APPROACHES AND METHODS IN
LANGUAGE TEACHING
The Natural Approach
BACKGROUND
Outlined in 1977 by Tracy Terrell as a
‘new’ philosophy of language teaching
Theoretical rationale elaborate...
THEORY OF LANGUAGE
AND LANGUAGE LEARNING
Communication as the primary
function of language
Language consists of 1) lex...
OBJECTIVES SYLLABUS
• Function adequately
in the target
situation
• Understand the
speaker of the
target language
•...
TEACHER’S ROLE
The Natural Approach
teacher:
• Should be the primary source of
comprehensible input in the
target lan...
The language
acquirer is:
• Seen as a processor of
comprehensible input
• Challenged by input that
is slightly beyond...
Learner’s responsabilities
Provide information about their specific goals so that the acquisition
activities can focus o...
PROCEDURE
A typical Natural Approach classroom procedure
• Start with TPR [Total Physical Response] commands
• Use TPR ...
CONCLUSION
The Natural Approach:
Rejects the formal
organization of language
Focuses on meaningful
comprehension
Pro...
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Natural approach (Nicole Schefer and Raquel Martin)

Second Language acquisition
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Natural approach (Nicole Schefer and Raquel Martin)

  • 1. APPROACHES AND METHODS IN LANGUAGE TEACHING The Natural Approach
  • 2. BACKGROUND Outlined in 1977 by Tracy Terrell as a ‘new’ philosophy of language teaching Theoretical rationale elaborated by Stephen Krashen Appeared in The Natural Approach (1983): • Theoretical sessions by Krashen • Implementation and classroom procedures by Terrell Related to the Natural/Direct Method (c. 1900): • Both conform to the principles of naturalistic language learning • N./D.M. is more teacher-centered and places more emphasis on practice • N.A. emphasizes exposure and comprehension, pays special attention to emotional preparedness and is willing to use a wide variety of resources
  • 3. THEORY OF LANGUAGE AND LANGUAGE LEARNING Communication as the primary function of language Language consists of 1) lexical items, 2) structures and 3) messages Krashen’s language acquisition theory: •The Acquisition/Learning Hypothesis: acquisition and learning are not the same; learning cannot lead to acquisition •The Monitor Hypothesis: conscious learning must only function as a monitor/editor of output •The Natural Order Hypothesis: the acquisition of grammatical structures proceeds in a predictable order •The Input Hypothesis: “I+1” •The Affective Filter Hypothesis: a learner’s emotional state can pass, impede or block input Implications for language teaching: •As much comprehensible input as possible must be presented •Whatever helps comprehension is important •Focus should be on receptive skills •A relaxed classroom atmosphere is needed in order to lower the affective filter
  • 4. OBJECTIVES SYLLABUS • Function adequately in the target situation • Understand the speaker of the target language • Convey requests and ideas • Make the meaning clear but not necessarily be accurate in all details of grammar The students are expected to: • Fit the needs and interests of students • Aim to create a low affective filter by being interesting and fostering a friendly, relaxed atmosphere • Provide a wide exposure to vocabulary that may be useful to basic personal communication • Resist any focus on grammatical structures Content selection should:
  • 5. TEACHER’S ROLE The Natural Approach teacher: • Should be the primary source of comprehensible input in the target language • Should create a classroom atmosphere that is interesting, friendly and with a low affective filter for learning • Should choose a rich mix of classroom activities for a variety of group sizes, content, and contexts Teaching activities • Teacher talk focuses on objects in the classroom and on the content of pictures • The teacher talks slowly and distinctly, asking questions and eliciting one-word answers • There is a gradual progession from Yes/No questions to questions the students can answer using words they have heard from the teacher
  • 6. The language acquirer is: • Seen as a processor of comprehensible input • Challenged by input that is slightly beyond his current level of competence • Able to assign meaning to the input through active use of context and extralinguistic information Learner’s roles according to their stage of linguistic development Pre-production stage: Students participate in the language activity without responding in the target language Early-production stage: Students respond to either-or questions, use simple words and short phrases Speech-emergent phase: Students contribute with personal information and opinions LEARNER’S ROLE
  • 7. Learner’s responsabilities Provide information about their specific goals so that the acquisition activities can focus on their needs Take an active role in ensuring comprehensible input Learn and use conversational management techniques Decide when to start producing speech and when to upgrade it Decide with the teacher the ammount of time to be devoted to each activity
  • 8. PROCEDURE A typical Natural Approach classroom procedure • Start with TPR [Total Physical Response] commands • Use TPR to teach names of the body, numbers and sequence • Introduce classroom terms and props into commands • Use names of physical characteristics and clothing to identify members of the class • Use visuals to introduce new vocabulary. • Combine use of pictures with TPR • Combine observations about the pictures with commands and conditionals • Using several pictures, ask the students to point to the picture being described
  • 9. CONCLUSION The Natural Approach: Rejects the formal organization of language Focuses on meaningful comprehension Provides a constant flow of comprehensible input Adopts techniques and activities from various method sources