University of Alexandria
Faculty of Engineering
Department of Architecture
NanoArchitecture and Sustainability
A THESI...
NanoArchitecture and Sustainability
Presented by
Faten Fares Fouad
For The Degree of
Master of Science
In
Architectu...
Advisors’ Committee: Approved
Prof. Dr. Mohamed Abdelall Ibrahim
(Professor of architecture, department of architecture,...
Acknowledgment
III
Completion of a Master's degree involves contributions from individuals who deserve recognition. A sp...
IV
This is for the memory of my father.
Table of Contents
V
Examiners' Committee...................................................................................
Table of Contents
VI
1.4.4. Biological Architecture........................................................................
Table of Contents
VII
2.5.2.G. Water purification..................................................................... 7...
List of Figures
ix
01
A representation of sustainability.
(Fig. 1.1)
02
Sustainability science.
(Fig. 1.2)
02
Han...
List of Figures
x
28
Main Rating Tools
(Fig. 1.45)
28
Comparison of BREEAM, LEED and Green Star
(Fig. 1.46)
29
Ca...
List of Figures
xi
55
Computer simulation of single-wall carbon nanotube with a diameter 1.4 nm
(Fig. 2.14)
55
Compu...
List of Figures
xii
74
Air-purifying paving tiles.
(Fig. 2.62)
75
Global water supply.
(Fig. 2.63)
75
Technology ...
List of Figures
xiii
101
A series of chemical reactions TiO2 with sunlight or ultraviolet (UV) light.
(Fig. 3.29)
103...
List of Abbreviations
xiv
GW
Global warming.
CO2
Carbon dioxide
ICSU
International Council for Science
UK
United ...
List of Abbreviations
xv
NT
Nanotechnology
NA
Nanoarchitecture
HEV
Hybrid electric vehicle
0-D
Zero-dimensional
...
Abstract
xvi
The research highlights an extraordinary amount of interest in nanotechnologies and nanomaterials, terms no...
Research Structure Chart
xvii
Nanoarchitecture and Sustainability Research Structure Chart
Research Structure Chart
PA...
Introduction
xvi
Sustainability is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environm...
Sustainability
PART ONE
. Sustainability
. Sustainable architecture
. Green Architecture (GA)
. GA performance measur...
PART ONE Sustainability
Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 1 -
A design approach focused on res...
PART ONE Sustainability
Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 2 -
1.2.2. Sustainability science:
...
PART ONE Sustainability
Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 3 -
Von Carlowitz developed a concep...
PART ONE Sustainability
Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 4 -
In the 21st century, there is he...
PART ONE Sustainability
Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 5 -
1.2.5. Sustainability principles...
PART ONE Sustainability
Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 6 -
 Reduce dependence upon fossil ...
PART ONE Sustainability
Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 7 -
1.2.6. A. ii. Management of huma...
PART ONE Sustainability
Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 8 -
[2] (Fig 1. 11) greenhouse gases...
PART ONE Sustainability
Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 9 -
In the atmosphere, “greenhouse” ...
PART ONE Sustainability
Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 10 -
Building Sector. [Fig 1.14] By ...
PART ONE Sustainability
Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 11 -
1.1.6. B. Economic dimension: S...
PART ONE Sustainability
Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 12 -
U.S. sectors and industry suffe...
PART ONE Sustainability
Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 13 -
1.1.6. C. Social dimension: Sus...
PART ONE Sustainability
Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 14 -
1.3.1. Sustainable Architecture...
PART ONE Sustainability
Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 15 -
reclaimed, renewed, and sold as...
PART ONE Sustainability
Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 16 -
3. Quality and durability: long...
PART ONE Sustainability
Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 17 -
Sustainable technologies use le...
PART ONE Sustainability
Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 18 -
Gaps in each floor create six s...
PART ONE Sustainability
Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 19 -
Green architecture is a sustain...
PART ONE Sustainability
Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 20 -
6. Waste Reduction: It is possi...
PART ONE Sustainability
Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 21 -
lighting for about 300 homes an...
PART ONE Sustainability
Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 22 -
ground plane on the top of the ...
PART ONE Sustainability
Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 23 -
1.4.2. Green Architecture Perfo...
PART ONE Sustainability
Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 24 -
What LEED Delivers: [92]
LEED-...
PART ONE Sustainability
Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 25 -
1.4.2. B. What is BREEAM? [93]....
PART ONE Sustainability
Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 26 -
 A standard that demonstrates ...
PART ONE Sustainability
Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 27 -
-Management: Sustainable procur...
PART ONE Sustainability
Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 28 -
(Fig.1.45) main Rating Tools [9...
PART ONE Sustainability
Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 29 -
EX4 California Academy of Scien...
PART ONE Sustainability
Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 30 -
need. The use of solar power wi...
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Nano architecture and_sustainability (1)

NANO ARCHITECTURE
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Environment      
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Transcripts - Nano architecture and_sustainability (1)

  • 1. University of Alexandria Faculty of Engineering Department of Architecture NanoArchitecture and Sustainability A THESIS Presented to the Department of Architecture Faculty of Engineering, University of Alexandria In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of the Degree Of Master of Science In Architecture By Architect Faten Fares Fouad Jun 2012
  • 2. NanoArchitecture and Sustainability Presented by Faten Fares Fouad For The Degree of Master of Science In Architecture Examiners' Committee: Approved Prof. Dr. Mohamed Abdelall Ibrahim (Professor of architecture, department of architecture, Faculty ________________ Of Engineering, University of Alexandria) Prof. Dr. Mohamed Assem Hanafi (Professor of architecture, department of architecture, Faculty ________________ Of Engineering, University of Alexandria) Prof. Dr. Sahar Mahmoud Zaki Elarnaouty (Professor of architecture, department of architecture, Faculty ________________ Of Fine Arts, University of Alexandria) Prof. Dr. Heba Wael Laheta (Vice Dean of Graduate Studies and Research, Faculty of ________________ Engineering, University of Alexandria)
  • 3. Advisors’ Committee: Approved Prof. Dr. Mohamed Abdelall Ibrahim (Professor of architecture, department of architecture, Faculty Of Engineering, University of Alexandria) ------------------------- Dr. Zeyad Tarek El Sayad (Lecturer of architecture, department of architecture, Faculty Of Engineering, University of Alexandria) -------------------------
  • 4. Acknowledgment III Completion of a Master's degree involves contributions from individuals who deserve recognition. A special word of thanks is due to Professor Dr. Mohamed Abdelall Ibrahim department of architecture, Faculty of Engineering, University of Alexandria, for guiding me in this undertaking. As well as his willingness to work long hours toward the completion of my degree. I would also like to thank my family for their understanding, patience and love specially my Mom , my Husband and my cute children. Faten fares Acknowledgment
  • 5. IV This is for the memory of my father.
  • 6. Table of Contents V Examiners' Committee....................................................................................................... I Advisors' Committee.......................................................................................................... II Acknowledgement.............................................................................................................. III Table of Contents............................................................................................................... V List of Figures..................................................................................................................... VIII List of Abbreviations.......................................................................................................... XII Abstract............................................................................................................................... XIV Research Structure............................................................................................................. XV Introduction........................................................................................................................ XVI Research Objectives........................................................................................................... XVI 1.1. Introduction............................................................................................................ 01 1.2. Sustainability......................................................................................................... 01 1.2.1. Definition of Sustainability......................................................................... 01 1.2.2. Definition of Sustainability science............................................................ 02 1.2.3. History of sustainability.............................................................................. 02 1.2.4. Sustainability Measurement........................................................................ 04 1.2.5. Sustainability principles.............................................................................. 05 1.2.6. Sustainability dimensions........................................................................ 06 1.2.6.A. Environmental dimension.......................................................... 06 1.2.6.A.i. Environmental management................................. 06 1.2.6.A.ii. Management of human Consumption.................. 07 1.2.6.A.iii. Issues of Environment......................................... 07 1.2.6.A.iv. Climate change.................................................... 07 1.2.6.A.iiv. Buildings contribute to climate change................ 09 1.2.6.B. Economic dimension................................................................. 11 1.2.6.B.i. Financial crisis..................................................... 11 1.2.6.B.ii. A building sector in crisis.................................... 11 1.2.6.B. iii. Energy crisis (Building sector)............................ 12 1.2.6.C. Social dimension........................................................................ 13 1.2.6.C.i. Society in the 21st Century.................................. 13 1.2.6.C.ii. Social sustainability in architecture...................... 13 1.3. Sustainable architecture........................................................................................ 14 1.3.1. Definition of Sustainable Architecture........................................................ 14 1.3.2. Sustainable building materials................................................................. 14 1.3.1.A. Recycled Materials....................................................................... 15 1.3.1.B. Lower Volatile Organic Compounds........................................... 15 1.3.3. Sustainable Design...................................................................................... 15 1.3.2.A. Principles for Sustainable Design................................................. 15 1.3.2.B. Sustainable buildings..................................................................... 16 1.3.2.B.i. London’s Gherkin Tower.................................... 17 1.3.4. Sustainable city development...................................................................... 18 1.4. Green Architecture................................................................................................ 19 1.4.1. Green design elements............................................................................... 19 1.4.1.A. Bahrain world trade center (BWTC)........................................... 20 1.4.1.B. Masdar Headquarters.................................................................. 21 1.4.2. Green Architecture Performance measurement........................................... 23 1.4.2.A. LEED.......................................................................................... 23 1.4.2.B. BREEAM................................................................................... 25 1.4.2.C. International comparison of rating tools...................................... 27 1.3.3.D. California Academy of Science................................................... 29 1.4.3. Ecological Architecture.............................................................................. 32 1.4.3.A. la Tour Vivante skyscraper......................................................... 33 Part One – Sustainability
  • 7. Table of Contents VI 1.4.4. Biological Architecture............................................................................... 35 1.4.4.A. Tree of life skyscraper................................................................. 35 1.4.5. Smart Architecture....................................................................................... 37 1.4.5.A. Zero Net energy (Dynamic tower).............................................. 40 1.5. The Future role of sustainability to solve environmental problems................ 42 1.6. Conclusion............................................................................................................. 44 2.1. Introduction........................................................................................................... 46 2.2. Nanotechnology Overview.................................................................................... 47 2.2.1. Nano............................................................................................................ 47 2.2.2. Nanoscience................................................................................................ 47 2.2.3. What is nanotechnology?............................................................................ 48 2.3. Nanotechnology Applications IN......................................................................... 49 2.3.1. IN Environment......................................................................................... 49 2.3.1.A. To reduce greenhouse gases........................................................ 49 2.3.1.B. To environmental issues............................................................... 51 2.3.2. IN Energy................................................................................................... 51 2.3.2.A. Nanomaterials and energy............................................................ 51 2.3.2.B. Energy production....................................................................... 52 2.3.3. IN Economy................................................................................................ 52 2.3.3.A. Combines ecology and economy................................................. 53 2.3.4. IN Security and safety............................................................................... 53 2.4. NanoMaterials....................................................................................................... 54 2.4.1. NanoMaterials............................................................................................. 54 2.4.2. Classification of nanomaterials................................................................... 54 2.4.3. Approaches to making nanomaterials........................................................ 55 2.4.3.A. The top down approach............................................................... 55 2.4.3.B. The bottom-up approach.............................................................. 55 2.5. NanoArchitecture................................................................................................... 56 2.5.1. NanoArchitecture......................................................................................... 56 2.5.2. NanoMaterials in Architecture.................................................................... 56 2.5.2.A. Insulation................................................................................... 58 2.5.2.A.i. Nanogel Aerogel.................................................. 58 2.5.2.A.ii. Nanogel and daylighting...................................... 59 2.5.2.A.iii. Yale University Sculpture Building..................... 60 2.5.2.A.iv. Thin-film insulation............................................. 61 2.5.2.B. Coatings..................................................................................... 62 2.5.2.B.i. Types of nanoparticle coatings............................ 63 2.5.2.C. Lighting....................................................................................... 65 2.5.2.C.i. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs)............................ 65 2.5.2.C.ii. Light Tree........................................................... 66 2.5.2.C.iii. Lighthouse Tower............................................... 67 2.5.2.C.iv. Organic Light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)………..68 2.5.2.C.iiv. Quantum dot LEDs (experimental)..................... 69 2.5.2.D. Soler energy................................................................................ 69 2.5.2.D.i. The Nanosolar Utility Panel................................. 70 2.5.2.D.ii. Case study............................................................ 70 2.5.2.E. Energy storage........................................................................... 71 2.5.2.E.i. Utopia one Tower................................................ 72 2.5.2.F. Air purification.......................................................................... 73 2.5.2.F.i. Indoor air quality.................................................. 73 2.5.2.F.ii. Outdoor air quality............................................... 74 Part Two – NanoArchitecture (NA)
  • 8. Table of Contents VII 2.5.2.G. Water purification..................................................................... 75 2.5.2.H. Structural materials.................................................................. 75 2.5.2.H.i. Concrete............................................................... 76 2.5.2.H.ii. Steel..................................................................... 77 2.5.2.H.iii. Wood................................................................... 77 2.5.2.H.iv. New structural materials...................................... 79 2.5.2.I. Non-structural materials........................................................... 80 2.5.2.I.i. Glass................................................................... 80 2.5.2.I.ii. Drywall................................................................ 82 2.6. The Future of Architecture with Nanotechnology............................................. 82 2.6.1. Nanotechnology effect................................................................................. 83 2.6.2. Forces accelerating Nanotech adoption...................................................... 83 2.6.3. Forces with potential to slow adoption........................................................ 84 2.6.4. Future trends and needs............................................................................... 84 2.6.4.A. Life cycle considerations............................................................. 84 2.6.4.B. Regulation................................................................................... 84 2.7. Conclusion.............................................................................................................. 85 AP 3.1. Introduction............................................................................................................. 87 3.2. Green Nanotechnology (GNT).............................................................................. 87 3.2.1. Definition of green Nanotechnology........................................................... 87 3.2.2. Goals of green Nanotechnology................................................................. 88 3.2. Green NanoArchitecture (GNA)........................................................................... 88 3.4. Sustainable NanoArchitecture (SNA).................................................................. 89 3.4.1. Sustainability and NanoArchitecture...................................................... 89 3.4.1.A. Adaptability to existing buildings................................................ 90 3.4.1.B. Reduced processing energy......................................................... 90 3.4.1.C. Nanosensors and smart environments........................................ 90 3.4.1.D. Space-scraper (Innovative photovoltaic elevators)...................... 92 3.4.2. Biological NanoArchitecture.................................................................... 96 3.4.2.A. Nano Vent-Skin Tower................................................................. 96 3.4.2.B. Indigo Bio-Purification Tower...................................................... 99 3.4.3. Smart NanoArchitecture......................................................................... 103 3.4.3.A. Buildings exist in harmony with nature....................................... 103 3.4.3.B. Proposal (John M Johansen FAIA)............................................ 103 3.4.3.C. Community Center 2200............................................................. 103 3.5.3.D. Designing Cities of the Future..................................................... 105 3.4.4. Ecological NanoArchitecture................................................................... 106 3.4.4.A. Off the Grid. Sustainable Habitat 2020....................................... 106 3.5. Conclusions........................................................................................................... 111 Overall Conclusions and Recommendations.................................................................. 112 References.......................................................................................................................... 113 ملخص الرسالة باللغة العربية ......................................................................................................... 116 Part Three – NanoArchitecture and Sustainability (SNA)
  • 9. List of Figures ix 01 A representation of sustainability. (Fig. 1.1) 02 Sustainability science. (Fig. 1.2) 02 Hans Carl von first one talk about sustainability. (Fig. 1.3) 03 Published in 1962, Silent Spring was one of the books (Fig. 1.4) 03 Brundtland presented report about sustainable development (Fig. 1.5) 03 Hi-Tec renewable energy. A solar concentrator 2005. (Fig. 1.6) 04 Metrics – used by the UK Government. (Fig. 1.7) 06 Definitions of sustainability often refer to the "three pillars". (Fig. 1.8) 07 Mean surface temperature change (2000 to 2009) relative to (1951 to 1980). (Fig. 1.9) 08 Climate changes reflect variations within the earth’s atmosphere. (Fig. 1.10) 08 Greenhouses. (Fig. 1.11) 09 The Greenhouse effect. Courtesy of U N Environmental Program/GRID. (Fig. 1.12) 09 Global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions 2000. (Fig. 1.13) 10 CO2 emissions by sector (Fig. 1.14) 10 Electricity consumption by sector (Fig. 1.15) 10 CO2 emissions from electricity production (Fig. 1.16) 10 CO2 emissions by sector (historic- projected) (Fig. 1.17) 11 Economies by region 2008. (Fig. 1.18) 11 Home prices, population, building costs, and bond yields. (Fig. 1.19) 12 Building sector economic inputs by industry type. (Fig. 1.20) 12 Energy consumption by sector. (Fig. 1.21) 12 Energy consumption by sector (historic-projected) (Fig. 1.22) 13 Architecture to increase social sustainability. (Fig. 1.23) 13 Social sustainability in architecture. (Fig. 1.24) 14 K2 sustainable apartments in Windsor, Victoria, Australia by Yuncken (Fig. 1.25) 15 Recycling items for building. (Fig. 1.26) 16 Genzyme Center. sustainable design "fully integrated into architecture. (Fig. 1.27) 16 Sustainable building phases (Fig. 1.28) 17 30 St Mary Axe London’s Gherkin Tower. (Fig. 1.29) 17 Green wall and exterior surface at London’s Gherkin Tower. (Fig. 1.30) 18 Sustainable city development (Fig. 1.31) 20 The shape of the two towers is essential in developing the wind turbines (Fig. 1.32) 20 The three turbines at (BWTC). (Fig. 1.33) 21 Turbine images at Bahrain World Trade Center (BWTC). (Fig. 1.34) 21 LED lighting at Masdar Headquarters (Fig. 1.35) 22 Natural daylight at Masdar Headquarters (Fig. 1.36) 22 Sun the source of energy at Masdar Headquarters (Fig. 1.37) 22 Building energy efficient (Fig. 1.38) 22 Masdar Headquarters (Fig. 1.39) 23 Rating categories for LEED (Fig. 1.40) 25 Distribution of points of LEED for different categories (Fig. 1.41) 25 LEED 40-49 points Silver: 50-59 points Gold: 60-79 points Platinum: 80+ (Fig. 1.42) 26 The BREEAM rating benchmarks (Fig. 1.43) 27 BREEAM Environmental section weightings (Fig. 1.44) List of Figures
  • 10. List of Figures x 28 Main Rating Tools (Fig. 1.45) 28 Comparison of BREEAM, LEED and Green Star (Fig. 1.46) 29 California Academy of Science. (Fig. 1.47) 29 Green Roof and solar panels at Academy of Science (Fig. 1.48) 29 A modern green roof employs native plants and extensive daylight (Fig. 1.49) 30 Natural lighting at Academy of Science. (Fig. 1.50) 30 The skylights automatically open at Academy of Science. (Fig. 1.51) 30 The steep slopes of the green roof at Academy of Science (Fig. 1.52) 30 Interior hall at Academy of Science. (Fig. 1.53) 32 IEA task13 low energy buildings (1989-1993) Buildings and Climate Change, Status, Challenges and Opportunities, 2007. (Fig. 1.54) 33 Aerial view prospective urban development. (Fig. 1.55) 33 La tour vivante (Art of Building High ). (Fig. 1.56) 33 Interior library at La tour vivante. (Fig. 1.57) 34 Hydroponic agricultural production purifies air at La tour vivante. (Fig. 1.58) 34 Two large Windmills at La tour vivante. (Fig. 1.59) 34 Photovoltaic panels at La tour vivante. (Fig. 1.60) 36 Tree of Life Skyscraper. (Fig. 1.61) 36 The geothermal electric power station the water purification station. (Fig. 1.62) 36 The outer greenhouses (fruits). (Fig. 1.63) 37 The central nucleus. (Fig. 1.64) 37 The carrying structure (the stem). (Fig. 1.65) 37 Smart Building (Fig. 1.66) 38 Integrating building systems (Fig. 1.67) 39 Connecting to Smart Grids (Fig. 1.68) 40 New facilitate between green and smart building (Fig. 1.69) 41 Dynamic Tower (Fig. 1.70) 41 Turbines on each floor and solar cells (Fig. 1.71) 41 Fast construction (Fig. 1.72) 43 2030 Using no fossil fuel GHG –emitting energy (Fig. 1.73) 43 Meeting the Challenge (Fig. 1.74) 46 The effect of nanotechnology at energy 2014. (Fig. 2.1) 47 Sequence of images showing the various levels of scale of Nano. (Fig. 2.2) 47 Range of 1 to 100 nanometers. (Fig. 2.3) 47 Silver and Gold particles have different colors depending on size and shape. (Fig. 2.4) 48 Nanotechnology influences all materials classes and technology fields. (Fig. 2.5) 48 Plans for the future of our built environment. (Fig. 2.6) 49 The impact of nanomaterials in industry and society. (Fig. 2.7) 49 Summary of environmentally beneficial nanotechnologies (Fig. 2.8) 52 Nanogel material (Fig. 2.9) 52 Hybrid electric vehicle (Fig. 2.10) 52 SolarThinfilm (Fig. 2.11) 53 The control room of the new Baytubes production facility (Fig. 2.12) 54 Classification of nanomaterials according to dimensions (Fig. 2.13)
  • 11. List of Figures xi 55 Computer simulation of single-wall carbon nanotube with a diameter 1.4 nm (Fig. 2.14) 55 Computer simulation of nanogears made of carbon nanotubes with teeth (Fig. 2.15) 57 Nanofibers from cotton waste (Fig. 2.16) 58 Nanogel aerogel is a lightweight. (Fig. 2.17) 58 Nanogel aerogel system. (Fig. 2.18) 58 Nanogel Aerogel for Natural Light Applications. (Fig. 2.19) 59 Daylighting systems. (Fig. 2.20) 60 Yale University Sculpture. (Fig. 2.21) 60 Section diagram, Yale University Sculpture Building. (Fig. 2.22) 60 The exterior building. (Fig. 2.23) 61 Thin film sheets. (Fig. 2.24) 61 Masa Shade Curtains reduce room temperatures and air conditioning. (Fig. 2.25) 61 Nanofilm control of heat and energy (Fig. 2.26) 62 Typical nanocoating forms. (Fig. 2.27) 62 Photocatalysis can aid in self-cleaning and antibacterial activity (Fig. 2.28a) 62 Thin titanium dioxide coatings exhibit photocatalytic and hydrophilic action. (Fig. 2.28b) 63 The Lotus plant with its natural self-cleaning (Fig. 2.29a) 63 principle of the Lotus-Effect works (Fig. 2.29b) 64 Types of nanoparticle coatings and properties. (Fig. 2.30) 65 Residential energy consumption (Fig. 2.31) 65 Parts of an LED. (Fig. 2.32) 65 Nanowires of indium phosphide. (Fig. 2.33) 66 Light Tree. (Fig. 2.34) 66 Dimensions Light tree. (Fig. 2.35) 66 Solar panel is located at the base of Tree. (Fig. 2.36) 67 Lighthouse Tower. (Fig. 2.37) 67 NanoLED Light at night. (Fig. 2.38) 67 Multi-usage space in tower. (Fig. 2.39) 68 (OLEDs) are highly efficient. (Fig. 2.40) 68 Demonstration of a flexible OLED device and color. (Fig. 2.41) 68 Basic geometric shapes. (Fig. 2.42) 68 Office room model for aesthetical perception case study. (Fig. 2.43) 69 Nanocrystal-based multicolor light -emitting diode (Fig. 2.44) 69 Thin-film solar" sheet. (Fig. 2.45) 69 Organic Thin-film solar" sheet (Fig. 2.46) 70 Making solar smaller and stronger. (Fig. 2.47) 70 The Nanosolar Utility Panel stretches performance. (Fig. 2.48) 70 Wide-span mounting drives BoS cost savings on mounting materials (Fig. 2.49) 71 Two example 2.66MW systems (Fig. 2.50) 71 Small yet powerful batteries. The Smart Nanobattery. (Fig. 2.51) 72 The thin solar cell in the Utopia One tower (Fig. 2.52) 72 Interior view in the Utopia One tower (Fig. 2.53) 72 Site plan in the Utopia One tower (Fig. 2.54) 72 The Utopia One tower (Fig. 2.55) 72 Solar cell used in the base in the Utopia One tower (Fig. 2.56) 73 The nanofilter array. (Fig. 2.57) 73 NCCO Air Sterilizing and Deodorizing System. (Fig. 2.58) 73 Air quality improvement project in Odor Reduction at the KT Station Public Toilets (Fig. 2.59) 74 NCCO Air Sterilizing and Deodorizing System is composed by 5 components (Fig. 2.60) 74 Photocatalytic pavement surfacing (Fig. 2.61)
  • 12. List of Figures xii 74 Air-purifying paving tiles. (Fig. 2.62) 75 Global water supply. (Fig. 2.63) 75 Technology use titanium nanoparticles to create water purification System. (Fig. 2.64) 76 A greener Cement for Concrete. (Fig. 2.65) 76 Self-healing concrete. (Fig. 2.66) 77 Jubilee Church, Richard (Fig. 2.67) 77 Steel can carry bending stresses involving tension and compressive stresses (Fig. 2.68) 78 NanoBois nature, hydrophobic wood treatment (Fig. 2.69) 78 Vertically slatted larch wood (Fig. 2.70) 79 Carbon nanotube sheets. (Fig. 2.71) 79 New structural possibilities with carbon nanotubes. (Fig. 2.72) 79 Graphene Outper-forms Nanotube. (Fig. 2.73) 80 New Carbon Nanotube Wind Turbine Blade (Fig. 2.74) 81 From transparent to tinted with the flip of a switch. (Fig. 2.75) 81 All flats have large expanses of south-facing glazing (Fig. 2.76) 81 Interior view at "Sur Falveng" housing for elderly people (Fig. 2.77) 82 Micrograph of nano-gypsum. (Fig. 2.78) 83 Buildings figure prominently in world energy consumption, carbon emissions (Fig. 2.79) 83 Ranking of environm-entally friendly nanotechnologies. (Fig. 2.80) 88 Ecology and economics will become inseparably connected (Fig. 3.1) 90 Smart environments integrate nanosensors. (Fig. 3.2) 91 self-sensing concrete structures (Fig. 3.3) 92 Spacescraper extend from several locations along the equator to high winds. (Fig. 3.4) 92 Spacescraper Cable extends from our planet's surface into space to (GEO). (Fig. 3.5) 93 A center of mass at (GEO), 35, 786 km–high above the Earth’s surface. (Fig. 3.6) 94 Vertical Mass Transportation, carbon-fiber structural skins (Fig. 3.7) 94 Initial Unit Derivations (Fig. 3.8) 94 Carbon Nanotube Material (Fig. 3.9) 95 The floor plan diagrams (Fig. 3.10) 95 (VMT) fulfills the greater needs for mass commuters (Fig. 3.11) 95 VMT (vertical mass transit). (Fig. 3.12) 96 Nano Vent-Skin (NVS). (Fig. 3.13) 96 NVS. Nano scale. (Fig. 3.14) 96 NVS Structure panel (Fig. 3.15) 96 (NVS) View from the interior (Fig. 3.16) 97 Detail side view. (Fig. 3.17) 97 NVS Structure panel. (Fig. 3.18) 97 Nano-structure components. (Fig. 3.19) 97 Zoom in showing the scale of nano engineered structures. (Fig. 3.20) 98 Nano Vent-Skin wind contact. (Fig. 3.21) 98 NVS interacting with Sunlight, Wind and CO2 (Fig. 3.22) 99 Ultra violet light at night of Indigo tower. (Fig. 3.23) 99 The skin design of Indigo tower. (Fig. 3.24) 100 The tower is split into three bars of Indigo tower. (Fig. 3.25) 100 Analysis of wind and light with skin. (Fig. 3.26) 101 Wind speed study of Indigo tower (Fig. 3.27) 101 Purification Tower. (Fig. 3.28)
  • 13. List of Figures xiii 101 A series of chemical reactions TiO2 with sunlight or ultraviolet (UV) light. (Fig. 3.29) 103 Exist in symbiotic harmony with the natural environment (Fig. 3.30) 103 Artificial DNA double helix (Fig. 3.31) 104 Assemblers replicate mechanically, by building others (Fig. 3.32) 104 Growth out of vat (Fig. 3.33) 104 Growth pattern: root, stem, rib, lattice or branches, nourished (Fig. 3.34) 105 Seed contains instructions allowing building to respond to its immediate surroundings (Fig. 3.35) 106 Off the Grid: Sustainable Habitat 2020 (Fig. 3.36) 106 The skin interaction strategy (Fig. 3.37) 107 The active skin of the building reacts to the rain (Fig. 3.38) 107 Collects and channels rainwater into the habitat (Fig. 3.39) 107 Collects water even in dry periods (Fig. 3.40) 107 Water will be used in a closed loop (Fig. 3.41) 108 The active skin of the building reacts to the wind (Fig. 3.42) 108 Channeling air and wind through the skin (Fig. 3.43) 108 Generating the energy and filtering the air (Fig. 3.44) 108 Air will also be cooled for natural air-conditioning (Fig. 3.45) 109 The active skin of a building (Fig. 3.46) 109 The active skin moves to channel light and generate energy (Fig. 3.47) 109 Collecting the natural light for lighting with no electricity (Fig. 3.48) 109 Bringing natural light inside (Fig. 3.49) 110 The biogas used for heating and cooking (Fig. 3.50) 110 The biogas providing hot water for washing (Fig. 3.51)
  • 14. List of Abbreviations xiv GW Global warming. CO2 Carbon dioxide ICSU International Council for Science UK United Kingdom WBCSD World Business Council for Sustainable Development GHG Greenhouse Gases SA Sustainable Architecture H2O Water Vapor CH4 Methane O3 Ozone Mt Million tonnes N2O Nitrous dioxide EIA Energy Information Administration Ppm part per million EEB Energy Efficiency in Buildings ICTs Information and Communication Technologies VOCs Volatile Organic Compounds GA Green Architecture BWTC Bahrain World Trade Center KW Kilo Watt UAE United Arab Emirates LEED Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design LEDs Light-emitting diodes HQ Headquarters Sqm Square meters MDG Millennium Development Goal USGBC® U.S. Green Building Council U.S. United States Ft Feet SS Sustainable Site development WE Water Efficiency EA Energy and Atmosphere MR Materials and Resources EQ Indoor Environmental Quality LT Location and Transportation ID Innovation in Design AE Awareness & Education BREEAM Building Research Establishment’s Environmental Assessment Method NOx Oxides of Nitrogen HVAC Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning BAS Building Automation System ZNE Zero Net Energy ZCA Zero Carbon Architecture EU European Union IT Information technologies QBtu Quadrillion Btu NS NanoScince NM Nanometer (nm). List of Abbreviations
  • 15. List of Abbreviations xv NT Nanotechnology NA Nanoarchitecture HEV Hybrid electric vehicle 0-D Zero-dimensional 3- D Three-dimensional CNT carbon nanotubes C carbon UV Ultraviolet CVD Chemical Vapor Deposition TiO2 Titanium dioxide molecule ETC Easy to Clean AR anti-reflective NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration OLEDs Organic Light-emitting diodes QLEDs Quantum dot LEDs PV Photovoltaic Cells INP Indium phosphide e-HEPA electric High Efficiency Particulate Arrest NCCO Nano-Confined Catalytic Oxidation RPI Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute SiO2 Silicondioxide. ICBM Innovative Construction and Building Materials ICT Information and communication technology GNT Green nanotechnology GNA Green NanoArchitecture SNA Sustainable NanoArchitecture NMI NanoManufacturing Institute GEO Geostationary orbit VMT Vertical mass transit NVS Nano Vent-Skin VIP Vacuum Insulation Panels Kms Kilometers PNCs Polymer nanocomposites M Meter EPA Environmental Protection Agency MNT Molecular Nanotechnology
  • 16. Abstract xvi The research highlights an extraordinary amount of interest in nanotechnologies and nanomaterials, terms now familiar not only to scientists, engineers, architects, and product designers but also to the general public. Nanomaterials and nanotechnologies have been developed as a consequence of truly significant recent advances in the material science community. Their use, in turn, is expected to have enormous consequences on the design and engineering of everything. Hopes exist for being able to make things smaller, lighter, or work better than is possible with conventional materials. Serious problems facing society might also be positively addressed via the use of nanomaterials and nanotechnologies. In the sustainability and energy generation domain, for example, nano-based fuel cells or photovoltaics can potentially offer greater efficiencies than are possible with conventional materials. The research is divided into three parts which review this issue as follows: 1- Sustainability: The first chapter discusses Sustainability science with an overview of the Sustainable building which involves considering the entire life-cycle of buildings, taking dimensions of Sustainable Environmental Architecture (Environmental- Economic- Social dimensions) into account. To add to that, there are performance criteria which measure sustainable architecture like (LEED- BREEAM … ) , and the next sections show the way Nanotechnology achieves this certification and how it is reflected in the high- performance advanced green buildings in the 21st century. 2- Nanotechnology and Architecture (NanoArchitecture): Architecture and building technology on the basis of nanobuilding structure and nanomaterials are going through some significant changes and developments. Nanotechnology is one of the most important key technologies of the twenty-first century while its economic impact is another subject to be recognized. New materials are being discovered and developed everyday as a result of investigating ways to achieve molecular and atomic precision in engineering of materials. These new materials present new opportunities to solve problems like heat absorbing windows, energy coatings etc 3- NanoArchitecture and Sustainability (Sustainable NanoArchitecture - SNA): Nanotechnology is an enabling technology that opens new possibilities in construction sustainability. On one hand, it could lead to a better use of natural resources, obtaining a specific characteristic or property with minor material use. It can (also) help to solve some problems related to energy in building (consumption and generation), or water treatment and air Purification….. As a result, NanoArchitecture has the ability to meet accepted environmental performance criteria like LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) which offers a definable measure of sustainability and effects of global climate change. ABSTRACT
  • 17. Research Structure Chart xvii Nanoarchitecture and Sustainability Research Structure Chart Research Structure Chart PART ONE Sustainability Nanoarchitecture Sustainable Architecture Green Architecture Conclusion The Future of Architecture with Nanotechnology. . NanoMaterials .Applications of NM. In Arch Approach Approach General Conclusion and Recommendations .Green Architecture performance measurement. .Ecological Arch .Biological Arch .Smart Arch Economic Social Conclusion Environmental The Future role of sustainability to solve some problems (GW). Conclusion . (G N+NA) Green NanoArchitecture . Reduced processing energy . Adaptability to existing Buildings Fundamental Knowledge NanoTechnology and Architecture NEW Technologies for Sustainability Nanotechnology Applications . Eco-NanoArchitecture . Bio-NanoArchitecture . Smart NanoArchitecture Approach Green Nanotechnology Green NanoArchitecture The Future of Zero Carbon NanoArchitecture (ZCNA) and Sustainability Sustainability . Sustainability Principles . Sustainability Dimensions . Sustainable buildings Materials. . Principles of Sustainable Building . Nano . Nanosince . Nanotechnology Insulation Coatings Lighting Solar energy Energy storage Air Purificat Water Purify Structural mat. Non structural PART TWO PART THREE Nanotechnology NanoArchitecture . In Environment &(GW) . In Energy . In Economy . In safe and security Nanoarchitecture and Sustainability Sustainable NanoArchitecture (SNA)
  • 18. Introduction xvi Sustainability is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but also for future generations. The field of sustainable development can be conceptually divided into three constituents: - Environmental, Economic and Social Sustainability. First, the Environmental dimension deals with important issues as Climate change, Energy, Depletion of Natural Resources, Scarcity of resources, Environmental degradation, Pollution. Second, the Economic dimension which deals with issues like reduced energy, raw material input. Third, the Social dimension which involves health and safety, Over- population, and Human relationship to nature [5] But now, the 21st century Nanotechnology has the potential to make a huge impact on sustainability; but to achieve this potential, Nanotechnology is all about getting more function on less space. Efficiency and getting more with less is essential for sustainability. Nanotechnology can contribute to make energy conversion and energy storage more efficient or improve product durability. nanoparticles as fuel additive can reduce waste gas emission, nanostructured materials can be used for direct energy conversion or to improve photovoltaic cells, electrodes and membranes for fuel cells or improve lighting. Carbon nanotubes provide atomically smooth channels with unprecedented properties for water purification. These are all potential contributions of nanotechnology to sustainability. A lot of it is not yet real but there is a significant potential. [5] Nanotechnology, the manipulation of matter at the molecular scale, is opening new possibilities in Sustainable building through products like solar energy collecting paints, nanogel high-insulating translucent panels, and heat-absorbing windows. Even more dramatic breakthroughs are now in development such as paint-on lasers that can one day allow materials to send information to each other, windows that shift from transparent to opaque with the flip of a switch, and environmentally friendly biocides for preserving wood. These breakthrough materials are opening new frontiers in green building, offering unprecedented performance in energy efficiency, durability, economy and sustainability. This presentation provides an overview of nanotechnology applications for green building, with an emphasis on the energy conservation capabilities of architectural nanomaterials and the role of nanosensors in green building. Ubiquitous sensing is likely to bring a host of benefits including customized temperature settings in buildings, light- sensitive photochromic windows, and user-aware appliances. [4] 1. Highlight the sustainability, especially in the architectural and environmental issues plus, Green buildings and measure its performance. 2. Clarification of the importance of nanotechnology and its applications in architecture, environment, and energy produced and smart materials. 3. Access to the result that the use of nanotechnology in architecture achieves the principles, dimensions and performance of sustainability INTRODUCTION RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
  • 19. Sustainability PART ONE . Sustainability . Sustainable architecture . Green Architecture (GA) . GA performance measurement . EcoArchitecture . BioArchitecture . Smart Architecture . The Future role of sustainability to solve environmental problems S U S T A I N A B I L I T Y
  • 20. PART ONE Sustainability Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 1 - A design approach focused on resource efficiency and minimum environmental impact is not incompatible with visual delight. Sustainable architecture can "lift the spirit" as well as help save the planet. So, what do we mean by "sustainability" in the context of architecture? In its broadest sense, a sustainable design should address the "triple bottom line" of social, economic and environmental issues: social in the sense of community engagement and inclusiveness; economic in the sense of long-term growth and prosperity; environmental in the sense of local and global impact. In addition, the sustainability agenda affecting the built environment in general, embraces the following key topics: energy and carbon dioxide emissions, water conservation, waste recycling, materials sourcing, associated transport and biodiversity. Energy efficiency and the need to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (principally carbon dioxide – CO2) is the area in which architects and other design professionals can exert most influence to help combat global warming (GW)10. The sustainable building refers to the quality and characteristics of the actual structure created using the principles and methodologies of sustainable construction. It can be defined as "healthy facilities designed and built in resource efficient manner. Using ecologically based principles." similarly. Ecological design.3 1.2.1. Definition of Sustainability: Used more in the sense of human sustainability on planet Earth and this has resulted in the most widely quoted definition of sustainability and sustainable development, that of the Brundtland Commission of the United Nations: “sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” It is usually noted that this requires the reconciliation of environmental, social and economic demands - the "three pillars" of sustainability. This view has been expressed as an illustration using three overlapping ellipses indicating that the three pillars of sustainability are not mutually exclusive and can be mutually reinforcing [14]. [Fig 1.1] (Fig.1.1) A representation of sustainability showing how both economy and society are constrained by environmental limits (2003) [14] 1.1. Introduction 1.2. Sustainability Ecologically sustainable design and the green design are terms that describe the application of sustainability 8
  • 21. PART ONE Sustainability Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 2 - 1.2.2. Sustainability science: Sustainability science has emerged in the 21st century as a new academic discipline. This new field of science was officially introduced with a "Birth Statement" at the World Congress "Challenges of a Changing Earth 2001" in Amsterdam organized by the International Council for Science (ICSU) [12] The concept of Sustainability is the key to any discussion of science, technology, and economics in the 21st century (the Century of the Environment). Sustainability science is a new, transdisciplinary discipline destined to play a fundamental role in addressing critical global issues and developing visions that can lead to a sustainable global society [13]. Definition of Sustainability science: The novelty of Sustainability science lies in its academic approach; must therefore establish a transdisciplinary academic framework that brings together the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities, and define and structure problems and academic inquiries so as to identify indicators and criteria for the sustainable restoration of global, social and human systems and their interactions. Sustainability science must also reach out to society at large. Only by disseminating the results of research to society and the individuals that compose it, we can achieve a sustainable society [13]. [Fig 1.2] 1.2.3. History of sustainability: Technological advances over several millennia gave humans increasing control over the environment. But it was the Western industrial revolution of the 17th to the 19th centuries that tapped into the vast growth potential of energy in fossil fuels to power sophisticated machinery technology. These conditions led to a human population explosion and unprecedented industrial, technological and scientific growth that has continued to this day. A Three-Hundred-Year-Old Idea: The concept is around three hundred years old and originated with Hans Carl von Carlowitz, an inspector of mines in Saxony at the time of Augustus the Strong. His book, "Sylvicultura Oeconomica” ("Silviculture and Economics") of 1713 – which is considered to be the first work on forest management – takes up the idea of the term "sustainability"[15]. [Fig 1.3] (Fig.1.3) Hans Carl von Carlowiz [15] (Fig.1.2) Sustainability science [13]
  • 22. PART ONE Sustainability Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 3 - Von Carlowitz developed a concept intended to ensure a lasting supply of wood for the mining industry. In his book, he suggested many measures that are still key elements of sustainable management today, such as improving the insulation of houses, using energy-saving smelting furnaces or continuously replanting cleared forest areas. Only as much wood should be logged as could grow back in the same time. Mid 20th century after the deprivations of the Great Depression and World War II, the developed world entered a post-1950s period which included "great acceleration” of growth and population (the "Golden age of capitalism") while a gathering environmental movement pointed out that there were environmental costs associated with the many material benefits that were being enjoyed at that time. Technological innovations included plastics, synthetic chemicals and nuclear energy as fossil fuels also continued to transform society. The negative influences of the new technology were documented by American marine biologist and naturalist Rachel Carson in her influential book Silent Spring in 1962. [Fig 1.4] By the late twentieth century, environmental problems were becoming global in scale. And the 1973 and 1979 energy crises demonstrated the extent to which the global community had become dependent on a nonrenewable resource. In 1987, the United Nation's World Commission on Environment and Development (the Brundtland Commission), in its report "Our Common Future" suggested that sustainable development was needed to meet human needs while not increasing environmental problems. [Fig 1.5] But by 2005, the situation had changed and many countries were able to meet their needs only by importing resources from other nations. Move towards more sustainable living emerged, based on increasing public awareness and adoption of recycling, and renewable energies. Primarily in wind turbines and photovoltaic's and increased use of hydroelectricity, presented some of the first sustainable alternatives to fossil fuel and nuclear energy generation. [Fig 1.6] (Fig 1.6) Hi-tec renewable energy a solar concentrator, North America [14] (Fig 1.5) Brundtland addressing the Congress of the Labour Party 2007 [14] (Fig.1.4) Published in 1962, Silent Spring was one of the books that gave momentum to the environmental movement [14]
  • 23. PART ONE Sustainability Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 4 - In the 21st century, there is heightened awareness of the threat posed by the human induced greenhouse effect. Ecological economics now seeks to bridge the gap between ecology and traditional neoclassical economics: and proposes an inclusive and ethical economic model for society. Many new techniques have arisen to help measure and implement sustainability, including Life Cycle Assessment, Cradle to Cradle, Ecological Footprint Analysis, and green building [14]. 1.2.4. Sustainability Measurement: Sustainability measurement is a term that denotes the measurements used as the quantitative basis for the informed management of sustainability. The metrics used for the measurement of sustainability (involving the sustainability of environmental, social and economic domains, both individually and in various combinations) are still evolving: they include indicators, benchmarks, audits, indexes and accounting, as well as assessment, appraisal and other reporting systems. They are applied over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales [14]. The need to have quantitative measurements of sustainability is crucial, since they focus attention on the precise issues. In particular, we really need to be aware of how sustainability is changing at all levels, local, national and global, and measurement is essential in order to chart these changes. If we can measure it, we can take planned and coherent action to change it in a desired direction. The measures of sustainability that provide this guidance are called “metrics” or “indicators”. Example of Indicators: The challenge is to monitor and report the performance of the UK government’s policy to promote Sustainable Development. For some time the government has used a set of 68 indicators for this purpose. The UK Government is committed to reducing CO2 emissions to 40% of 1990 levels by 2050 [14]. [Fig 1.7] (Fig 1.7) The twenty “framework "indicators used by the UK government are more closely aligned to a social agenda than the previous fifteen “headline "indicators This is a subset of the UK government’s 68 indicators [14] Metrics – used by the UK Government :
  • 24. PART ONE Sustainability Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 5 - 1.2.5. Sustainability principles and concepts: Scale Sustainability is studied and managed over many scales (levels or frames of reference) of time and space and in many contexts of environmental, social and economic organizations. The focus ranges from the total carrying capacity (sustainability) of planet Earth to the sustainability of economic sectors, ecosystems, countries, municipalities, neighborhoods, home gardens, individual lives, individual goods and services, occupations, lifestyles, behavior patterns and so on [16]. Principles of Sustainability and Some Options for Applying Them [16]. 1. Maintain and enhance quality of life Options:  Make housing available/affordable/better  Provide education opportunities  Ensure mobility  Provide health and other services  Provide employment opportunities  Provide far recreation  Maintain safe/healthy environments  Have opportunities for civic engagement  Meet human needs fairly & efficiently 2. Enhance Economic vitality Options:  Support area redevelopment and revitalization  Attract/retain businesses  Attract/retain work force  Rebuild for economic functionality  Develop/redevelop recreational, historic, tourist attractions 3. Ensure social and intergenerational equity Options:  Preserve/conserve natural, cultures, historical resources  Adopt a longer-term focus for all planning  Avoid/remedy disproportionate impacts on groups  Consider future generations’ quality of life  Value diversity  Preserve social connections in and among groups 4. Enhance environmental quality Options:  Preserve/conserve/restore natural resources  Protect open space  Manage storm water  Prevent/remediate pollution  Reduce encroachment upon nature
  • 25. PART ONE Sustainability Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 6 -  Reduce dependence upon fossil fuels, underground metals, and minerals 5. Incorporate disaster resilience/mitigation Options:  Make buildings and infrastructure damage-resistant  Avoid development in hazardous areas  Manage storm water  Protect natural areas  Promote and obtain hazard and other insurances 6. Use a participatory process Options:  Incorporate all of the other principles 1.2.6. Sustainability dimensions: Sustainability often refers to the "three pillars" of Social, Environmental and Economic Sustainability. [Fig 1.8] Sustainable building involves considering the entire life-cycle of buildings, taking environmental quality, functional compatibility and future values into account. It is worth mentioning that sustainability cannot be seen in isolation, as it has very meaningful linkages with economic as well as social parameters, without which it will not be accepted by the society at large [14]. 1.2.6. A. Environmental dimension: Healthy ecosystems provide vital goods and services to humans and other organisms. There are two major ways of reducing negative human impact and enhancing ecosystem services. 1.2.6. A. i. Environmental management: This direct approach is based largely on information gained from earth science, environmental science and conservation biology. Environmental management involves the oceans, freshwater systems, land and atmosphere, but following the sustainability principle of scale, it can be equally applied to any ecosystem from a tropical rainforest to a home garden. [14] (Fig.1.8) Definitions of sustainability often refer to the "three pillars" of social, environmental and economic sustainability (2006) [14]
  • 26. PART ONE Sustainability Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 7 - 1.2.6. A. ii. Management of human consumption of resources: In an indirect approach based largely on information gained from economics, consumption of goods and services can be analyzed and managed at all scales through the chain of consumption, as food, energy, materials and water. [14] 1.2.6. A. iii. Issues of Environmental Sustainability Global: [17]. Climate change, Energy, Depletion of Natural Resources, Threatened species, Threatened habitats, Scarcity of resources, Environmental degradation, Pollution, Recycled Materials, Waste management, Water management 1.2.6. A. iv Climate change as important Issue of Environmental: Climate change refers to variation in global or regional climates over time. It describes variability in the average state of the atmosphere over time periods ranging from decades to millions of years. These changes can be caused by internal processes in the earth or by external forces such as variations in sunlight intensity and more recently, human activity. The term "Climate Change" often refers to changes in modern climate that are likely caused in part by human, or anthropogenic, action. Climate change is frequently referred to as global warming (GW). In some cases, this term is used with a presumption of human causation for variations that are in actuality not anthropogenic. Climate model projections summarized in the latest IPCC report indicate that the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 6.4 °C (2.0 to 11.5 °F) during the 21st century [18]. [Fig 1.9] Natural Factors Driving Climate Change: Greenhouse Gases (GHG), Glaciations, Ocean Variability, Volcanism, Orbital variation patterns of the earth’s movement around the sun result in solar energy, Solar Variation [2] . [Fig 1.10] ( Fig.1.9 ) Mean surface temperature change for the period 2000 to 2009 relative to the average temperatures from 1951 to 1980. [18]
  • 27. PART ONE Sustainability Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 8 - [2] (Fig 1. 11) greenhouse gases Greenhouse Gases (GHG): Greenhouse gases are gases found in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range Earth's surface would be on average about 33 °C (59 °F) colder than at present [2] . Earth's most abundant greenhouse gases are: [Fig 1.11] The Greenhouse effect: Recently, scientific studies conducted that both natural and anthropogenic factors are the primary cause of global warming. Greenhouse gases are also important in understanding earth’s climatic history. According to these studies, the greenhouse effect, which is the warming of the climate as a result of heat trapped by atmospheric gases, plays a significant role in regulating earth’s temperature [2] . [Fig 1.12] First, sunlight shines onto the Earth's surface, where it is absorbed and then radiates back into the atmosphere as heat [20] . Gas Formula Contribution (%) Water Vapor H2O 36 – 72 % Carbon Dioxide CO2 9 – 26 % Methane CH4 4 – 9 % Ozone O3 3 – 7 % (Fig.1.10) Climate changes reflect variations within the earth’s atmosphere, processes in parts of the earth such as the oceans, and the effects of human activity. Other external factors that affect climate are referred to as climate forcing factors, which include variations in the earth’s orbit and greenhouse gas concentrations [2].
  • 28. PART ONE Sustainability Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 9 - In the atmosphere, “greenhouse” gases trap some of this heat, and the rest escapes into space. The more greenhouse gases are in the atmosphere, the more heat gets trapped The main sources of greenhouse gases due to human activity are:  Burning of fossil fuels and deforestation leading to higher carbon dioxide concentrations (CO2).  Land use change (methane)  Many of the newer style fully vented septic systems- Agricultural activities (N2O)  Use of chlorofluoro-carbons (CFCs) in refrigeration systems, and use of CFCs and halons in fire Suppression systems and manufacturing processes. [21] [Fig 1.13] 1.2.6. A. iiv. Buildings are the Largest Contributor to Climate Change: [41] The Building Sector consumes more energy than any other sector. Most of this energy is produced from burning fossil fuels, making this sector the largest emitter of greenhouse gases on the planet – and the single leading contributor to anthropogenic (human forcing) climate change. According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), nearly half (46.7%) of all CO2 emissions in 2009 came from the (Fig 1.13) Global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions broken down into 8 different sectors for the year 2000 [21] (Fig.1. 12) Greenhouse effect courtesy of UN Environmental Program/GRI D- Arendal [2]
  • 29. PART ONE Sustainability Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 10 - Building Sector. [Fig 1.14] By comparison, transportation accounted for 33.4% of CO2 emissions and industry, just 19.9%.  80% of U.S. Electricity CO2 Emissions Come From Coal. 76% of This Electricity is consumed by the Building Sector. [Fig 1.16]  CO2 emissions from the Building Sector are projected to increase between 2010 and 2030, remaining the largest source of U.S. CO2 emissions. [Fig 1.17] Coal (and unconventional fossil fuels - oil shale, tar sands, methane hydrates, etc.) is the only fossil fuel that is plentiful enough to contribute the amount of CO2 necessary to trigger irreversible climate change. We are currently at 392 ppm, and are increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 at approximately 2 ppm annually. Scientists warn that irreversible climate change will occur if 450 ppm (or any level much above 350 ppm) is sustained for very long and that the “safe” long-term level of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) is 350 ppm. [41] Climate Protection Policies That Could Enhance Human Health Policies and measures that enforce the reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases are the only viable solutions to ameliorate human health problems. Measures that can improve air quality significantly include the extensive use of green energy and enhanced energy- efficiency movements that promote the use of non-carbon fuels. It is estimated that an international adoption of increased carbon emission control policies worldwide would reduce deaths from air pollution by about 8 million between 2000 and 2020. [19] (Fig 1.17) CO2 emissions by sector (historic- projected) [41] (Fig 1.14) CO2 emissions by sector [41] (Fig 1.15) Electricity consumption by sector [41] (Fig 1.16) CO2 emissions from electricity production [41] Coal 88%
  • 30. PART ONE Sustainability Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 11 - 1.1.6. B. Economic dimension: Sustainability interfaces with economics through the social and ecological consequences of economic activity. Sustainability economics represent: "... a broad interpretation of ecological economics where environmental and ecological variables and issues are basic but part of a multidimensional perspective. Social, cultural, health- related and monetary/financial aspects have to be integrated into the analysis." [14] 1.2.6. B. i. Financial crisis: [Fig 1.18] The term financial crisis is applied broadly to a variety of situations in which some financial institutions or assets suddenly lose a large part of their value. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, many financial crises were associated with banking panics, and many recessions coincided with these panics. Other situations that are often called financial crises include stock market crashes and the bursting of other financial bubbles, currency crises, and sovereign defaults. Financial crises directly result in a loss of paper wealth; they do not directly result in changes in the real economy unless a recession or depression follows [22]. Causes of the financial crisis of 2007–2011 The financial crisis of 2007 to the present is a crisis triggered by a liquidity shortfall in the United States banking system. It has resulted in the collapse of large financial institutions, while significant risks remain for the world economy over the 2010–2011 periods The collapse of the housing bubble, which peaked in the U.S. in 2006, caused the values of securities tied to real estate pricing to plummet thereafter, damaging financial institutions globally. And also the 2000s energy crisis as well as the Automotive industry crisis of 2008–2010 [23] [Fig 1.19] 1.2.6. B. ii. A Building Sector in Crisis: The rippling effects of sagging U.S. building construction go far beyond rising foreclosures and stagnant housing starts. When the Building Sector contracts every other (Fig.1.18) Economies by region 2008 [22] (Fig 1.19) home prices, population, building costs, and bond yields [23]
  • 31. PART ONE Sustainability Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 12 - U.S. sectors and industry suffers. Virtually every U.S. industry – from steel, concrete, insulation, caulking, mechanical and electrical equipment, solar systems, glass, wood, metals, tile, fabrics, and paint to architecture, planning, design, engineering, banking, development, real estate, manufacturing, construction, wholesale, retail and distribution – depends on the demand for products and services generated by the construction industry. However, this industry is mired in the worst downward economic spiral since the Great Depression. [41] [Fig 1.20, 21] The Building Sector touches many other industries and sectors, ultimately affecting our entire economy. When the Building Sector fails the rest of the economy is adversely affected. [41] 1.2.6. B.iii. Energy crisis (Building Sector Energy Consumption): An energy crisis is the bottleneck (or price rise) in the supply of energy resources to an economy. Buildings are responsible for half of all energy consumed in the United States. [24] [Fig 1.21] Building Operations alone account for 43.1% of U.S. energy consumed today while construction and building materials account for an additional 5.6%. In coming years, the Building Sector's energy consumption will grow faster than that of industry and transportation, a staggering 5.85 Quadrillion Btu between 2010 and 2030. [41] [Fig 1.22] Green Commerce (Eco commerce): Eco commerce is a business, investment, and technology-development model that employs market-based solutions to balance the world’s energy needs and environmental integrity. Through the use of green trading and green finance, eco-commerce allows for the further development of clean technologies such as wind power, solar power, biomass, and hydropower [25] (Fig 1.22) Energy consumption by sector (historic-projected) [41] [19] [19] (Fig 1.20) Building sector economic inputs by industry type [41] (Fig 1.21) Energy consumption - sector [41]
  • 32. PART ONE Sustainability Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 13 - 1.1.6. C. Social dimension: Sustainability issues are generally expressed in scientific and environmental terms, but implementing change is a social challenge In terms of Peace, security, social justice, Human relationship to nature and Transition. [14] 1.1.6. C.i. Society in the 21st Century Information Technology will greatly influence the quality of life in the 21st century. The challenge is to use the technology to help overcome numerous global, regional, and local problems that threaten the quality of life. These problems include global overpopulation, intense and potentially socioeconomically destructive global economic competitions, continued pressures on the global environment, increasing levels of regionalized armed conflicts, regional water shortages and other regional environmental problems, and local transportation congestion, poverty, crime, and drug abuse. Social scientists must become aggressively involved and accept leadership roles in the conceptualization, development, and implementation of computer-based systems that have broad social impact [29]. 1.1.6.C.ii. Social sustainability in architecture: Architectural design can play a large part in influencing the ways that social groups interact. Communist Russia's Constructivist Social condensers are a good example of this; they built buildings which were designed with the specific intention of controlling or directing the flow of everyday life to "create socially equitable spaces". [Fig 1.23] An honest, pure form of architecture with residents and the community at its heart and external spaces as important as the buildings [30]” [Fig 1.24] (Fig 1.24) Social sustainability in architecture [30] (Fig 1.23) Architecture to increase social sustainability and reverse the current trend for working, playing and shopping in isolation [30]
  • 33. PART ONE Sustainability Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 14 - 1.3.1. Sustainable Architecture: Sustainable architecture is a general term that describes environmentally-conscious design techniques in the field of architecture. Sustainable architecture is framed by the larger discussion of sustainability and the pressing economic and political issues of our world. In the broad context, sustainable architecture seeks to minimize the negative environmental impact of buildings by enhancing efficiency and moderation in the use of materials, energy, and development space. Most simply, the idea of sustainability, or ecological design, is to ensure that our actions and decisions today do not inhibit the opportunities of future generations. This term can be used to describe an energy and ecologically conscious approach to the design of the built environment [32]. Passive solar building design allows buildings to harness the energy of the sun without the use of any active solar mechanisms such as photovoltaic cells or solar hot water panels. [Fig 1.25] 1.3.2. Sustainable building materials: Some examples of sustainable building materials include recycled denim or blown- in fiber glass insulation, sustainably harvested wood, Tress, Linoleum, sheep wool, concrete (high and ultra high performance, roman self-healing concrete), panels made from paper flakes, baked earth, rammed earth, clay, vermiculite, flax linen, sisal, sea grass, cork, expanded clay grains, coconut, wood fiber plates, calcium sand stone, locally-obtained stone and rock, and bamboo, which is one of the strongest and fastest growing woody plants, and non-toxic low-VOC glues and paints [32]. 1.3.2. A. Recycled Materials: Some sustainable architecture incorporates the use of recycled or second hand materials, such as reclaimed lumber. The reduction in the use of new materials creates a corresponding reduction in embodied energy (energy used in the production of materials). Often sustainable architects attempt to retro-fit old structures to serve new needs in order to avoid unnecessary development. Architectural salvage and reclaimed materials are used when appropriate. When older buildings are demolished, frequently any good wood is (Fig.1.25) K2 sustainable apartments in Windsor, Victoria, Australia by Hansen Yuncken (2006) features passive solar design, recycled and sustainable materials, photovoltaic cells, wastewater treatment, rainwater collection and solar hot water [32]. 1.3. Sustainable architecture
  • 34. PART ONE Sustainability Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 15 - reclaimed, renewed, and sold as flooring. Any good dimension stone is similarly reclaimed. Many other parts are reused as well, such as doors, windows, mantels, and hardware, thus reducing the consumption of new goods [32]. [Fig 1.26] 1.3.1.B. Lower Volatile Organic Compounds: Green products are usually considered to contain fewer VOCs and be better for human and environmental health. A case study conducted by the Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering at the University of Miami that compared three green products and their non-green counterparts found that even though both the green products and the non-green counterparts both emitted levels of VOCs, the amount and intensity of the VOCs emitted from the green products were much safer and comfortable for human exposure [32]. 1.3.3. Sustainable Design: It is the philosophy of designing physical objects, the built environment and services to comply with the principles of economic, social, and ecological sustainability. Sustainable design is mostly a general reaction to global environmental crises, the rapid growth of economic activity and human population, depletion of natural resources, damage to ecosystems and loss of biodiversity [33] . 1.3.3. A. Principles for Sustainable Design: [33] 1. Low-impact materials: choose non-toxic, sustainably-produced or recycled materials which require little energy to process. 2. Energy efficiency: use manufacturing processes and produce products which require less energy. (Fig.1.26) Recycling items for building [32].
  • 35. PART ONE Sustainability Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 16 - 3. Quality and durability: longer- lasting and better-functioning products will have to be replaced less frequently, reducing the impacts of producing replacements. 4. Design for reuse and recycling: Products, processes, and systems should be designed for a commercial performance. 5. Bio-mimicry: redesigning industrial systems on biological lines ... enabling the constant reuse of materials in continuous closed cycles. 6. Service substitution: shifting the mode of consumption from personal ownership of products to provision of services which provide similar functions, e.g. from a private automobile to a car sharing service. Such a system promotes minimal resource use per unit of consumption. 7. Renewability: materials should come from nearby (local or bioregional), sustainably- managed renewable sources that can be composted when their usefulness has been exhausted. 8. Healthy Buildings: sustainable building design aims to create buildings that are not harmful to their occupants nor to the larger environment. An important emphasis is on indoor environmental quality, especially indoor air quality. [Fig 1.27] 1.3.3. B. Sustainable buildings: [1] Sustainable building is the practice of creating structures and using processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle: from sitting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and deconstruction. This practice expands and complements the classical building design concerns of economy, utility, durability, and comfort. [Fig 1.28] (Fig.1.28) Sustainable building phases [16] (Fig.1.27) Genzyme Center The sustainable design in this building is fully integrated into architecture, space, And light. Sustainability in this sense is not an extra you could add or not. It is interwoven with the Vital parts of architecture Photo by Anton Grassl. [1]
  • 36. PART ONE Sustainability Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 17 - Sustainable technologies use less energy, fewer limited resources, do not deplete natural resources, do not directly or indirectly pollute the environment, and can be reused or recycled at the end of their useful life. There is a significant overlap with appropriate technology, which emphasizes the suitability of technology to the context, in particular considering the needs of people in developing countries. However, the most appropriate technology may not be the most sustainable one; and a sustainable technology may have high cost or maintenance requirements that make it unsuitable as an "appropriate technology" [34] EX1 London’s Gherkin Tower Architect Foster and Partners Location 30 St Mary Axe, City of London, United Kingdom Date 2005 Style/ Type Green Building / Contemporary Architecture Sustainable technology used Day lighting, thermal insulation, reduced water consumption, energy generation CO2 Emissions energy-saving methods which allow it to use 50% the power a similar Design: On the building top level (the 40th floor), there is a bar for tenants and their guests featuring a 360° view of London. A restaurant operates on the 39th floor, and private dining rooms on the 38th. And the building is visible over long distances. The primary methods for controlling wind- excited sways are to increase the stiffness, its fully triangulated perimeter structure makes the building sufficiently stiff without any extra reinforcements. Despite its overall curved glass shape [35]. Light, Air, Energy Architects limit double glazing in residential houses to avoid the inefficient convection of heat, but the tower exploits this effect. The shafts pull warm air out of the building during the summer and warm the building in the winter using passive solar heating. The shafts also allow sunlight to pass through the building, making the work environment more pleasing, and keeping the lighting costs down [35]. [Fig 1.29, 30] (Fig.1.30 ) Green wall and exterior surface [35] (Fig.1.29) 30 St Mary Axe [35]
  • 37. PART ONE Sustainability Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 18 - Gaps in each floor create six shafts that serve as a natural ventilation system for the entire building even though required firebreaks on every sixth floor interrupt the "chimney." The shafts create a giant double glazing effect; air is sandwiched between two layers of glazing and insulates the office space inside. [35] Sustainable Philosophy The building uses energy-saving methods which allow it to use half the power a similar tower would typically consume. Needless to say the benefits of the panels are many: Shading, increased internal day lighting, thermal insulation, reduced water consumption, energy generation for the entire building and reduction of toxicity in the interior spaces [36] 1.3.4. Sustainable city development: What makes up the sustainable city? Environmental Care: with the right technologies, cities will become more environmentally friendly. Competitiveness: with the right technologies, cities will help their local authorities and businesses to cut costs Quality of Life: with the right technologies, cities will increase the quality of life for their residents 1. Healthcare: energy optimization, building automation, and the use of energy-saving equipment. 2. Energy: the energy generation in highly efficient combined gas and steam turbines, wind or solar power plants. 3. Building: With intelligent technology buildings can save up to 60% of their consumed energy. 4. Transport: Trains are particularly environment- friendly and intelligent traffic control systems contribute to helping traffic flow, reduce fuel consumption, air pollution and noise. 5. Water: treating and reusing wastewater and purifying drinking water [89]. [Fig 1.31] (Fig.1.31) Sustainable city development [89]
  • 38. PART ONE Sustainability Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 19 - Green architecture is a sustainable method of green building design (It is design and construction with the environment in mind). Green architects generally work with the key concepts of creating energy efficient and environmentally friendly buildings. Green buildings are designed to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health and the natural environment by:  Efficiently using energy, water and other resources.  Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity.  Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degradation. The goal of green building and sustainable architecture is to use resources more efficiently and reduce a building's negative impact on the environment. Zero energy buildings achieve one key green-building goal. [90]. 1.4.1. Green design elements: 1. Design Efficiency: This is the concept stage of sustainable building and has the largest impact on cost and performance. It aims to minimize the environmental impact associated with all life-cycle stages of the building process. 2. Energy Efficiency: Examples of ways to reduce energy use include insulating walls, ceilings, and floors, and building high efficient windows. The layout of a building, such as window placement, can be strategizing so that natural light pours through for additional warmth. Similarly, shading the roof with trees offers an eco-friendly alternative to air conditioning. 3. Water Efficiency: To reduce water consumption and protect water quality, facilities should aim to increase their use of water which has been collected, used, purified and reused. They should also make it a goal to reduce waste water by using products such as ultra-low flush toilets and low-flow shower heads. 4. Materials Efficiency: To minimize environmental impact, facilities should use materials that have been recycled and can generate a surplus of energy. Good example here would be solar power panels. Not only do they offer lighting but they are also a valuable energy source. Low-power LED lighting technology reduce energy consumption and energy bills, so everyone wins! 5. Indoor Air Quality: Reduce volatile organic compounds and provide adequate ventilation by choosing construction materials and interior finish products with low-zero emissions. This will vastly improve a building's indoor air quality [91]. 1.4. Green Architecture (GA)
  • 39. PART ONE Sustainability Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 20 - 6. Waste Reduction: It is possible to reuse resources. What may be "waste" to us might have another benefit to something else, like grey water that can be changed into fertilizer. Grey water is wastewater from sources such as dishwashers and washing machines which can be easily reused for purposes such as flushing toilets or power-washing decks [91]. energy:and Design The towers stand 240 m (787 ft) tall and are comprised of 50 floors each. The complex contains office space located atop a three-storey shopping center with boutique stores, fine restaurants, a food court, a hotel, and a parking garage. The two towers are linked via three sky bridges, each holds a 225KW wind turbine, totaling to 675kW of wind power production. Each of these turbines measure 29 m (95 ft) in diameter, and is aligned north, which is the direction from which air from the Persian Gulf blows in. The sail-shaped buildings on either side are designed to funnel wind through the gap to provide accelerated wind passing through the turbines. This was confirmed by wind tunnel tests, which showed that the buildings create an S-shaped flow, ensuring that any wind coming within a 45° angle to either side of the central axis will create a wind stream that remains perpendicular to the turbines. This significantly increases their potential to generate electricity. [37] The wind turbines are expected to provide 11% to 15% of the towers' total power consumption, or approximately 1.1 to 1.3 GWh a year. This is equivalent to providing the EX2 Bahrain World Trade Center (BWTC) Architect The multi-national architectural firm Atkins group Location Manama, Bahrain Date 2008 Style/ Type Modern- Green Building / Commercial building Sustainable technology used 3 Wind turbines - Renewable energy CO2 Emissions 1300 megawatt hr / year - deliver 11-15% of the energy needs (Fig.1.33) The three turbines [37] (Fig.1.32) The shape of the two towers is essential in developing the wind stream for the turbines [37]
  • 40. PART ONE Sustainability Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 21 - lighting for about 300 homes annually. The three turbines were turned on for the first time on the 8th of April, 2008. They are expected to operate 50% of the time on an average day [37]. . [Fig 1.30, 32, 34] Sustainable philosophy The Bahrain World Trade Center is the world’s first building to integrate large-scale wind turbines; and together with numerous energy reducing and recovery systems. This development shows an unequivocal commitment to raising global awareness for sustainable design. The BWTC encapsulates the essence of a sustainable philosophy engaging all of the social, economic and environmental impacts of the project as well as making significant strides in environmentally balanced architecture [39]. Design The building takes its cue from the centuries of indigenous architecture, marrying historically successful building strategies for the climate with the latest technology and innovative building systems, including some especially developed systems for the Masdar Headquarters [42]. Light and Material The center will also include other energy saving features such as LED lighting in the exhibition halls and a special wireless convention management system. [Fig 1.35] The cones maximize natural daylight throughout the building; the operable windows on the cones allow occupants the option of naturally ventilating interior spaces. Structurally, cones support the building’s roof and allow for the creation of a shaded EX3 Masdar Headquarters Architect Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Location Masdar City, U.A.E Date 2011 Style/ Type Green Building / Contemporary Architecture Green Certification achieve a Gold LEED rating Sustainable technology used Modern wind towers - Renewable energy CO2 Emissions Strategy is to reach zero emission. (Fig.1.35) LED lighting [42] (Fig.1.34) Turbine images [37]
  • 41. PART ONE Sustainability Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 22 - ground plane on the top of the building. Spatially, they create garden courtyards at the public realm which have pools of light and water. [Fig 1.36] Air: The sun will be the source of energy for Masdar HQ. Its rays will be harnessed through the world’s largest solar canopy, which will provide shade to the building below and keep it cool in the hot desert climate. The power of the sun is also used to cool the building, replacing ozone-depleting air conditioning units. [Fig 1.37] Modern wind towers are the basis for a number of features in the complex design. They act as wind towers, exhausting warm air and naturally ventilating the building, as well as bringing cool air up through the subterranean levels of the city below. [42] Energy: The center will have an area of 177,000 sq meters and will have a specially designed roof containing 3,600 sqm of solar panels which will supply about 12.5% of the project total energy needs. Projects consume about 37% less energy than conventional buildings, and efficiently use energy, water, and other natural resources, protect occupant health, improve employee productivity, and reduce pollution. [Fig 1.38] Sustainable Philosophy: The structure will include numerous systems that generate energy, eliminate carbon emissions and reduce liquid and solid waste. The complex will utilize sustainable materials and feature outdoor air quality monitors and use one of the world’s largest building-integrated solar energy systems [42]. [Fig 1.39] (Fig.1.38) Building energy efficient (Fig.1.39) Masdar Headquarters building [42] (Fig.1.37) Sun the source of energy [42] (Fig.1.36) Natural daylight [42]
  • 42. PART ONE Sustainability Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 23 - 1.4.2. Green Architecture Performance Measurement: Many of these tools measure sustainability of the built environment. These tools have been developed to determine if any capacity exists for further development, or whether a development is sustainable, or whether progress is being made towards sustainable development. ‘Indicators’ are also an important part of the range of the tools available and relate mainly to parameters that can be measured to show trends or sudden changes in a particular condition. It is important to distinguish between those tools used for measurement (identifying variables measuring sustainable development and collecting relevant data), and those used for assessment (evaluating performance against criteria), as well as those tools that can be used to effect a move towards sustainable development by changing practice and procedures. In general, the tools are attempting to: achieve continuous improvement to optimize building performance and minimize environmental impact; provide a measure of a building’s effect on the environment; and set credible standards by which buildings can be judged objectively [92]. 1.4.2. A. What is LEED? LEED, or Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, is redefining the way we think about the places where we live, work and learn. As an internationally recognize mark of excellence. LEED certification provides independent, third-party verification that a building, home or community was designed and built using strategies aimed at achieving high performance in key areas of human and environmental health: sustainable site development, water savings, energy efficiency, materials selection and indoor environmental quality [92]. LEED® Building Rating: [38] This program is the verification arm of the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC®), a nonprofit organization that certifies sustainable businesses, homes and communities. LEED promotes a whole-building approach to sustainability by recognizing performance in key areas: [Fig 1.40] Sustainable Site development (SS): category discourages development on previously undeveloped land; seeks to minimize a building's impact on ecosystems and waterways; encourages regionally appropriate landscaping; rewards smart transportation choices; controls storm water runoff; and promotes reduction of erosion, light pollution, heat island effect and construction-related pollution. (Fig.1.40) Rating categories [38]
  • 43. PART ONE Sustainability Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 24 - What LEED Delivers: [92] LEED-certified buildings are designed to:  Lower operating costs and increase asset value  Reduce waste sent to landfills  Conserve energy and water  Be healthier and safer for occupants  Reduce harmful greenhouse gas emissions  Qualify for tax rebates, zoning allowances and other incentives in hundreds of cities How to achieve certification LEED points are awarded on a 100-point scale, and credits are weighted to reflect their potential environmental impacts. Additionally, 10 bonus credits are available, four of which address regionally specific environmental issues. A project must satisfy all prerequisites and earn a minimum number of points to be certified [92]. [Fig 1.41, 42] Water Efficiency (WE): The goal of category is to encourage smarter use of water, inside and out. Water reduction is typically achieved through more efficient appliances, fixtures and fittings inside and water-conscious landscaping outside. Energy and Atmosphere (EA): This category encourages a wide variety of energy-wise strategies: commissioning; energy use monitoring; efficient design and construction; efficient appliances, systems and lighting; the use of renewable and clean sources of energy, generated on-site or off-site; and other innovative measures Materials and Resources (MR): This category encourages the selection of sustainably grown, harvested, produced and transported products and materials. It promotes waste reduction as well as reusing and recycling, and it particularly rewards the reduction of waste. Indoor Environmental Quality (EQ): This category promotes strategies that improve indoor air as well as those that provide access to natural daylight and view and improve acoustics. Location and Transportation (LT): This category encourages building on previously developed or infill sites and away from environmentally sensitive areas. Credits reward homes that are built near already-existing infrastructure, community resources and transit – in locations that promote access to open space for walking, physical activity and time outdoors. Innovation in Design (ID):The Innovation in Design category provides bonus points for projects that use innovative technologies and strategies to improve a building’s performance well beyond what is required by other LEED credits Awareness & Education (AE): This category encourages home builders and real estate professionals to provide homeowners, tenants and building managers with the education and tools they need to understand what makes their home green and how to make the most of those features.
  • 44. PART ONE Sustainability Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 25 - 1.4.2. B. What is BREEAM? [93]. BREEAM (Building Research Establishment’s Environmental Assessment Method) is the world’s leading and most widely used environmental assessment method for buildings. At the time of writing, BREEAM has certified over 200,000 buildings since it was first launched in 1990. A BREEAM assessment uses recognized measures of performance, which are set against established benchmarks, to evaluate a building’s specification, design, construction and use. The measures used represent a broad range of categories and criteria from energy to ecology. They include aspects related to energy and water use, the internal environment (health and well-being), pollution, transport, materials, waste, ecology and management processes. A Certificated BREEAM assessment is delivered by a licensed organization, using assessors trained under a UKAS accredited competent person scheme, at various stages in a buildings life cycle. This provides clients, developers, designers and others with:  Market recognition for low environmental impact buildings.  Confidence that tried and tested environmental practice is incorporated in the building.  Inspiration to find innovative solutions that minimize the environmental impact.  A benchmark that is higher than regulation.  A system to help reduce running costs, improve working and living environments. (Fig.1.42) 40-49 points Silver: 50-59 points Gold: 60-79 points Platinum: 80+ points [92] (Fig.1.41) Distribution of points of LEED for different categories [92]
  • 45. PART ONE Sustainability Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 26 -  A standard that demonstrates progress towards corporate and organizational environmental objectives [93]. Aims of BREEAM 1. To mitigate the life cycle impacts of buildings on the environment. 2. To enable buildings to be recognized according to their environmental benefits. 3. To provide a credible, environmental label for buildings. 4. To stimulate demand for sustainable buildings. Objectives of BREEAM 1. To provide market recognition of buildings with a low environmental impact. 2. To ensure best environmental practice is incorporated in building planning, design, con- saturation and operation. 3. To define a robust, cost-effective performance standard surpassing that required by regulations. 4. To challenge the market to provide innovative, cost effective solutions that minimizes the environmental impact of buildings. 5. To raise the awareness amongst owners, occupants, designers and operators of the benefits of buildings with a reduced life cycle impact on the environment. 6. To allow organizations to demonstrate progress towards corporate environmental objectives [93]. Type of buildings that can be assessed using the BREEAM -Offices -Industrial -Retail (Shopping centers - Retail parks - Showrooms – Restaurants- cafes) -Education -Healthcare (Hospitals- Health centers and clinics) -Prisons -Law Courts -Residential institutions -Non residential institutions (Art galleries, Museums...) -Assembly and Leisure (Cinema-Theatre/concert halls- Exhibition/conference halls) [93]. BREEAM rating benchmarks The BREEAM rating benchmark levels enable a client or other stakeholder to compare an individual building’s performance with other BREEAM rated buildings and the typical sustainability performance of new non-domestic buildings in the UK [93]. [Fig 1.43] How BREEAM works? BREEAM rewards performance above regulation which delivers environmental, higher comfort or health benefits. BREEAM awards points or 'credits' and groups the environmental impacts into the sections below: [Fig 1.44] (Fig.1.43) the BREEAM rating benchmarks version 2011 [93]
  • 46. PART ONE Sustainability Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 27 - -Management: Sustainable procurement, Responsible construction practices, Construction site impacts, Service life planning and costing. -Health and wellbeing: Visual comfort, Indoor air quality, Thermal comfort, Water quality, Acoustic performance, Safety and security. -Energy: Reduction of CO2 emissions, Energy monitoring, Energy efficient external lighting, Low or zero carbon technologies, Energy efficient cold storage, Energy efficient transportation systems, Energy efficient laboratory systems and Energy efficient equipments. -Transport: Public transport accessibility, Proximity to amenities, Cyclist amenities, and Maximum car parking capacity. -Water: Water consumption, Water monitoring, Water leak detection and prevention and Water efficient equipments (process). -Materials: Embodied impacts of building materials, including lifecycle impacts like embodied carbon dioxide. -Waste: Construction waste management, Recycled aggregate, Operational waste and Floor and ceiling finishes. -Land Use and Ecology: Site selection, Ecological value of site / protection of ecological features, Mitigating ecological impact, Enhancing site ecology, and long term impact on biodiversity -Pollution: Impact of refrigerants, NOx emissions from heating/cooling source and external air and water pollution. -Innovation: New technology, process and practices [93]. 1.4.2. C. International Comparison of Sustainable Rating Tools [93]. Many countries have introduced new rating tools over the past few years in order to improve the knowledge about the level of sustainability in each country’s building stock. On one hand, it can be argued that the individual characteristics of each country, such as the climate and type of building stock, necessitate an individual sustainability rating tool for that country. Like BREEAM (U.K. and Europe), LEED (U.S. & Canada), Green Star (Australia). [Fig 1.45, 46] (Fig.1.44) BREEAM Environmental section weightings [93].
  • 47. PART ONE Sustainability Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 28 - (Fig.1.45) main Rating Tools [93]. (Fig.1.46) Comparison of BREEAM, LEED and Green Star [93].
  • 48. PART ONE Sustainability Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 29 - EX4 California Academy of Science Architect Renzo Piano Location San Francisco Date 2008 Green Certification achieve a platinum LEED rating Style/ Type Green Building/ Contemporary Architecture Sustainable technology used Green roof- Solar Energy Panels- natural ventilation system… CO2 Emissions prevent the release of 405,000 of greenhouse gas emission 1.Sustainable Design and Materials: Natural Lighting . The expansive, floor-to-ceiling walls of glass will enable 90% of the building's interior offices to use lighting from natural sources. . Skylights, providing natural light to the rainforest and aquarium, are designed to open and close automatically. As hot air rises throughout the day, the skylights will open to allow hot air out from the top of the Academy while louvers below draw in cool air to the lower floors without the need for huge fans or chemical coolants [44]. [Fig 1.47, 49] 2.Water, Air and Energy: (Green roof) Soil as Insulation Not only does the green rooftop canopy visually connect the building to the park landscape, but it also provides significant gains in heating and cooling efficiency. The six inches of soil substrate on the roof act as natural insulation, and every year will keep approximately 3.6 million gallons of rainwater from becoming stormwater. The steep slopes of the roof also act as a natural ventilation system, funneling cool air into the open-air plaza on sunny days. The skylights perform as both ambient light sources and a cooling system, automatically opening on warm days to vent hot air from the building [44]. [Fig 1.48] Solar Energy Panels Surrounding the Living Roof is a large glass canopy with a decorative band of 60,000 photovoltaic cells. These solar panels will generate approximately 213,000 kilowatt-hours of energy per year and provide up to 10% of the Academy's electricity (Fig.1.47) California Academy of Science [44] (Fig.1.49) Natural lighting [44] (Fig.1.48) Green Roof and solar panels [44]
  • 49. PART ONE Sustainability Sustainability, Sustainable buildings, Green Architecture - 30 - need. The use of solar power will prevent the release of 405,000 pounds of greenhouse gas emission into the air. [Fig 1.50] Sources of Warmth: 1. Radiant Floor Heating Warm air rises. A traditional forced- air heating system for the 35-foot-high public spaces in the museum would be wasteful in the extreme. Instead, the Academy is installing a radiant heating system in the museum’s floors. Tubes embedded in the concrete floor will carry hot water that warms the floor. The proximity of the heat to the people who need it will reduce the building’s energy need by an estimated 10% annually [44]. 3.Waste: 2. Denim Insulation Insulation also keeps buildings warm. The Academy, rather than using typical fiberglass or foam-based insulation, chose to use a type of thick cotton batting made from recycled blue jeans. This material provides an organic alternative to formaldehyde-laden insulation materials. Recycled denim insulation holds more heat and absorbs sound better than spun fiberglass insulation. It is also safer to handle. Even when denim insulation is treated with fire retardants and fungicides to prevent mildew, it is still easier to work with and doesn't require installers to wear protective clothing or respirators [44]. 4.Sustainable philosophy: Platinum Certified LEED Building [45]: On October 7, 2008, the U.S. Green Building Council awarded the Academy a (Fig.1. 53) interior hall [44] (Fig.1.52) The steep slopes of the green roof [44] (Fig.1.51 ) A modern green roof employs native plants and engineered drainage, extensive day-lighting, and photovoltaic electrical generation [45] (Fig.1.50) the skylights automatically open [44]

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