months, on average). This can be partly explained by differing consumption habits, but it also indicates that families in some cities need supplemen- tary incomes to support a European standard of life. Domestic purchasing power subject to… Cities Gross hourly pay  Net hourly pay Net annual income  Luxembourg 147.1 134.3 123.8 Zurich 120.8 130.5 135.1 Geneva 122.6 127.5 128.3 Miami 121.5 122.1 122.6 Los Angeles 115.1 116.0 121.1 Nicosia 98.0 106.7 107.2 Vienna 103.6 105.4 95.8 Sydney 111.5 104.2 103.2 Munich 103.2 104.0 96.9 Berlin 101.9 102.8 98.5 Montreal 101.4 102.6 99.1 Frankfurt 101.2 102.0 97.0 Chicago 102.0 101.1 111.2 New York City 100.0 100.0 100.0 Lyon 90.4 96.9 85.5 Dublin 99.1 92.6 88.7 Paris 86.5 92.4 80.2 Brussels 108.4 90.9 84.5 Toronto 91.5 89.1 95.7 Oslo 94.4 86.6 81.7 London 89.2 85.3 80.4 Tokyo 84.4 85.2 94.7 Amsterdam 100.0 85.1 79.6 Helsinki 91.2 84.5 75.9 Stockholm 98.9 82.9 79.4 Auckland 84.6 82.9 89.4 Rome 89.5 80.8 76.0 Manama 68.6 79.6 89.5 Madrid 84.0 76.2 71.4 Barcelona 81.8 74.1 69.4 Hong Kong 67.8 70.4 99.3 Milan 75.7 68.5 62.7 Copenhagen 104.8 67.2 61.8 Johannesburg 70.5 66.0 66.0 Dubai 56.8 65.9 78.0 Tel Aviv 64.6 65.8 72.6 Seoul 57.9 63.4 66.4 Athens 65.9 62.3 60.7 Sao Paulo 55.6 62.2 61.3 Ljubljana 62.2 60.6 60.8 Lisbon 59.1 59.3 56.1 Doha 49.7 57.8 65.1 Taipei 52.2 57.6 66.7 Bratislava 55.1 53.5 53.4 Rio de Janeiro 44.5 50.4 47.6 Santiago de Chile 43.7 47.6 53.6 Warsaw 47.5 45.9 43.7 Tallinn 47.9 44.5 41.8 Vilnius 42.3 41.7 38.7 Moscow 40.3 40.7 36.3 Istanbul 40.9 40.1 44.3 Kuala Lumpur 34.2 38.8 40.7 Bogotá 32.6 37.8 42.9 Buenos Aires 32.2 37.4 38.4 Riga 39.6 37.3 36.8 Lima 31.2 36.3 38.4 Prague 34.2 34.8 33.0 Budapest 33.2 33.5 34.7 Bangkok 29.1 32.9 39.0 Bucharest 28.3 32.3 31.6 Sofia 29.2 31.0 30.5 Shanghai 27.9 29.6 32.9 Mexico City 22.5 23.9 29.3 Beijing 22.1 23.9 25.4 Mumbai 18.4 20.3 25.0 New Delhi 16.7 18.6 22.3 Manila 18.4 17.9 18.9 Cairo 16.5 17.7 20.0 Kiev 16.5 16.4 16.2 Nairobi 13.0 12.8 15.2 Jakarta 11.7 12.8 14.6 Overview Methodology To calculate the first two parts of the purchasing power indicator, we divided gross and net hourly wages for each city by the respective cost of our basket of goods, excluding rent, and indexed relative to New York City. The third part is calculated as an indexed ranking based on how many baskets a worker can purchase annually. We divided net annual income for each city by the cost of the basket (excluding rent). This indicator is sorted by the indexed purchasing power of net hourly wages. Rent prices were excluded, as their variability among the housing choices presented in our survey may lead to different rankings of cities in combined price and earnings indicators. * New York City = Index 100
  • 11. 11Prices and earnings 2015 Price level Domestic purchasing power Wage level Ranking by index 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Zurich M um bai Warsaw Nairobi Rio deJaneiro Beijing Frankfurt Paris HongKong Tokyo London New YorkCity (Index100) Zurich 135.1 Highest Jakarta 14.6 Lowest Zurich 108.7 Highest Kiev 38.1 Lowest Zurich 131.5 Highest Kiev 6.1 Lowest Domestic purchasing powerPrice levelWage level
  • 12. 12 Prices and earnings 2015 Working time required to buy... Some consumer goods are available all over the globe. We decided to feature four in our section that calculates how much time an average worker in each city must work to earn enough to purchase each one. As staple consumer goods, the McDonald’s Big Mac and the Apple iPhone will be the same quality and nature whether bought in Doha or Rio de Janeiro. This makes their worldwide prices and affordability comparable. Workers in Hong Kong only have to work on average nine ­minutes to be able to buy a Big Mac, while workers in Nairobi have to work almost three hours. Who works harder to buy a Big Mac? The distribution of city rankings changes according to the reference goods being bought. Oslo, in the lower half of the table for buying bread, jumps to the top for rice. Work- ers there can afford it in one-eighteenth of the time that their counterparts in New Delhi require. For the iPhone, workers in cities such as Zurich and New York City require on average less than three days on the job to be able to grab one. In contrast, workers in Kiev must labor, on aver- age, over 13 weeks to earn enough for the same phone. Workers in Buenos Aires cannot access official markets to purchase the iPhone 6 locally. Overview Methodology Prices of each product were an average from all survey participants and, where possible, were compared to the manufacturers’ official local retail price. The price of each product was then divided by the net hourly wage for our 15 professions and converted to either minutes or hours. Working time required to buy Cities 1 Big Mac in min. 1 kilo of bread in min. 1 kilo of rice in min. 1 iPhone 6 16GB, in hrs. Amsterdam 16 7 7 49.8 Athens 26 20 34 98.2 Auckland 13 13 5 44.6 Bangkok 37 47 17 149.6 Barcelona 21 14 7 59.1 Beijing 42 40 36 217.8 Berlin 13 9 13 43.3 Bogotá 35 18 18 143.7 Bratislava 24 13 15 100.8 Brussels 16 14 9 46.1 Bucharest 44 11 28 219.1 Budapest 44 14 20 183.7 Buenos Aires 29 57 21 n.a. Cairo 62 32 66 353.4 Chicago 11 10 6 28.4 Copenhagen 20 13 11 54.6 Doha 18 19 12 69.9 Dubai 17 9 13 55.8 Dublin 15 6 8 43.4 Frankfurt 13 10 14 41.6 Geneva 11 5 4 21.6 Helsinki 16 10 10 44.4 Hong Kong 9 18 13 51.9 Istanbul 34 22 23 132.2 Jakarta 67 70 58 468.0 Johannesburg 17 10 13 86.9 Kiev 55 26 44 627.2 Kuala Lumpur 23 17 13 136.3 Lima 38 45 15 192.2 Lisbon 22 16 8 88.6 Ljubljana 15 11 25 85.4 London 12 6 16 41.2 Los Angeles 11 10 5 27.2 Luxembourg 10 12 7 28.2 Lyon 16 10 12 47.2 Madrid 19 13 7 60.5 Manama 20 5 11 62.7 Manila 87 83 34 334.2 Mexico City 78 46 22 217.6 Miami 11 11 7 27.0 Milan 18 16 14 53.4 Montreal 13 12 5 32.1 Moscow 20 12 24 158.3 Mumbai 40 27 49 349.4 Munich 13 7 5 40.9 Nairobi 173 44 62 468.0 New Delhi 50 23 73 360.3 New York City 11 12 16 24.0 Nicosia 11 5 9 44.9 Oslo 19 20 4 37.6 Paris 15 10 9 42.2 Prague 30 11 15 143.2 Riga 34 20 26 172.5 Rio de Janeiro 32 18 9 139.9 Rome 18 10 14 53.7 Santiago de Chile 32 15 13 130.8 Sao Paulo 25 16 5 109.2 Seoul 18 22 19 57.2 Shanghai 35 37 25 163.8 Sofia 40 14 28 231.3 Stockholm 17 18 11 46.9 Sydney 11 10 5 34.0 Taipei 13 10 14 69.2 Tallinn 29 15 12 115.5 Tel Aviv 21 12 12 75.3 Tokyo 10 14 10 40.5 Toronto 15 12 7 37.2 Vienna 12 10 6 40.0 Vilnius 29 19 17 131.6 Warsaw 25 20 24 141.6 Zurich 11 5 5 20.6n.a. = not available
  • 13. 13Prices and earnings 2015 Zurich Tokyo New York City London Frankfurt Paris Hong Kong Rio de Janeiro Beijing Warsaw Nairobi 20.6 hrs 11 min 5 min 5 min 40.5 hrs 10 min 14 min 10 min 41.2 hrs 12 min 6 min 16 min 41.6 hrs 14 min 10 min 13 min 24 hrs 11 min 12 min 16 min 42.2 hrs 15 min 10 min 9 min 51.9 hrs 9 min 18 min 13 min 217.8 hrs 42 min 40 min 36 min 141.6 hrs 25 min 20 min 24 min 349.5 hrs 40 min 27 min 49 min Mumbai 468 hrs 173 min 44 min 62 min 139.9 hrs 32 min 18 min 9 min 60 hours (5 days) 60 minutes (1 hour) 1 Big Mac 1 kilo of bread 1 kilo of rice 1 iPhone 6 16GB
  • 14. 14 Prices and earnings 2015 Exchange rates used and inflation Changing exchange rates should – in theory and in the long run – compensate for differences in inflation across countries and cities. If US inflation is 2% higher than the Eurozone’s for an extended time, the US dollar should depreciate 2% per year against the euro. However, exchange rates tend to fluctuate more than inflation differ- ences across currency areas, due to political events, eco- nomic developments, and/or monetary policy decisions by central banks. This helps to explain the relative movements of cities in our rankings. The Swiss National Bank dropped the 1.20 EURCHF floor on January 15, 2015. The impact of this decision was still being reflected in exchange rates a few months later, when we were collecting data. The Swiss franc appreci- ated 5% against the US dollar between the beginning of the year and April. This greatly affected our indicators, as Zurich and Geneva both rose to the top in price and wage levels. Similarly, the euro had lost almost one-quarter of its value against the US dollar from mid-2014 until the end of the first quarter of 2015, which caused Eurozone cities to plunge in our price and wage-level rankings. How stable is my currency? The trade and financial sanctions imposed on Russia by Western Europe and the USA since the Ukraine conflict in mid-2014 has had a sizeable impact on the Russian ruble, which has lost almost 42% of its value in US dollar terms since 2012. The Ukrainian hryvnia also experienced an over 64% drop relative to the US dollar after the Ukrainian ­central bank stopped supporting its reserves in early 2014. This also led to 12% local inflation that year. Both Russia and Ukraine plummeted in our rankings, with Kiev now at the bottom of our price and wage-level charts. Overview Economic and political instability in South America greatly affected exchange rates, placing certain countries in unfa- vorable positions. The Brazilian real has depreciated almost 35% against the US dollar since 2012 due to continuously declining foreign trade. This resulted in official inflation figures of over 6% in 2013 and 2014. Countries like Argentina and Colombia faced similar fates. The Asian scene is mixed. The Japanese yen lost value but the South Korean won appreciated versus the US dollar. Japan has yet to experience the growth promised by Abe- nomics, introduced in 2013, though inflation has risen from 0.0% in 2012 to 2.7% in 2014. The South Korean won has gained over 6% against the US dollar since 2012, with inflation falling from 2.2% in 2012 to 1.3% in 2014.
  • 15. 15Prices and earnings 2015 Exchange rates  Cities Local currency (LC) Comparison Exchange Value USD/LC 2015 1 USD/LC ∆% ∆2015/2012 2 EUR/LC 2015 1 EUR/LC ∆% ∆2015/2012 2 Amsterdam EUR 1 1.081 –16.50 1.000 – Athens EUR 1 1.081 –16.50 1.000 – Auckland NZD 1 0.759 –3.31 0.702 15.66 Bangkok THB 1 0.031 –4.40 0.028 14.53 Barcelona EUR 1 1.081 –16.50 1.000 – Beijing CNY 1 0.161 1.90 0.149 21.97 Berlin EUR 1 1.081 –16.50 1.000 – Bogotá COP 100 0.040 –28.82 0.037 –14.57 Bratislava EUR 1 1.081 –16.50 1.000 – Brussels EUR 1 1.081 –16.50 1.000 – Bucharest RON 1 0.245 –16.32 0.227 0.25 Budapest HUF 100 0.361 –19.19 0.334 –3.25 Buenos Aires ARS 1 0.113 –49.98 0.104 –40.04 Cairo EGP 1 0.131 –20.83 0.121 –5.19 Chicago USD 1 1.000 – 0.925 19.81 Copenhagen DKK 1 0.145 –16.89 0.134 –0.45 Doha QAR 1 0.275 0.01 0.254 19.82 Dubai AED 1 0.272 –0.03 0.252 19.79 Dublin EUR 1 1.081 –16.50 1.000 – Frankfurt EUR 1 1.081 –16.50 1.000 – Geneva CHF 1 1.041 –3.47 0.963 15.64 Helsinki EUR 1 1.081 –16.50 1.000 – Hong Kong HKD 1 0.129 0.15 0.119 19.98 Istanbul TRY 1 0.377 –32.50 0.349 –19.17 Jakarta IDR 1000 0.077 –28.92 0.071 –14.85 Johannesburg ZAR 1 0.083 –33.19 0.077 –19.94 Kiev UAH 1 0.044 –64.39 0.041 –57.32 Kuala Lumpur MYR 1 0.276 –15.41 0.255 1.33 Lima PEN 1 0.321 –14.92 0.297 2.04 Lisbon EUR 1 1.081 –16.50 1.000 – Ljubljana EUR 1 1.081 –16.50 1.000 – London GBP 1 1.496 –6.92 1.383 11.47 Los Angeles USD 1 1.000 – 0.925 19.81 Luxembourg EUR 1 1.081 –16.50 1.000 – Lyon EUR 1 1.081 –16.50 1.000 – Madrid EUR 1 1.081 –16.50 1.000 – Manama BHD 1 2.652 –0.01 2.453 19.47 Manila PHP 1 0.023 –4.25 0.021 14.52 Mexico City MXN 1 0.066 –11.77 0.061 5.70 Miami USD 1 1.000 – 0.925 19.81 Milan EUR 1 1.081 –16.50 1.000 – Montreal CAD 1 0.810 –18.92 0.749 –2.89 Moscow RUB 1 0.019 –42.86 0.018 –31.50 Mumbai INR 1 0.016 –14.67 0.015 1.94 Munich EUR 1 1.081 –16.50 1.000 – Nairobi KES 100 1.070 –10.57 0.990 7.43 New Delhi INR 1 0.016 –14.67 0.015 1.94 New York City USD 1 1.000 – 0.925 19.81 Nicosia EUR 1 1.081 –16.50 1.000 – Oslo NOK 1 0.127 –25.75 0.117 –11.12 Paris EUR 1 1.081 –16.50 1.000 – Prague CZK 1 0.039 –23.38 0.036 –8.29 Riga EUR 1 1.081 n.a.3 1.000 n.a.3 Rio de Janeiro BRL 1 0.328 –35.64 0.303 –22.94 Rome EUR 1 1.081 –16.50 1.000 – Santiago de Chile CLP 100 0.163 –20.07 0.151 –4.33 Sao Paulo BRL 1 0.328 –35.64 0.303 –22.94 Seoul KRW 100 0.092 5.49 0.085 26.32 Shanghai CNY 1 0.161 1.90 0.149 21.97 Sofia BGN 1 0.553 –16.53 0.511 –0.01 Stockholm SEK 1 0.116 –19.64 0.107 –3.76 Sydney AUD 1 0.773 –23.35 0.715 –8.25 Taipei TWD 1 0.032 –5.25 0.030 13.50 Tallinn EUR 1 1.081 –16.50 1.000 – Tel Aviv ILS 1 0.254 –3.30 0.235 15.90 Tokyo JPY 1 0.008 –33.23 0.008 –20.01 Toronto CAD 1 0.810 –18.92 0.749 –2.89 Vienna EUR 1 1.081 –16.50 1.000 – Vilnius EUR 1 1.081 n.a.4 1.000 n.a.4 Warsaw PLN 1 0.269 –11.86 0.248 5.62 Zurich CHF 1 1.041 –3.47 0.963 15.64 Overview Source: Bloomberg 1 Average exchange rates for survey period (March – April 2015) 2 Movement in exchange rate from 2012 to 2015: appreciation of local currency (LC) +; depreciation of local currency (LC) – 3 Eurozone member since Jan. 2014 4 Eurozone member since Jan. 2015 n.a. = not available
  • 16. 16 Prices and earnings 2015 Inflation 2012 – 2014 1 Cities 2012 2013 2014 Amsterdam 2.5 2.5 1.0 Athens 1.5 –0.9 –1.3 Auckland 0.9 1.3 0.8 Bangkok 3.0 2.2 1.9 Barcelona 2.4 1.4 –0.1 Beijing 2.7 2.6 2.0 Berlin 2.0 1.5 0.9 Bogotá 3.2 2.0 2.9 Bratislava 3.6 1.4 –0.1 Brussels 2.8 1.1 0.3 Bucharest 3.3 4.0 1.1 Budapest 5.7 1.7 –0.2 Buenos Aires2 10.8 10.9 23.9 Cairo 7.1 9.4 10.1 Chicago 2.1 1.5 1.6 Copenhagen 2.4 0.8 0.6 Doha 1.9 3.1 3.1 Dubai 0.7 1.1 2.3 Dublin 1.7 0.5 0.2 Frankfurt 2.0 1.5 0.9 Geneva –0.7 –0.2 0.0 Helsinki 2.8 1.5 1.0 Hong Kong 4.1 4.4 4.4 Istanbul 8.9 7.5 8.9 Jakarta 4.3 6.4 6.4 Johannesburg 5.7 5.4 6.4 Kiev 0.6 –0.3 12.2 Kuala Lumpur 1.7 2.1 3.1 Lima 3.7 2.8 3.2 Lisbon 2.8 0.3 –0.3 Ljubljana 2.6 1.8 0.2 London 2.8 2.6 1.5 Los Angeles 2.1 1.5 1.6 Luxembourg 2.7 1.7 0.6 Lyon 2.0 0.9 0.5 Madrid 2.4 1.4 –0.1 Manama 2.8 3.2 2.8 Manila 3.2 3.0 4.1 Mexico City 4.1 3.8 4.0 Miami 2.1 1.5 1.6 Milan 3.0 1.2 0.2 Montreal 1.5 0.9 1.9 Moscow 5.1 6.8 7.8 Mumbai 9.3 10.9 6.4 Munich 2.0 1.5 0.9 Nairobi 9.4 5.7 6.9 New Delhi 9.3 10.9 6.4 New York City 2.1 1.5 1.6 Nicosia 2.4 –0.4 –1.4 Oslo 0.7 2.1 2.0 Paris 2.0 0.9 0.5 Prague 3.3 1.4 0.3 Riga 2.2 0.0 0.6 Rio de Janeiro 5.4 6.2 6.3 Rome 3.0 1.2 0.2 Santiago de Chile 3.0 1.8 4.4 Sao Paulo 5.4 6.2 6.3 Seoul 2.2 1.3 1.3 Shanghai 2.7 2.6 2.0 Sofia 3.0 0.9 –1.4 Stockholm 0.9 0.0 –0.2 Sydney 1.8 2.4 2.5 Taipei2 1.9 0.8 1.2 Tallinn 3.9 2.8 –0.1 Tel Aviv 1.7 1.5 0.5 Tokyo 0.0 0.4 2.7 Toronto 1.5 0.9 1.9 Vienna 2.5 2.0 1.6 Vilnius 3.1 1.1 0.1 Warsaw 3.6 1.0 0.1 Zurich –0.7 –0.2 0.0 Overview Source: World Bank, International Monetary Fund 1 Annual change of average consumer prices (in percent) 2 Source: National statistical office
  • 17. Price comparison
  • 18. 18 Prices and earnings 2015 Total expenditure on goods and services Price comparison Total expenditure on goods and services aims to measure the average cost of living in each of the surveyed cities, and the results are astounding. Zurich, the most expensive city in our survey, has a cost of living 185% higher than that of Kiev, our least expensive city. Expenditure in mid- dle-ranking cities such as Shanghai, Berlin, and São Paulo is on average 75% less than that in Zurich, and 60% more than in Kiev. What is the cost of living? The differences in prices between goods and services are significant. Non-tradable items, or items whose quality ­differs greatly with geographic location, such as haircuts, schooling and hotel rooms, have the greatest range in prices among cities. For example, the price of a haircut in Oslo (most expensive) is twenty times higher than in Jakarta (least expensive). Among tradable goods, such as rice, an iPhone, or a women’s dress suit, the price differ- ence is much less – rice is only seven times more expensive in New York City than in São Paulo, where prices are the highest and lowest, respectively. Methodology Total expenditure calculations are based on the cost of a basket of 122 goods and services, and weighted accord- ing to the monthly spending habits of a three-person European family. The weighted price levels are then indexed to our reference city, New York City. Prices for goods and services were converted to USD by exchange rates found on pages 14 –15. Total expenditure on goods and services Cities USD 1 Index Amsterdam 2,182 65.3 Athens 1,970 58.9 Auckland 2,766 82.8 Bangkok 1,923 57.5 Barcelona 2,112 63.2 Beijing 2,052 61.4 Berlin 2,117 63.3 Bogotá 1,791 53.6 Bratislava 1,781 53.3 Brussels 2,245 67.2 Bucharest 1,464 43.8 Budapest 1,591 47.6 Buenos Aires 2,352 70.4 Cairo 1,606 48.1 Chicago 2,792 83.5 Copenhagen 2,941 88.0 Doha 2,166 64.8 Dubai 2,375 71.1 Dublin 2,351 70.3 Frankfurt 2,200 65.8 Geneva 3,546 106.1 Helsinki 2,485 74.3 Hong Kong 2,435 72.9 Istanbul 2,166 64.8 Jakarta 1,783 53.3 Johannesburg 1,557 46.6 Kiev 1,273 38.1 Kuala Lumpur 1,736 52.0 Lima 1,743 52.2 Lisbon 1,856 55.5 Ljubljana 1,806 54.0 London 2,832 84.7 Los Angeles 2,540 76.0 Luxembourg 2,418 72.3 Lyon 2,165 64.8 Madrid 2,024 60.6 Manama 2,227 66.6 Manila 1,714 51.3 Mexico City 1,829 54.7 Miami 2,542 76.1 Milan 2,603 77.9 Montreal 2,548 76.2 Moscow 1,735 51.9 Mumbai 1,500 44.9 Munich 2,189 65.5 Nairobi 1,682 50.3 New Delhi 1,520 45.5 New York City* 3,342 100.0 Nicosia 2,016 60.3 Oslo 3,105 92.9 Paris 2,426 72.6 Prague 1,523 45.6 Riga 1,529 45.8 Rio de Janeiro 1,936 57.9 Rome 2,242 67.1 Santiago de Chile 1,765 52.8 Sao Paulo 1,984 59.4 Seoul 2,646 79.2 Shanghai 2,168 64.9 Sofia 1,304 39.0 Stockholm 2,569 76.9 Sydney 2,690 80.5 Taipei 2,249 67.3 Tallinn 1,819 54.4 Tel Aviv 2,405 72.0 Tokyo 2,776 83.1 Toronto 2,609 78.1 Vienna 2,187 65.4 Vilnius 1,702 50.9 Warsaw 1,632 48.8 Zurich 3,632 108.7 1 Monthly expenditure of an average European family * New York City = Index 100
  • 19. 19Prices and earnings 2015 1,500 750 2,250 0 3,000 3,750 Total expenditure on goods and services Zurich Mumbai Warsaw Nairobi Rio de Janeiro Beijing Frankfurt Paris Hong Kong Tokyo London New YorkCity (Index) Zurich USD 3,632 Highest Kiev USD 1,273 Lowest Prices in USD
  • 20. 20 Prices and earnings 2015 Price comparison Food Food prices are especially useful for studies like this one. Although food products vary in quality and type, the prod- ucts chosen for the survey are similar enough everywhere to be comparable. The worldwide average price for our basket of 39 food items is almost USD 400. People living in Zurich, with the highest cost, have to pay 4.5 times more for the food in their shopping carts than those in Kiev, where costs are the lowest. Where is the best place to shop for food? The cost of single goods varies according to the city. Resi- dents of Zurich have to pay USD 3.50 to buy one kilo (two pounds) of bread. In Bucharest, this amount shrinks to 71 cents. Similarly, a kilo of rice costs USD 3.10 in Tokyo, but only USD 1.40 in Manila. In 55 cities, meat is on aver- age more expensive than fish. Meat lovers should flock to Kiev, where the average price for one kilo of meat is around USD 2.60, and steer clear of Zurich and Geneva, where meat is 10 times the price. Those who eat a lot of fish should go to Shanghai or Rio de Janeiro, where one kilo of fish is around USD 2.20, an eighth of the price you would pay for the same fish in Zurich. Methodology Our basket of food items includes staples such as bread, milk and chicken. They determine the price of our food baskets most because they are frequently consumed. So we give more weight to them in our basket than to other foodstuffs. There is a problem with this logic, though, since it assumes that global preferences will be the same as they are in Europe. A three-person family in Asia, for example, will probably not consume as much dairy and meat as a family in Europe. Food Cities USD  Index Amsterdam 300 47.5 Athens 343 54.3 Auckland 464 73.4 Bangkok 518 82.0 Barcelona 350 55.4 Beijing 533 84.3 Berlin 419 66.3 Bogotá 289 45.7 Bratislava 302 47.9 Brussels 379 60.0 Bucharest 248 39.3 Budapest 289 45.8 Buenos Aires 462 73.1 Cairo 374 59.2 Chicago 586 92.8 Copenhagen 471 74.6 Doha 426 67.5 Dubai 461 72.9 Dublin 386 61.2 Frankfurt 379 60.0 Geneva 623 98.6 Helsinki 399 63.2 Hong Kong 511 80.9 Istanbul 410 65.0 Jakarta 358 56.6 Johannesburg 273 43.3 Kiev 166 26.3 Kuala Lumpur 292 46.3 Lima 317 50.2 Lisbon 299 47.4 Ljubljana 377 59.8 London 568 89.9 Los Angeles 516 81.6 Luxembourg 444 70.3 Lyon 413 65.3 Madrid 315 49.8 Manama 378 59.8 Manila 333 52.7 Mexico City 249 39.4 Miami 583 92.3 Milan 405 64.2 Montreal 532 84.2 Moscow 336 53.3 Mumbai 253 40.1 Munich 390 61.7 Nairobi 318 50.3 New Delhi 233 36.9 New York City* 632 100.0 Nicosia 303 48.0 Oslo 536 84.8 Paris 425 67.3 Prague 251 39.7 Riga 253 40.0 Rio de Janeiro 330 52.3 Rome 393 62.3 Santiago de Chile 308 48.7 Sao Paulo 303 48.0 Seoul 688 108.9 Shanghai 518 82.1 Sofia 214 33.9 Stockholm 437 69.1 Sydney 541 85.7 Taipei 460 72.9 Tallinn 270 42.8 Tel Aviv 414 65.5 Tokyo 582 92.2 Toronto 397 62.9 Vienna 443 70.1 Vilnius 269 42.6 Warsaw 253 40.1 Zurich 738 116.8* New York City = Index 100
  • 21. 21Prices and earnings 2015 How many baskets of food can you buy around the world for the price of one in New York City? Zurich USD 738 Highest price per basket Kiev USD 166 Lowest price per basket Rio deJaneiro Beijing Warsaw Mumbai USD 632 New York City Zurich Frankfurt ParisLondon Tokyo Hong Kong Nairobi
  • 22. 22 Prices and earnings 2015 Price comparison Women’s and men’s clothing The business attire worn by men and women – usually a suit and dress shoes – is the same almost everywhere. But prices for these items vary widely across the globe. In Manila, a new wardrobe costs USD 230 on average, whereas in Chicago and Milan, both genders would have to spend over USD 1,100 for their new attire. International travelers can also get good deals in cities such as Jakarta, Kuala Lumpur, and Mumbai. Where should I go to buy my new wardrobe? Clothing prices vary significantly between genders. On average, men’s clothes cost 30% more than women’s. Men pay the most in Geneva (more than twice the global average), and the least in Rio de Janeiro (about one-third the global average). For women, Chicago is the most expensive place to shop, at almost three times the aver- age. Auckland is the only city in our sample where the price of our clothing package is cheaper for men than women. In 64 of the surveyed cities, men’s business suits were our most expensive item, with an average cost of USD 290. Only in six cities was a woman’s individual clothing item more expensive than a man’s. Methodology The price information gathered is based on purchases of good-quality clothing in large department stores, not in specialized shops or designer boutiques. The ward- robe for women includes a two-piece suit, a blazer, a dress, pantyhose and a pair of outdoor shoes. For men, the items were a business suit, a blazer, a shirt, a pair of blue jeans, socks, and a pair of outdoor shoes. Women’s and men’s clothing Cities Women’s clothing  (USD) Men’s clothing  (USD) Index Amsterdam 660 950 76.7 Athens 590 750 63.8 Auckland 650 580 58.6 Bangkok 220 350 27.1 Barcelona 570 840 67.1 Beijing 400 630 49.0 Berlin 440 620 50.5 Bogotá 280 440 34.3 Bratislava 220 300 24.8 Brussels 440 710 54.8 Bucharest 280 410 32.9 Budapest 290 370 31.4 Buenos Aires 510 760 60.5 Cairo 250 520 36.7 Chicago 1,270 1,300 122.4 Copenhagen 650 790 68.6 Doha 410 720 53.8 Dubai 890 1,250 101.9 Dublin 240 430 31.9 Frankfurt 500 690 56.7 Geneva 1,010 1,680 128.1 Helsinki 550 1,100 78.6 Hong Kong 350 480 39.5 Istanbul 460 850 62.4 Jakarta 170 300 22.4 Johannesburg 220 390 29.0 Kiev 300 370 31.9 Kuala Lumpur 150 260 19.5 Lima 250 300 26.2 Lisbon 280 650 44.3 Ljubljana 360 520 41.9 London 520 680 57.1 Los Angeles 650 1,090 82.9 Luxembourg 640 740 65.7 Lyon 380 510 42.4 Madrid 480 850 63.3 Manama 280 620 42.9 Manila 160 260 20.0 Mexico City 340 540 41.9 Miami 960 1030 94.8 Milan 1160 1220 113.3 Montreal 500 1100 76.2 Moscow 400 630 49.0 Mumbai 260 430 32.9 Munich 720 940 79.0 Nairobi 220 450 31.9 New Delhi 220 450 31.9 New York City* 1,040 1,060 100.0 Nicosia 590 840 68.1 Oslo 350 660 48.1 Paris 480 830 62.4 Prague 270 350 29.5 Riga 290 400 32.9 Rio de Janeiro 160 240 19.0 Rome 410 840 59.5 Santiago de Chile 280 360 30.5 Sao Paulo 350 510 41.0 Seoul 900 1,070 93.8 Shanghai 310 500 38.6 Sofia 360 610 46.2 Stockholm 550 1,280 87.1 Sydney 580 580 55.2 Taipei 720 860 75.2 Tallinn 510 820 63.3 Tel Aviv 550 720 60.5 Tokyo 790 1,140 91.9 Toronto 450 990 68.6 Vienna 560 720 61.0 Vilnius 390 720 52.9 Warsaw 500 670 55.7 Zurich 680 1,110 85.2* New York City = Index 100
  • 23. 23Prices and earnings 2015 Household appliances Equipping your kitchen is a costly investment. In Tokyo, you may pay as much as USD 1,580 to buy a brand-new set of household items. Kuala Lumpur offers a good deal, by comparison, where buying our package of household appliances costs almost a fourth of that in our most expen- sive city. How much to stock my kitchen? The worldwide average for household appliances is USD 785, around the cost of buying the goods in Lyon. For the price of a refrigerator in Zurich, you could buy four in Doha. Frying pans have a slightly different distribution of prices, with the cost of one in Jakarta being a 10th of that in Helsinki. Frankfurt, Hong Kong, and Sydney follow as cities where consumers pay the highest prices for this common kitchen appliance. For hairdryers, you may want to air-dry in Manila and Geneva, with prices double the global average. In Lyon, however, the price of a hairdryer is only USD 20. Methodology Our basket of good-quality home appliances includes a refrigerator, a vacuum cleaner, a frying pan and a hair­ dryer. The items were weighted by European monthly consumption. Household appliances Cities USD  Index Amsterdam 830 93.3 Athens 670 75.3 Auckland 1,150 129.2 Bangkok 530 59.6 Barcelona 820 92.1 Beijing 490 55.1 Berlin 880 98.9 Bogotá 680 76.4 Bratislava 900 101.1 Brussels 980 110.1 Bucharest 420 47.2 Budapest 800 89.9 Buenos Aires 1,060 119.1 Cairo 480 53.9 Chicago 1,120 125.8 Copenhagen 950 106.7 Doha 430 48.3 Dubai 550 61.8 Dublin 540 60.7 Frankfurt 780 87.6 Geneva 1,290 144.9 Helsinki 810 91.0 Hong Kong 1,170 131.5 Istanbul 530 59.6 Jakarta 440 49.4 Johannesburg 480 53.9 Kiev 750 84.3 Kuala Lumpur 410 46.1 Lima 570 64.0 Lisbon 780 87.6 Ljubljana 640 71.9 London 1,060 119.1 Los Angeles 900 101.1 Luxembourg 720 80.9 Lyon 730 82.0 Madrid 830 93.3 Manama 680 76.4 Manila 820 92.1 Mexico City 580 65.2 Miami 580 65.2 Milan 710 79.8 Montreal 1,120 125.8 Moscow 920 103.4 Mumbai 480 53.9 Munich 850 95.5 Nairobi 710 79.8 New Delhi 560 62.9 New York City* 890 100.0 Nicosia 1,150 129.2 Oslo 1,100 123.6 Paris 820 92.1 Prague 550 61.8 Riga 590 66.3 Rio de Janeiro 580 65.2 Rome 1,070 120.2 Santiago de Chile 560 62.9 Sao Paulo 510 57.3 Seoul 800 89.9 Shanghai 430 48.3 Sofia 470 52.8 Stockholm 1,120 125.8 Sydney 1,120 125.8 Taipei 620 69.7 Tallinn 540 60.7 Tel Aviv 1,090 122.5 Tokyo 1,580 177.5 Toronto 1,370 153.9 Vienna 740 83.1 Vilnius 740 83.1 Warsaw 640 71.9 Zurich 1,540 173.0* New York City = Index 100
  • 24. 24 Prices and earnings 2015 Price comparison Home electronics Home electronics are essential to everyday life in Europe, but may be considered luxury items in other parts of the world. On average, you would have to spend around USD 3,530 for our basket of electronics, a little more than the price of a basket in Los Angeles. Who pays the most for an iPhone? The difference in price for electronics across the cities is quite small compared to other goods; as many of them are homogenous and tradable, their prices are fairly uniform. The most expensive city has prices only 40% higher than the cheapest one. The iPhone is USD 500 more expensive in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro than in Chicago, due to high import prices. The price of a television varies more; you can buy 4.5 TVs in Kiev for the cost of one in Hong Kong. In Santiago de Chile, it is more affordable to spend your money on a notebook instead of a desktop computer – you can save around 60%. In Shanghai, however, you can save almost 50% by buying a desktop computer instead of the pricier notebook. Methodology Home electronics in particular follow rapid technologi- cal advances. To update our basket of electronics from 2012, we changed the specifications of some products and replaced the iPhone 4S with an iPhone 6. The prices shown include a color television (40-inch color LED), a digital camera, a personal desktop computer, a note- book computer and an unlocked (no contract) iPhone 6 (16GB). Home electronics Cities USD Index Amsterdam 4,100 117.8 Athens 3,590 103.2 Auckland 4,130 118.7 Bangkok 3,110 89.4 Barcelona 3,390 97.4 Beijing 2,960 85.1 Berlin 3,420 98.3 Bogotá 2,680 77.0 Bratislava 3,550 102.0 Brussels 3,480 100.0 Bucharest 3,410 98.0 Budapest 3,110 89.4 Buenos Aires 4,330 124.4 Cairo 2,790 80.2 Chicago 3,350 96.3 Copenhagen 3,630 104.3 Doha 3,980 114.4 Dubai 2,900 83.3 Dublin 3,310 95.1 Frankfurt 3,420 98.3 Geneva 3,750 107.8 Helsinki 3,420 98.3 Hong Kong 3,480 100.0 Istanbul 3,550 102.0 Jakarta 2,940 84.5 Johannesburg 2,830 81.3 Kiev 3,560 102.3 Kuala Lumpur 3,440 98.9 Lima 4,270 122.7 Lisbon 2,970 85.3 Ljubljana 3,390 97.4 London 3,150 90.5 Los Angeles 3,500 100.6 Luxembourg 4,250 122.1 Lyon 3,330 95.7 Madrid 3,820 109.8 Manama 3,620 104.0 Manila 4,100 117.8 Mexico City 3,640 104.6 Miami 4,190 120.4 Milan 3,240 93.1 Montreal 3,600 103.4 Moscow 3,340 96.0 Mumbai 3,860 110.9 Munich 3,190 91.7 Nairobi 3,470 99.7 New Delhi 4,100 117.8 New York City* 3,480 100.0 Nicosia 3,180 91.4 Oslo 3,750 107.8 Paris 3,420 98.3 Prague 3,120 89.7 Riga 2,880 82.8 Rio de Janeiro 4,170 119.8 Rome 3,100 89.1 Santiago de Chile 4,180 120.1 Sao Paulo 3,700 106.3 Seoul 4,480 128.7 Shanghai 2,880 82.8 Sofia 3,050 87.6 Stockholm 3,330 95.7 Sydney 3,910 112.4 Taipei 3,810 109.5 Tallinn 3,970 114.1 Tel Aviv 3,760 108.0 Tokyo 4,260 122.4 Toronto 3,120 89.7 Vienna 3,250 93.4 Vilnius 3,470 99.7 Warsaw 3,810 109.5 Zurich 3,610 103.7* New York City = Index 100
  • 25. 25Prices and earnings 2015 Housing Housing is a basic need, and its prices depend greatly on regional preferences and demographic trends. For some cities, there is a large difference between the price to rent an apartment built to Western standards versus local ones. In Bogotá, for example, a furnished two-room apartment is 122% more expensive per month than its typical local vari- ant. On average, local rents were 20% less per month than those for Western-style apartments. Where can I pay less rent? A furnished two-room apartment in Hong Kong costs around USD 4,410 to rent per month – four times the monthly rent in Johannesburg. That is still not the highest though: rent in New York City costs USD 200 more per month for a similar apartment. For this price, you could rent an apartment for 17 months in Sofia. The general pic- ture is the same for unfurnished three-room apartments. In London, these cost USD 3,350 per month. For that price, you could rent two apartments, one in Amsterdam and one in Beijing. Methodology To estimate the worldwide costs of housing, we consid- ered the prices for three different types of apartments. For two of these types, we standardized requirements to Western preferences, with a furnished two-room apart- ment and an unfurnished three-room apartment. We only looked at newly built apartments which with a bathroom and a kitchen. Prices included utilities (energy and water taxes), but not the use of a garage. To capture local standards, our survey asked for the price of an apartment of typical size, location, and amenities for the respective city. All three housing options were weighted equally. Housing Cities Furnished 2-room apartment Unfurnished 3-room apartment Normal local rent1 Amsterdam 1,140 1,620 1,220 Athens 740 850 770 Auckland 1,060 1,390 1,250 Bangkok 820 1,040 500 Barcelona 780 820 740 Beijing 1,150 1,630 1,390 Berlin 850 1,140 690 Bogotá 840 1,210 380 Bratislava 670 720 580 Brussels 1,300 1,490 1,340 Bucharest 420 610 370 Budapest 620 760 640 Buenos Aires 810 1,040 710 Cairo 640 780 500 Chicago 2,520 2,960 2,210 Copenhagen 1,420 2,020 1,650 Doha 2,230 2,500 2,050 Dubai 2,320 3,240 1,380 Dublin 1,650 2,360 1,760 Frankfurt 990 1,360 1,220 Geneva 2,810 2,700 1,610 Helsinki 1,460 1,600 1,440 Hong Kong 4,410 4,220 2,590 Istanbul 890 1,080 970 Jakarta 530 750 260 Johannesburg 1,080 1,500 690 Kiev 400 540 390 Kuala Lumpur 570 630 560 Lima 760 890 800 Lisbon 710 1,020 760 Ljubljana 760 1,080 540 London 2,840 3,350 2,360 Los Angeles 1,670 2,210 1,990 Luxembourg 1,940 2,430 2,130 Lyon 640 820 670 Madrid 940 1,340 900 Manama 1,120 1,470 890 Manila 890 900 190 Mexico City 990 1,410 770 Miami 1,840 2,180 1,970 Milan 1,090 1,490 1,340 Montreal 640 670 590 Moscow 1,080 1,540 1,020 Mumbai 770 970 550 Munich 1,210 1,580 1,370 Nairobi 700 790 480 New Delhi 570 720 640 New York City 4,620 4,320 3,890 Nicosia 690 950 690 Oslo 1,940 2,150 1,940 Paris 1,670 2,090 1,610 Prague 510 630 550 Riga 680 910 360 Rio de Janeiro 1,380 1,540 590 Rome 1,220 1,600 1,280 Santiago de Chile 990 1,090 710 Sao Paulo 930 1,330 910 Seoul 970 1,270 1,140 Shanghai 1,120 1,330 1,090 Sofia 270 350 310 Stockholm 1,240 1,350 880 Sydney 2,050 2,940 1,780 Taipei 2,030 2,740 1,840 Tallinn 670 920 690 Tel Aviv 1,520 1,790 1,160 Tokyo 1,370 1,920 1,730 Toronto 1,110 1,250 1,120 Vienna 1,010 1,120 800 Vilnius 590 820 550 Warsaw 590 840 630 Zurich 2,500 2,390 1,770 1 The figures given are values for average rent prices (monthly gross rents) for local households.
  • 26. 26 Prices and earnings 2015 Price comparison Public transport Public transport is a big expense for international travelers, since locals usually pay reduced tariffs. Getting around can be pricy – if you are planning a trip to Stockholm or Lon- don, where fares are 2.5 times above the worldwide aver- age. Are taxis expensive everywhere? Taking a cab in Oslo is expensive. A five-kilometer (three- mile) trip costs USD 32. For the same amount, you could travel more than 66 km (41 miles) in Cairo. Travelling by bus, tram or metro costs on average USD 1.60 worldwide per trip. In Copenhagen the cost is three times higher. In Buenos Aires though, you can travel 10 km (six miles) for less than one-third that amount. For the cost of a ticket in Copenhagen, you could travel the equivalent of 285 km (180 miles) in Kiev, almost the full distance between Lux- embourg and Paris. Sixty-one of our cities had railway infrastructure, where a 200 km journey would cost on average USD 27. Zurich, London, and Munich stand out as the most expensive places to travel by train – with prices being at least two times the global average. For the price of a 200 km (125 mile) train ride in Geneva, you could travel an astounding 15,400 km (9,570 miles) in Manila, or the ­distance between Montreal and Auckland. Public transport Cities Bus, Tram or Metro (USD) Taxi  (USD) Train  (USD) Amsterdam 2.71 16.22 27.95 Athens 1.37 5.01 15.14 Auckland 3.16 19.72 40.59 Bangkok 0.74 1.85 3.26 Barcelona 2.32 10.25 25.37 Beijing 0.48 4.42 15.59 Berlin 2.89 14.78 55.14 Bogotá 0.72 1.71 n.a. Bratislava 0.90 6.31 8.96 Brussels 2.23 12.72 22.81 Bucharest 0.46 3.31 14.26 Budapest 1.26 7.28 15.15 Buenos Aires 0.51 4.75 n.a. Cairo 0.22 2.40 4.59 Chicago 1.92 12.75 37.00 Copenhagen 4.63 15.45 49.03 Doha 0.92 3.66 n.a. Dubai 1.09 6.26 n.a. Dublin 3.15 11.35 30.50 Frankfurt 2.97 14.97 59.47 Geneva 3.12 20.58 77.55 Helsinki 2.88 15.24 33.91 Hong Kong 1.28 3.65 26.23 Istanbul 0.74 5.66 14.08 Jakarta 0.28 2.66 8.49 Johannesburg 0.79 6.34 16.67 Kiev 0.16 1.59 3.28 Kuala Lumpur 0.37 2.79 8.68 Lima 0.74 6.42 n.a. Lisbon 1.82 8.11 23.25 Ljubljana 1.53 5.51 14.03 London 4.04 10.09 74.02 Los Angeles 1.50 15.65 36.67 Luxembourg 2.16 22.34 31.56 Lyon 1.95 12.04 32.54 Madrid 1.98 11.35 29.08 Manama 0.80 7.96 n.a. Manila 0.45 3.00 1.01 Mexico City 0.33 3.66 n.a. Miami 2.25 14.43 33.45 Milan 1.62 17.30 28.58 Montreal 2.63 17.57 52.08 Moscow 0.88 7.88 24.60 Mumbai 0.74 1.81 1.75 Munich 2.92 14.02 59.83 Nairobi 0.64 7.14 10.09 New Delhi 0.37 1.54 10.08 New York City 2.75 11.67 52.50 Nicosia 1.62 8.38 n.a. Oslo 3.80 32.10 61.77 Paris 1.95 12.43 43.84 Prague 1.18 6.00 8.44 Riga 1.30 6.74 7.78 Rio de Janeiro 1.19 5.07 n.a. Rome 1.62 14.24 27.03 Santiago de Chile 1.08 7.08 9.11 Sao Paulo 1.12 6.48 n.a. Seoul 1.06 4.45 23.09 Shanghai 0.38 3.13 12.01 Sofia 0.55 3.04 7.55 Stockholm 4.17 18.56 41.79 Sydney 2.58 11.52 6.80 Taipei 0.54 4.63 11.32 Tallinn 1.73 6.54 11.79 Tel Aviv 1.75 10.98 18.75 Tokyo 1.47 7.31 51.77 Toronto 2.43 15.88 38.46 Vienna 2.34 14.42 43.36 Vilnius 0.90 4.52 10.46 Warsaw 0.91 5.64 13.70 Zurich 3.75 27.59 73.39 Methodology Prices of public transport are based on the price of a ­single ticket on a bus, tram, or subway, for a journey of approximately 10 km or at least 10 stops. Prices for a taxi include a five-kilometer ride during the day within city limits, including a service tip. Prices for a train ticket rep- resent a 2nd class single ticket for a journey of 200 km. n.a. = not available
  • 27. 27Prices and earnings 2015 Restaurants and hotels The cost of dinner for two varies. The price in Tokyo is enough for six dinners in Mumbai. Buying a three-course evening meal in a good restaurant in Zurich and Taipei can cost as much as USD 150. This is more than 80% higher than the worldwide average of USD 80. In Jakarta and Johannesburg, with prices around USD 40 per meal, you would spend USD 110 less than in the most expensive cities. Shall we upgrade to the five-star hotel? Checking in to an international five-star hotel in New York City can be quite expensive, with a price tag of USD 590 per night. For the price of an average night in New York City, you can afford over five nights in Bucharest. The same level of luxury in Barcelona costs you only USD 250, closer to the global average of USD 300. Even if you decide to settle for something more affordable, prices for a mid-range hotel can vary widely. In Riga you would pay on average USD 70, whereas in Miami this would cost you USD 240. For the cost of the room in Miami, you could actually book a first-class hotel in Riga. Restaurant and hotel Cities Restaurant (USD) Hotel***** (USD) Hotel*** (USD) Amsterdam 90 250 170 Athens 80 290 100 Auckland 110 210 140 Bangkok 50 180 110 Barcelona 110 250 160 Beijing 50 200 100 Berlin 70 240 120 Bogotá 90 280 150 Bratislava 80 190 90 Brussels 120 190 140 Bucharest 40 110 70 Budapest 60 220 70 Buenos Aires 60 440 150 Cairo 60 260 80 Chicago 100 390 180 Copenhagen 110 300 190 Doha 100 400 170 Dubai 90 430 130 Dublin 110 320 160 Frankfurt 80 290 120 Geneva 140 410 200 Helsinki 80 380 120 Hong Kong 90 250 170 Istanbul 90 200 130 Jakarta 40 340 210 Johannesburg 40 290 150 Kiev 50 380 90 Kuala Lumpur 110 240 70 Lima 80 290 110 Lisbon 60 250 110 Ljubljana 60 240 90 London 60 400 180 Los Angeles 100 290 150 Luxembourg 120 240 150 Lyon 70 240 130 Madrid 110 350 130 Manama 110 390 230 Manila 60 230 100 Mexico City 70 280 100 Miami 110 420 240 Milan 110 300 200 Montreal 90 210 120 Moscow 110 350 140 Mumbai 40 170 100 Munich 90 380 110 Nairobi 40 230 120 New Delhi 40 220 110 New York City 100 590 380 Nicosia 50 250 90 Oslo 150 280 170 Paris 60 410 130 Prague 40 200 90 Riga 70 230 70 Rio de Janeiro 50 290 110 Rome 100 380 160 Santiago de Chile 70 250 120 Sao Paulo 80 240 100 Seoul 90 400 140 Shanghai 70 470 140 Sofia 50 160 60 Stockholm 100 230 150 Sydney 70 470 170 Taipei 150 390 120 Tallinn 60 300 100 Tel Aviv 80 430 190 Tokyo 220 500 280 Toronto 60 390 200 Vienna 90 240 90 Vilnius 40 200 80 Warsaw 60 190 90 Zurich 150 440 320 Methodology The price of an evening meal includes a three-course menu in a good restaurant, with an entrée, main course, and dessert, excluding beverages but including a service tip. The price for a hotel room factors in a one-night stay in a double room with an ensuite bathrom, includ- ing ­breakfast for two people, in a first-class international hotel, and in a good mid-range hotel.
  • 28. 28 Prices and earnings 2015 Services Cities1 USD Index Haircut women Haircut men Amsterdam 555 74.7 49.37 36.76 Athens 461 62.1 20.36 14.78 Auckland 695 93.7 63.98 36.42 Bangkok 323 43.6 12.81 9.53 Barcelona 530 71.4 36.04 19.79 Beijing 351 47.3 9.27 5.24 Berlin 447 60.3 31.63 16.49 Bogotá 425 57.2 14.03 8.28 Bratislava 371 49.9 23.43 12.79 Brussels 578 77.9 43.97 25.95 Bucharest 305 41.1 13.05 8.02 Budapest 311 41.8 22.85 12.63 Buenos Aires 536 72.3 23.37 20.92 Cairo 340 45.9 21.84 6.12 Chicago 645 86.9 54.00 32.33 Copenhagen 760 102.4 67.99 52.55 Doha 545 73.4 32.05 13.28 Dubai 538 72.6 43.11 16.79 Dublin 615 82.8 43.25 13.24 Frankfurt 514 69.3 43.97 29.19 Geneva 954 128.6 83.97 44.07 Helsinki 523 70.5 43.97 36.04 Hong Kong 410 55.3 30.96 30.96 Istanbul 464 62.5 21.37 12.57 Jakarta 311 42.0 4.63 4.50 Johannesburg 390 52.5 11.81 8.20 Kiev 208 28.0 9.90 7.24 Kuala Lumpur 378 50.9 15.16 10.84 Lima 414 55.8 14.97 8.55 Lisbon 394 53.1 27.03 10.63 Ljubljana 346 46.6 33.88 17.30 London 703 94.8 49.34 24.92 Los Angeles 562 75.7 57.00 34.33 Luxembourg 586 79.0 67.76 27.93 Lyon 546 73.6 42.53 22.71 Madrid 569 76.6 27.03 19.50 Manama 583 78.5 23.87 13.26 Manila 361 48.6 6.18 5.40 Mexico City 455 61.3 15.34 11.50 Miami 533 71.9 26.33 15.67 Milan 566 76.2 38.11 24.06 Montreal 560 75.4 35.28 23.14 Moscow 395 53.2 41.00 28.70 Mumbai 194 26.2 13.50 5.96 Munich 529 71.3 51.18 32.80 Nairobi 355 47.8 10.35 5.35 New Delhi 215 29.0 11.91 5.29 New York City* 742 100.0 73.33 36.67 Nicosia 433 58.3 38.38 16.76 Oslo 817 110.2 95.04 77.72 Paris 605 81.5 48.26 26.31 Prague 302 40.7 25.58 12.89 Riga 309 41.7 24.87 13.70 Rio de Janeiro 455 61.4 40.89 14.76 Rome 512 69.0 48.65 17.30 Santiago de Chile 444 59.8 21.97 12.48 Sao Paulo 515 69.4 22.96 14.21 Seoul 410 55.3 15.64 9.43 Shanghai 447 60.3 16.93 10.10 Sofia 316 42.6 15.89 11.33 Stockholm 557 75.0 54.80 48.82 Sydney 667 89.9 38.64 21.64 Taipei 517 69.7 29.04 26.89 Tallinn 330 44.5 28.83 14.78 Tel Aviv 548 73.8 55.92 21.61 Tokyo 663 89.4 37.64 33.18 Toronto 584 78.7 26.31 14.84 Vienna 446 60.2 48.65 18.74 Vilnius 306 41.3 27.03 16.22 Warsaw 309 41.6 23.73 15.22 Zurich 996 134.3 86.71 50.79 Services Services are a part of our daily lives – we read the news­ paper, pick up our dry cleaning, get our hair cut, and meet someone for coffee, possibly all in one morning. For this section, we collected prices for a basket of 27 different services. Worldwide, this basket costs an average of USD 490, but this varies widely across cities. Where should I get my hair cut? The quality of services, unlike that of food, is hard to cap- ture uniformly. Services are not exportable or tradable goods. There is a strong correlation between local wages and the prices for services, which results in extreme price differences for our basket. Zurich and Geneva, which lead our wage-level rankings, also come out on top for the prices of services. In these two cities our basket costs USD 990 and USD 955, respectively. In Kiev, Mumbai, and New Delhi on the other hand, the same basket can be bought for less than half of the global average price. Haircuts, and especially the price difference for them between men and women, are an interesting example. In Jakarta and Hong Kong, women pay on average almost the same as men, whereas in Dublin and Cairo, the price for women is almost three times higher than for men. This imbalance is seen across the globe, with women’s haircuts costing on average 40% more than men’s. For the price of one women’s haircut in Oslo, men could afford to get their hair cut around 18 times in Nairobi. Methodology Our basket covers a variety of services, such as a haircut, an hour of household help, dry cleaning, TV and internet fees, a language course and a ticket to a sports event. The basket is weighted according to the monthly con- sumption of a European family. Price comparison * New York City = Index 100
  • 29. 29Prices and earnings 2015 Zurich Tokyo New York City London Hong Kong Frankfurt Paris Rio de Janeiro Beijing Warsaw Nairobi Mumbai 13.50 5.9610.35 5.3523.73 15.22 30.95 30.95 49.34 24.92 86.71 50.79 43.97 29.19 37.64 33.18 40.89 14.76 9.27 5.24 48.26 26.31 73.33 36.67 Women’s haircut Men’s haircut USD 100 USD 50 USD 75 USD 25 USD 0 Prices in USD Jakarta USD 4.50 Lowest Oslo USD 77.72 Highest Jakarta USD 4.63 Lowest Oslo USD 95.04 Highest Women’s haircut Men’s haircut
  • 30. 30 Prices and earnings 2015 City breaks Avid international travelers may be interested in the cost of a trip to one of our cities. For example, rental cars vary greatly in price. In Rio de Janeiro, a rental car can cost you around USD 25, a tenth of the cost of a rental in Oslo. Over half of our cities offer rental cars for under USD 110 per day, less than half of the price of one in Paris, our sec- ond-most expensive city for rental cars. ­Postage had one of the greatest price variances; the price of sending a letter was 58 times more expensive in Bogotá than in Kiev. Fif- ty-nine cities have postage prices under USD 0.95. Riga or Zurich for a night away? An average city break costs USD 615. Zurich and Geneva are the most expensive cities to visit, costing 70% and 65% more, respectively, than the average. Other pricy des- tinations include Tokyo, New York City and Oslo, where the cost of our package is well above USD 950. For that amount, an entire three-night round-trip from Bucharest (USD 260) to Sofia (USD 300) to Vilnius (USD 380) could be organized. Methodology The cost of a city break was for two people, with an overnight stay in a first-class hotel, two dinners at a ­restaurant including a bottle of wine, a taxi ride, two tickets for public transportation, a rental car (100 km), a paperback book, a phone call and postage for a ­letter. The prices listed do not include travel to and from the destination. Price comparison City breaks Cities USD  Index Amsterdam 570 55.3 Athens 530 51.5 Auckland 580 56.3 Bangkok 320 31.1 Barcelona 600 58.3 Beijing 350 34.0 Berlin 620 60.2 Bogotá 590 57.3 Bratislava 450 43.7 Brussels 580 56.3 Bucharest 260 25.2 Budapest 430 41.7 Buenos Aires 700 68.0 Cairo 480 46.6 Chicago 700 68.0 Copenhagen 780 75.7 Doha 740 71.8 Dubai 790 76.7 Dublin 660 64.1 Frankfurt 700 68.0 Geneva 1,020 99.0 Helsinki 800 77.7 Hong Kong 640 62.1 Istanbul 440 42.7 Jakarta 690 67.0 Johannesburg 450 43.7 Kiev 550 53.4 Kuala Lumpur 550 53.4 Lima 560 54.4 Lisbon 460 44.7 Ljubljana 490 47.6 London 750 72.8 Los Angeles 620 60.2 Luxembourg 720 69.9 Lyon 650 63.1 Madrid 650 63.1 Manama 720 69.9 Manila 450 43.7 Mexico City 540 52.4 Miami 780 75.7 Milan 670 65.0 Montreal 570 55.3 Moscow 710 68.9 Mumbai 300 29.1 Munich 830 80.6 Nairobi 380 36.9 New Delhi 340 33.0 New York City* 1,030 100.0 Nicosia 550 53.4 Oslo 980 95.1 Paris 890 86.4 Prague 500 48.5 Riga 460 44.7 Rio de Janeiro 470 45.6 Rome 710 68.9 Santiago de Chile 570 55.3 Sao Paulo 500 48.5 Seoul 670 65.0 Shanghai 670 65.0 Sofia 300 29.1 Stockholm 610 59.2 Sydney 690 67.0 Taipei 820 79.6 Tallinn 540 52.4 Tel Aviv 650 63.1 Tokyo 1,000 97.1 Toronto 710 68.9 Vienna 630 61.2 Vilnius 380 36.9 Warsaw 490 47.6 Zurich 1,050 101.9* New York City = Index 100
  • 31. Wage comparison
  • 32. 32 Prices and earnings 2015 Wages differ greatly across geographic regions and professions, making them vital for deter- mining purchasing power. Zurich and Geneva have the highest gross wages by far, over USD 10/hour greater than Luxembourg (third-highest gross salary), and over 20 times greater than Jakarta’s gross wages. More often than not, how much you get paid for work is not how much you take home, although for workers in Dubai, Doha and Bue- nos Aires, with 0% tax rates and low employee social security contribution rates, this is the case. Workers in Copenhagen, on the other hand, surrender almost 45% of their wage to taxes. Net wages in Zurich and Geneva are the highest, even with all deductions, and are, on average, almost 23 times higher than those in Kiev, with the lowest. How does my salary compare to others? New York City had the greatest variance across gross wages, signaling a different salary level for different levels of education; an educated department manager makes on average almost USD 120,000 more than a female factory worker. Kiev has the most uniform gross wages, with an average difference between these two professions of around USD 6,000. The employment sector also makes a difference regarding compensation. Average industrial sector employees made 8% more than average service sector workers, when considering unweighted gross salaries (see pages 39 – 41) across all cities. In some places this difference can be significant, such as in São Paulo, with a difference of almost 75%. For others, it was minimal, such as in Paris, with almost no sector difference. Methodology Our wage comparison covers 15 different occupations in administrative, business, com- munication, construction, educational, finance, healthcare, hospitality, manufactur- ing, retail, and transportation sectors. Worker profiles vary in age, family status, work expe- rience and education. Job descriptions can be found on page 38. All professions are weighted to reflect the European workforce, where industrial sector workers comprise 27% of the workforce, and service sector employees nearly 73%. To ensure that wage information for local workers is presented accurately, incomes from cross-border commuters were excluded. We compared job profiles for full-time (100%) workers to ensure comparability, and scaled up any information on part-time workers on the assumption that wage was a linear func- tion of percentage of work. Since the sample size of our wage data is smaller than that used by local governments for their calculat- tions, the results are not statistically compara- ble. Gross wages may include possible supplemen- tary benefits, such as bonuses, vacation pay, meal or housing allowances, or family assis- tance. Net wages take into account taxes and social security contributions. Hourly wages are calculated by taking into account annual working hours, found on page 36. Note Professions were weighted according to Eurostat statistics for the working population composition of EU countries. International wage comparison Wage comparison
  • 33. 33Prices and earnings 2015 40 30 20 Gross and net hourly pay Gross hourly pay in USD Net hourly pay in USD Amsterdam Zurich Warsaw Vilnius Vienna Toronto Tokyo TelAviv Tallinn Taipei Sydney Stockholm SofiaShanghai Seoul Sao Paulo Santiago de Chile Rome Rio de Janeiro Riga Prague Paris Oslo Nicosia New York City New Delhi Nairobi M unich M um baiMoscowMontreal Milan Miami MexicoCity Manila Manama Madrid Lyon LuxembourgLosAngelesLondon LjubljanaLisbonLim aKuala Lum pur Kiev Johannesburg Jakarta Istanbul Hong Kong Helsinki Geneva Frankfurt Dublin Dubai Doha CopenhagenChicago Cairo Buenos Aires Budapest Bucharest Brussels Bratislava Bogotá Berlin Beijing Barcelona Bangkok Auckland Athens Kiev USD 1.93 Zurich USD 41.29 Kiev USD 1.65 Zurich USD 38.40 Highest LowestHighest Lowest Net hourly payGross hourly pay
  • 34. 34 Prices and earnings 2015 Most countries rely on taxes, social security pay- ments and other deductions to finance their national budgets and social security systems. Countries such as Bahrain, the UAE and Qatar finance themselves by selling local raw materi- als, and do not have an income tax system. Argentina, Peru and Colombia only impose tax on high earners and foreign citizens. Hence, six of our cities have no recorded income tax. Who pays the most tax? Income taxes hurt most in Copenhagen, where the average tax for our professions was around 45%. Average tax worldwide was almost 13%, but varies among cities, as income tax rates are calculated by each country and/or city to ensure its own finances. Some countries have very high income tax and social security contribution rates, but provide a full array of social services to their residents. Stockholm has an average tax rate of nearly 28%, but residents have largely free access to education and childcare. Social security contributions average 10% of gross wages for the employee and 19% for the employer. Workers in Moscow, Hong Kong and Copenhagen make no contributions to social security. In France, however, employers contrib- ute over 49%, more than twice employees’ con- tribution. 27% of all governments shift the bur- den of social security to the employee. Workers in Auckland, for example, carry full responsibil- ity for social security. Taxes and social security contributions Wage comparison Methodology We collected tax and social security informa- tion using PwC’s “Worldwide Tax Summa- ries,” and corroborated our results with sur- vey participants and other sources. Taxes were averaged for each profession, weighted and then calculated as a percentage. Social security burden information for employees and employers was gathered from PwC and KPMG sources. Our net wages (see pages 32–33) are calcu- lated by deducting social security contribu- tions from gross wages, and then subtracting taxes. Hourly wages in individual cities were calculated by dividing average annual gross or net wages by the average number of hours worked per year. Public sector spending and social security ­systems in individual countries (and in individ- ual cities) vary greatly, so the percentage of deductions ranges widely. Note Capital gains, VAT, property and indirect income deductions were excluded from tax and social security contribution calculations. Cities such as Zurich, Geneva and Hong Kong have basic private medical insurance that is obligatory, regardless of income level. It is not a part of the social security system and the price of it is not deducted from salaries. So social security contributions only reflect public social contributions, not necessarily all social contributions made by employees. This also limits comparability of these cities with others.
  • 35. 35Prices and earnings 2015 28.1% 18.0% 26.7% 15.5% 24.5% 18.5% 1.4% 0.0% 15.5% 4.0% 5.0% 2.8% 6.3% 29.9% 21.9% 10.5% 35.0% 6.8% 20.4% 19.3% 13.1% 10.0% 20.5% 0.0% 13.4% 35.2% 16.4% 13.0% 35.0% 27.7% 16.5% 23.4% 13.3% 18.5% 28.5% 13.0% 17.0% 27.0% 0.0% 12.1% 24.7% 7.5% 8.5% 7.6% 14.7% 0.0% 0.0% 44.7% 5.0% 10.0% 0.0% 5.0% 12.5% 0.0% 4.0% 10.7% 19.5% 20.4% 19.3% 13.1% 7.0% 5.9% 10.4% 8.4% 23.2% 20.2% 0.0% 0.0% 10.6% 15.0% 27.0% 15.6% 2.0% 5.7% 5.3% 1.0% 1.0% 19.3% 3.6% 49.7% 14.4% 11.0% 12.0% 2.2% 13.0% 9.0% 0.0% 11.0% 23.7% 13.6% 22.1% 16.1% 16.1% 12.0% 13.8% 17.6% 8.5% 7.6% 13.1% 12.4% 15.3% 21.3% 21.4% 49.5% 8.1% 6.35% 29.90% 21.86% 7.0% 12.0% 0.0% 3.6% 7.3% 16.1% 2.7% 31.6% 8.3% 8.5% 7.6% 13.4% 10.4% 30.0% 22.1% 4.2% 5.2% 12.8% 0.0% 34.0% 13.0% 12.0% 12.5% 5.1% 20.4% 19.3% 13.1% 6.0% 6.0% 15.0% 12.0% 12.5% 4.3% 8.5% 7.6% 13.8% 7.8% 11.5% 6.2% 8.2% 14.4% 20.9% 21.4% 49.5% 7.9% 11.0% 34.0% 12.5% 10.5% 23.5% 18.8% 11.0% 29.0% 2.5% 10.4% 30.0% 22.1% 0.6% 21.8% 6.1% 11.0% 29.0% 3.5% 8.3% 9.2% 5.7% 10.5% 35.0% 8.3% 12.9% 18.1% 8.7% 7.0% 31.4% 27.7% 2.0% 9.0% 19.5% 18.7% 2.9% 4.9% 3.6% 33.8% 20.0% 12.0% 7.2% 12.3% 15.0% 14.7% 13.1% 6.4% 7.4% 16.1% 18.0% 21.6% 12.3% 9.0% 30.9% 15.0% 13.7% 20.7% 16.8% 7.0% 5.9% 6.9% Athens Bratislava Copenhagen Hong Kong Lisbon Manama Mumbai Paris Seoul Tel Aviv Auckland Brussels Doha Istanbul Ljubljana Manila Munich Prague Shanghai Tokyo Bangkok Bucharest Dubai Jakarta London Mexico City Nairobi Riga Sofia Toronto Barcelona Budapest Dublin Johannesburg Los Angeles Miami New Delhi Rio de Janeiro Stockholm Vienna Berlin Cairo Geneva Kuala Lumpur Lyon Montreal Nicosia Santiago de Chile Taipei Warsaw Amsterdam Bogotá Chicago Helsinki Lima Madrid Moscow Oslo Sao Paulo Tallinn Zurich Beijing Buenos Aires Frankfurt Kiev Luxembourg Milan New York City Sydney Vilnius Rome Social security contribution (employer) in % Social security contribution (employee) in % Income tax in %
  • 36. 36 Prices and earnings 2015 Working hours and vacation days Annual working hours have a great impact on purchasing power and quality of life – a high hourly income and a low number of working hours indicates a higher quality of life than the reverse. All workaholics should move to Hong Kong, where working hours average over 50 per week, with only 17 days of holiday annually. Those who like time off should consider finding a job in Paris, where people work only around 35 hours per week (in line with new ­government regulations) and have 29 days of paid vacation. They are on the job annually 1,000-plus fewer hours than their counterparts in Hong Kong. Do I spend too much time at work? On average, workers worldwide spend over 40 hours per week at their workplace, and receive over 4.5 weeks of paid vacation. That said, employees in Shanghai must live with only seven days off, almost a fifth of the vacation days of those in Manama. But legal holidays help make workers’ lives manageable. Bangkok averages only nine days of paid vacation but 16 days of legal holidays, giving a total holiday time of 25 days, or around five weeks. São Paulo has the highest combined amount of time off, with an average of 50 days, or around 10 weeks. Lisbon has the lowest num- ber of legal holidays, with only five days, which is one work week in the city. Methodology Annual vacations are those considered as paid vacation days (legal holidays not included). They were calculated through survey responses, and averaged over all profes- sions. Annual working hours were calculated through the number of hours worked per day, the number of days worked per week, with the vacation and legal ­holiday time deducted. Working hour information was not weighted to the profession’s representation in the European workforce. Wage comparison Working hours and vacation days Cities Working hours per year Paid vacation days  per year Amsterdam 1,726 27 Athens 1,800 23 Auckland 1,992 16 Bangkok 2,191 9 Barcelona 1,731 28 Beijing 1,963 10 Berlin 1,769 29 Bogotá 2,096 15 Bratislava 1,845 26 Brussels 1,717 18 Bucharest 1,807 23 Budapest 1,910 26 Buenos Aires 1,899 16 Cairo 2,082 25 Chicago 2,030 14 Copenhagen 1,697 25 Doha 2,082 24 Dubai 2,186 30 Dublin 1,770 31 Frankfurt 1,757 28 Geneva 1,859 27 Helsinki 1,659 29 Hong Kong 2,606 17 Istanbul 2,043 18 Jakarta 2,102 12 Johannesburg 1,847 19 Kiev 1,817 26 Kuala Lumpur 1,935 15 Lima 1,957 31 Lisbon 1,748 23 Ljubljana 1,853 25 London 1,740 25 Los Angeles 1,928 14 Luxembourg 1,703 32 Lyon 1,631 29 Madrid 1,731 26 Manama 2,076 34 Manila 1,951 21 Mexico City 2,261 17 Miami 1,854 19 Milan 1,691 26 Montreal 1,783 18 Moscow 1,647 31 Mumbai 2,277 21 Munich 1,721 29 Nairobi 2,184 22 New Delhi 2,214 26 New York City 1,847 27 Nicosia 1,855 22 Oslo 1,744 25 Paris 1,604 29 Prague 1,753 28 Riga 1,823 20 Rio de Janeiro 1,745 30 Rome 1,736 32 Santiago de Chile 2,082 17 Sao Paulo 1,818 31 Seoul 1,934 15 Shanghai 2,051 7 Sofia 1,821 22 Stockholm 1,770 25 Sydney 1,829 24 Taipei 2,141 13 Tallinn 1,738 30 Tel Aviv 2,038 17 Tokyo 2,055 17 Toronto 1,985 19 Vienna 1,678 27 Vilnius 1,716 30 Warsaw 1,757 26 Zurich 1,912 24
  • 37. Appendix
  • 38. 38 Prices and earnings 2015 Industrial sector Construction worker Unskilled or semi-skilled laborer without technical training, approximate age and status: 25, single Department manager Head of production department with more than 100 employees in a sizable company in the metal processing, machinery, or tool-making industry; full vocational training and considerable profes- sional experience, approximate age and status: 40, married, two children Electrical engineer Employed by an industrial firm in the electrical equipment, electric power, or similar industry; completed studies at a university or institute of higher technical education; at least five years of practical experience, approximate age and status: 35, married, two children Female industrial worker Unskilled or semi-skilled operator in a medi- um-sized plant in the textile industry, approximate age and status: 25, single Industrial technician Skilled mechanic with vocational training and con- siderable experience with a large company in the metal-working and tool industry, approximate age and status: 35, married, two children Services sector Automobile mechanic Completed training or apprenticeship, at least five years of experience, approximate age and status: 25, single Bank credit clerk Completed apprenticeship, at least 10 years of experience, approximate age and status: 35, single Bus driver Employed by a municipal transport system, at least 10 years of driving experience, approximate age and status: 35, married, two children Call center agent Trained agent at an inbound call/service center in the telecommunications or technology sector, approximate age and status: 25, single Cook (chef de partie) Cook in a kitchen with a fairly large staff in a respected restaurant or hotel, deputy of the head chef or chef de partie, supervises two to three cooks, completed vocational training as cook, about 10 years of experience, approximate age and status: 30, single Female sales assistant Sales in the ladies’ apparel department of a large department store, specialized training in sales, ­several years of experience, approximate age and status: 25, single Hospital nurse Completed apprenticeship or studies, at least 10 years of experience, approximate age and status: 35, married, two children Primary public school teacher Teaching for about 10 years in government-oper- ated schools, approximate age and status: 35, married, two children Product manager Manager in pharmaceutical, chemical or food industry, about five years of experience, tertiary educational degree, middle management, approxi- mate age and status: 35, married Secretary/personal assistant Secretary of a department manager in an indus- trial firm, at least five years of experience; knowl- edge of PCs and one foreign language, approxi- mate age and status: 25, single Job descriptions Appendix
  • 39. 39Prices and earnings 2015 AppendixGross annual incomes (in USD) in the industrial sector Cities Department manager Female industrial worker Construction worker Industrial technician Electrical engineer Amsterdam 51,379 25,796 26,135 42,374 42,587 Athens 54,176 10,324 10,073 22,581 17,222 Auckland 78,286 34,809 37,950 58,739 63,351 Bangkok 29,611 5,080 5,055 11,719 12,730 Barcelona 44,698 16,365 20,655 24,440 41,382 Beijing 19,107 5,358 4,712 6,197 14,621 Berlin 76,888 23,894 25,466 38,689 61,813 Bogotá 20,494 3,235 4,364 9,245 15,556 Bratislava 58,396 16,978 22,358 19,465 25,125 Brussels 70,864 32,068 32,137 42,974 52,944 Bucharest 14,466 4,372 4,783 7,074 12,020 Budapest 22,437 5,459 5,159 8,672 19,781 Buenos Aires 18,728 10,277 9,921 12,489 16,929 Cairo 26,570 1,993 1,888 8,609 11,318 Chicago 107,820 38,965 42,000 43,500 94,299 Copenhagen 72,099 42,012 36,684 45,202 79,845 Doha 56,039 8,241 5,824 22,251 54,940 Dubai 73,494 6,533 5,299 25,315 65,328 Dublin 59,837 23,013 29,955 46,456 48,143 Frankfurt 56,305 26,993 27,182 42,705 63,594 Geneva 130,704 57,094 58,302 84,079 109,649 Helsinki 47,383 27,736 30,643 43,079 50,419 Hong Kong 64,505 29,414 29,930 37,671 55,474 Istanbul 41,052 7,086 9,583 18,652 34,609 Jakarta 10,190 2,023 3,011 3,844 10,885 Johannesburg 40,648 9,453 5,420 34,799 58,426 Kiev 8,005 2,384 3,225 2,822 4,208 Kuala Lumpur 44,868 6,173 7,066 8,562 18,616 Lima 20,438 6,576 7,220 12,586 18,663 Lisbon 21,231 14,938 11,539 19,545 20,684 Ljubljana 33,532 20,224 12,815 24,993 27,647 London 57,910 33,583 31,966 54,121 61,296 Los Angeles 85,500 30,667 38,000 55,000 82,333 Luxembourg 115,857 32,442 30,279 61,787 67,194 Lyon 52,306 23,485 23,320 28,865 52,698 Madrid 44,525 17,335 21,992 31,314 31,631 Manama 58,353 13,527 9,549 35,542 56,231 Manila 12,870 2,190 2,208 3,303 10,842 Mexico City 14,581 3,019 2,063 8,856 7,521 Miami 116,393 33,160 28,887 72,777 96,657 Milan 55,332 21,988 22,243 34,771 52,736 Montreal 105,607 45,452 39,804 50,252 54,224 Moscow 13,835 6,653 7,144 10,962 18,749 Mumbai 16,200 2,791 2,087 5,045 11,847 Munich 87,211 29,281 23,634 36,234 66,500 Nairobi 14,846 2,324 1,958 2,719 4,911 New Delhi 14,705 2,952 1,688 4,396 8,069 New York City 142,500 19,055 29,415 47,000 100,055 Nicosia 64,660 47,582 22,872 30,893 48,426 Oslo 76,080 42,267 41,210 52,411 54,947 Paris 52,696 21,304 24,383 28,501 51,937 Prague 17,073 8,939 8,205 12,910 15,067 Riga 16,770 7,437 11,627 11,442 14,342 Rio de Janeiro 36,872 4,479 7,658 22,986 36,006 Rome 63,803 30,482 27,179 36,549 46,320 Santiago de Chile 20,375 7,935 10,062 15,656 33,944 Sao Paulo 58,271 5,450 6,228 44,746 31,750 Seoul 32,026 17,486 28,161 26,965 35,892 Shanghai 31,759 5,229 7,730 9,741 18,368 Sofia 18,002 5,131 5,142 5,905 7,464 Stockholm 80,042 33,665 40,208 42,291 54,172 Sydney 92,460 48,957 62,355 59,493 70,195 Taipei 79,811 11,048 20,435 24,205 27,852 Tallinn 45,851 8,742 12,755 17,302 22,277 Tel Aviv 43,208 21,451 15,899 31,482 45,805 Tokyo 74,239 31,578 41,825 63,407 53,536 Toronto 63,164 40,445 36,992 55,165 70,083 Vienna 65,262 26,360 31,532 39,182 57,146 Vilnius 24,844 4,947 10,414 18,319 14,655 Warsaw 33,829 7,444 8,695 19,021 16,275 Zurich 159,705 47,934 62,276 75,691 123,676
  • 40. 40 Prices and earnings 2015 Appendix Gross annual incomes (in USD) in the services sector Cities Bus driver Automobile mechanic Call center agent Cook (chef de partie) Hospital nurse Amsterdam 35,340 28,328 27,960 32,251 41,006 Athens 17,708 9,786 10,527 19,832 14,638 Auckland 35,659 39,760 29,969 35,909 50,794 Bangkok 8,234 11,033 5,025 14,143 19,854 Barcelona 29,153 22,926 22,759 34,064 29,463 Beijing 8,090 6,649 3,679 7,294 9,789 Berlin 28,227 31,189 19,320 44,208 34,269 Bogotá 6,254 6,678 5,078 8,831 9,006 Bratislava 12,779 11,420 22,922 22,385 8,795 Brussels 38,251 34,800 32,739 36,879 41,870 Bucharest 11,601 7,868 6,965 11,010 6,385 Budapest 9,023 7,349 9,117 14,567 7,672 Buenos Aires 17,246 12,991 10,212 14,526 11,655 Cairo 2,202 4,283 2,884 10,095 4,195 Chicago 31,714 55,679 36,804 43,879 67,950 Copenhagen 45,819 43,295 42,413 49,296 52,402 Doha 9,312 11,171 14,284 16,482 17,306 Dubai 18,237 14,880 13,283 64,784 27,583 Dublin 39,016 27,920 25,610 32,273 45,084 Frankfurt 32,993 31,594 22,846 39,424 31,805 Geneva 64,590 66,145 51,014 75,875 79,665 Helsinki 34,743 33,623 24,630 29,527 33,415 Hong Kong 27,608 25,289 24,512 51,573 58,313 Istanbul 11,611 11,347 6,649 75,239 13,437 Jakarta 3,103 3,103 2,548 8,801 2,200 Johannesburg 10,339 12,111 6,791 51,307 14,664 Kiev 2,944 5,789 2,983 9,576 1,946 Kuala Lumpur 6,184 9,132 8,617 18,810 12,806 Lima 6,383 8,409 6,998 9,768 9,206 Lisbon 28,100 16,149 10,562 25,773 15,752 Ljubljana 14,748 19,511 20,646 20,159 17,142 London 37,402 32,718 25,986 41,107 41,359 Los Angeles 39,783 40,733 33,733 53,567 75,000 Luxembourg 85,578 40,228 32,442 41,093 88,822 Lyon 27,791 20,579 28,474 29,780 25,676 Madrid 33,170 23,492 15,922 31,339 26,783 Manama 17,665 36,232 12,732 68,962 33,770 Manila 3,083 2,897 4,330 3,367 4,783 Mexico City 1,813 3,083 3,342 17,109 12,286 Miami 38,317 38,025 28,076 60,122 69,484 Milan 29,270 22,068 18,438 42,319 38,534 Montreal 46,218 37,114 27,790 40,532 45,286 Moscow 13,381 11,945 8,694 11,491 7,787 Mumbai 3,185 2,017 3,239 12,741 5,216 Munich 34,427 32,330 24,470 35,540 33,454 Nairobi 2,741 3,094 3,884 4,494 3,865 New Delhi 4,204 4,619 3,249 6,689 6,583 New York City 63,800 47,678 29,560 63,725 91,600 Nicosia 31,290 27,049 26,657 37,159 29,881 Oslo 48,184 48,184 44,380 49,452 50,297 Paris 26,959 22,890 24,001 34,625 34,759 Prague 11,285 9,400 9,674 12,869 10,378 Riga 10,570 11,876 8,736 8,632 8,127 Rio de Janeiro 7,680 7,479 3,597 20,260 19,970 Rome 32,035 29,843 19,934 54,888 32,983 Santiago de Chile 11,348 13,365 8,058 14,222 23,529 Sao Paulo 9,001 7,857 4,942 22,257 18,411 Seoul 40,475 27,839 18,406 23,008 31,290 Shanghai 7,983 8,521 5,519 13,556 14,524 Sofia 7,110 7,369 8,714 10,914 4,169 Stockholm 37,915 36,681 37,086 37,714 42,963 Sydney 45,040 47,668 32,646 39,062 48,404 Taipei 22,668 16,634 15,330 48,840 20,144 Tallinn 12,068 14,058 10,572 19,033 14,274 Tel Aviv 29,448 25,176 24,230 38,423 31,421 Tokyo 39,106 38,437 33,460 46,008 47,179 Toronto 44,613 31,987 23,652 38,870 52,919 Vienna 36,031 35,637 31,429 29,493 32,789 Vilnius 12,761 12,626 6,505 22,038 8,140 Warsaw 10,372 10,818 7,798 17,513 9,781 Zurich 77,028 68,886 54,967 81,224 76,581
  • 41. 41Prices and earnings 2015 Gross annual incomes (in USD) in the services sector Cities Bank credit clerk Product manager Secretary/personal assistant Female sales assistant Primary public school teacher Amsterdam 37,748 49,641 31,019 27,624 43,487 Athens 20,219 33,848 12,135 14,004 18,546 Auckland 34,468 62,593 46,660 27,426 47,182 Bangkok 22,815 17,951 11,286 7,053 7,425 Barcelona 32,427 64,163 22,163 18,636 31,301 Beijing 4,583 28,403 4,648 6,197 8,650 Berlin 48,938 56,631 28,433 23,577 53,938 Bogotá 10,331 67,629 10,970 4,508 8,682 Bratislava 23,935 34,305 12,869 10,652 12,247 Brussels 44,632 50,943 36,060 35,114 41,293 Bucharest 8,711 20,236 5,778 7,146 5,431 Budapest 11,472 21,736 9,364 6,337 9,149 Buenos Aires 16,431 22,410 14,253 14,508 10,191 Cairo 10,838 10,270 4,326 3,671 1,398 Chicago 47,040 109,207 44,929 42,088 69,074 Copenhagen 66,462 82,992 50,736 32,819 52,860 Doha 40,656 49,080 23,624 17,471 29,668 Dubai 24,171 89,826 18,691 15,243 30,759 Dublin 37,840 82,186 28,837 27,035 44,835 Frankfurt 48,490 58,020 32,586 25,769 52,100 Geneva 121,684 119,595 75,417 46,683 88,922 Helsinki 32,888 53,785 32,706 30,777 39,787 Hong Kong 61,151 52,378 30,446 26,318 56,764 Istanbul 15,823 24,156 12,265 9,515 12,725 Jakarta 2,432 11,580 5,906 2,200 2,501 Johannesburg 12,773 47,117 15,581 6,570 13,173 Kiev 3,923 6,567 3,452 3,009 1,714 Kuala Lumpur 7,569 19,182 9,591 7,166 12,218 Lima 13,432 23,273 10,154 6,217 8,837 Lisbon 26,494 16,149 15,291 12,479 26,848 Ljubljana 24,967 28,990 19,180 12,620 22,755 London 29,587 106,077 28,606 26,984 38,197 Los Angeles 68,633 94,000 42,267 38,067 54,667 Luxembourg 75,698 50,826 38,930 29,847 94,229 Lyon 49,744 59,469 27,724 23,358 30,096 Madrid 38,541 44,878 21,448 20,855 33,019 Manama 36,285 49,759 19,734 19,150 31,829 Manila 5,783 35,295 3,474 2,389 5,192 Mexico City 6,240 30,327 12,815 3,707 6,782 Miami 51,157 111,037 38,002 29,065 63,870 Milan 44,085 47,582 26,253 21,260 30,441 Montreal 49,752 75,663 36,729 17,533 48,534 Moscow 13,986 19,505 11,189 9,148 11,378 Mumbai 4,966 22,859 5,447 4,149 3,446 Munich 45,253 62,627 34,947 27,406 45,598 Nairobi 6,741 15,756 6,741 3,480 2,300 New Delhi 5,394 6,848 7,167 3,631 8,011 New York City 53,695 119,000 39,080 26,500 80,500 Nicosia 40,553 56,181 27,997 31,063 41,748 Oslo 50,720 67,627 43,957 38,885 46,493 Paris 55,260 54,421 26,661 26,538 32,024 Prague 13,881 18,472 10,581 9,442 10,427 Riga 11,696 27,109 9,735 5,509 6,666 Rio de Janeiro 13,962 33,690 13,080 4,218 9,690 Rome 36,317 57,008 16,978 25,380 27,756 Santiago de Chile 17,594 32,731 10,015 8,692 13,307 Sao Paulo 12,613 51,575 14,007 11,299 14,010 Seoul 58,408 33,131 17,118 14,633 37,180 Shanghai 16,945 30,017 10,457 7,356 10,651 Sofia 6,889 12,748 6,630 4,666 4,476 Stockholm 46,278 80,878 35,707 34,969 39,205 Sydney 41,227 86,318 37,001 39,938 60,294 Taipei 20,074 56,768 14,480 12,350 24,911 Tallinn 14,491 18,816 12,025 11,376 12,371 Tel Aviv 30,753 70,942 24,736 21,361 25,220 Tokyo 52,281 55,418 36,806 27,312 62,917 Toronto 33,198 65,723 33,607 28,748 62,363 Vienna 42,770 54,483 40,791 26,570 34,125 Vilnius 18,771 19,516 7,408 5,688 9,660 Warsaw 11,393 28,966 10,470 8,749 12,887 Zurich 107,124 127,031 69,684 54,462 110,815

Related Documents