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[2012]
Radio FARMDI Project
P R E P A R E D B Y
P A U L ...
Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD
Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 2
Sl. No. Particulars Page No.
1. Executive Summary 5
...
Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD
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ACRONYMS
1
ALPZA
Alappuzha
2
CT
Central Travanco...
Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD
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List of Tables and Diagrams Tables Table 1: List of Ra...
Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD
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1. Executive Summary
Agriculture is the back bone of ...
Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD
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2. Introduction
Community Radio is a trusted source o...
Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD
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serving the community by reflecting vital community is...
Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD
Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 8
To nurture the creative talents of the community and t...
Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD
Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 9
List of important programmes is shown in the table bel...
Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD
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28 Kilukkaam Petti Entertainment exclusively for chil...
Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD
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3.3.2. Radio MACFAST School Clubs
Radio MACFAST Scho...
Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD
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4. Agriculture – Backbone of Indian Economy
Agricult...
Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD
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title Kerala – the Land of Kera Tree. Additionally Ke...
Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD
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5
Tapioca
6210.50
6
Pepper
4270.8
7
Ginger
13...
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Similarly, Agriculture forms the livelihood of the ma...
Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD
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Rice is the important agriculture product of Kuttand ...
Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD
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While comparing districts, Alappuzha is leading with ...
Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD
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Crop
Kollam
Pathanamthitta
Alappuzha
Kottayam
Id...
Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD
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Diagram 5: Area of Crops Cultivation CT Region Fisher...
Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD
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While considering the production fish through fish cu...
Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD
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Diagram 8: Medicinal Cultivation CT Region It shows t...
Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD
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5. Role of Community radio in Agricultural developmen...
Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD
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6. Radio MACFAST – a tool for Agricultural Developmen...
Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD
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7. Radio for Farmers Development and Innovation (Radi...
Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD
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Encourage practices, policies and technologies that p...
Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD
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Diagram 9: Radio FARMDI Project Methodology
Sl. No. ...
Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD
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4 Soil Testing Methods
5
Land Degradation and Other...
Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD
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8 Water 1. Types of water storage Livestock water req...
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7
Plant protection measures Identification of diseas...
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Calf Rearing Systems
Calf Housing Weaning
Vaccinati...
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4
Pig diseases General health problems Management pr...
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1
Introduction Small Scale Production Breeds Classif...
Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD
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6 Incubation The natural method (using broody hens) T...
Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD
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3 What Species To Farm Selection criteria Climate Wat...
Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD
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Introduction Climate and Soil Varieties Planting Mate...
Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD
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VI Mixed Farming
Mixed Farming – Advantage And Benef...
Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD
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Krishipadadam will be broadcasted thrice in a week. T...
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23 April 18 Wednesday Sustainable ways of farming
24...
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62
July 18 Wednesday
Dairy development 63 July 20 F...
Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD
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103 October 21 Sunday Farmers experience
104
Octobe...
Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD
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144
January 25 Friday
Broilers 145 January 27 Sunda...
Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD
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185 May 1 Wednesday Climate and Soil
186
May 3 Frid...
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226
August 4 Sunday
Value added products 227 August...
Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD
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265 November 3 Sunday General discussion
266
Novemb...
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306
February 7 Friday
Herbal farming 307 February 9...
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These seminars will cover myriad topics related to ag...
Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD
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7.3.2.3. Krishivedi - New letter
Krishivedi is newsl...
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7.4. Man Power
Sl. No
Designation
Number 1 Project...
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7.6. List of Agencies Associated
Sl. No.
Agencies
...
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Table 15: List of Associated Agencies
7.7. Finance S...
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8. Conclusion
In this era of globalization, radio ca...
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Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 52
Reference
 Administrative Profile - ENVIS Centre Ke...
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Nabard proj ect proposal dec 22 2011

Sustainable Agriculture, Organic Farming - A proposal
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Environment      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Nabard proj ect proposal dec 22 2011

  • 1. [TYPE THE DOCUMENT TITLE] [Pick the date] [Type text] Page 1 [2012] Radio FARMDI Project P R E P A R E D B Y P A U L V M A T H E W , P R O J E C T O F F I C E R , R A D I O M A C F A S T Radio MACFAST 90.4 in association with NABARD Submitted to National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD)
  • 2. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 2 Sl. No. Particulars Page No. 1. Executive Summary 5 2. Introduction 6 3. About Radio MACFAST 90.4 8 3.1. Radio Programmes 8 3.2. Radio MACFAST 90.4 – an effective Participatory Model 9 3.3. Model Initiatives of Radio MACFAST 10 3.3.1. Clean and Green Tiruvalla Project 10 3.3.2. Radio MACFAST School Clubs 11 3.3.3. RADIO MACFAST CHARITIES (RM Charities) 11 3.3.4. HRIDAYASPANDANAM (Heart Operation Program) 11 3.3.5. Participation from the Students 11 4. Agriculture – Backbone of Indian Economy 12 4.1. Agriculture in Central Travancore – Present Scenario 12 4.1.2. Agriculture – A comparative Analysis 16 5. Role of Community radio in Agricultural development 21 6. Radio MACFAST – a tool for Agricultural Development in Kuttanad 23 7. Radio for Farmers Development and Innovation (Radio FARMDI) Project 24 7.1. Objective of Radio FARMDI Project 24 7.2. Methodology 25 7.3. Implementation 36 7.3.1. Duration and Schedule 37 7.3.2. Other Activities 45 7.3.2.1. Awareness campaigns 45 7.3.2.2. Site visit 46 7.3.2.3. Krishivedi - New letter 47 7.3.2.4. Awards 47 7.4. Man Power 48 7.5. List of associated Experts 48 7.6. List of Agencies Associated 49 7.7. Finance 50 8. Conclusion 51 Reference 52
  • 3. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 3 ACRONYMS 1 ALPZA Alappuzha 2 CT Central Travancore 3 FARMDI Farmers Development and Innovation 4 FYM Farmyard Manure 5 GDP Gross Domestic Product 6 GSDP Gross State Domestic Product 7 ICT Information Communication and Technology 8 Ha Hectare 9 IMBY In My Backyard 10 KTM Kottayam 11 MACFAST Mar Athanasios College for Advanced Studies Tiruvalla 12 NIMBY Not In My Backyard 13 PTA Pathanamthitta 14 RM Radio MACFSAT 15 CGC Clean and Green City
  • 4. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 4 List of Tables and Diagrams Tables Table 1: List of Radio Programs Table 2: Crops Cultivation in Pathanamthitta Table 3: Animal Population in Pathanamthitta Table 4: Crop cultivation in Pathanamthitta * (in Hectare) Table 5: Paddy Cultivation CT Region - (Agriculture Statistics 2009 -Department of Agriculture) Table 6: Crops Cultivation CT Region Table 7: Topics for Radio Program Table 8: Krishipadam Program Schedule Table 9: Detailed Production Chart of Krishipadam Program Table 10: Awareness Camps Table 11: Site Visits Table 12 – Project Awards Table 13: Man Power Requirement Table 14: List of Associated Experts Table 15: List of Associated Agencies Table 16: Project Finance Diagrams Diagram 1: Program distribution pattern of Radio MACFSAT 90.4 Diagram 2: Paddy Cultivation CT Region Diagram 3: Coconut Cultivation CT Region Diagram 4: Crops Cultivation CT Region Diagram 5: Area of Crops Cultivation CT Region Diagram 6: Total Fish Cultivation CT Region Diagram 7: Total Inland Production in CT Region Diagram 8: Medicinal Cultivation CT Region Diagram 9: Radio FARMDI Project Methodology
  • 5. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 5 1. Executive Summary Agriculture is the back bone of Indian Economy contributes to 13% of its GDP. About 43 % of India's geographical area is used for agricultural activity. Even though the contribution of agriculture sector in the GDP has declined alarmingly, it is still the single largest contributor to the GDP and plays a vital role in the overall socio-economic development of India. In order to cater to the needs of farming community, an intensive effort from all parts of the community is required. To disseminate agricultural information, technologies, government schemes and traditional knowledge directly to the farmers, a cost effective, reachable and reliable media is required. In this back ground, Community Radio has a vital role in propagating vital information for the farmers. Radio FARMDI Project is an initiative of Radio MACFAST 90.4, the second Community Radio in Kerala in association with NABARD to catalyze awareness programs and to enhance agricultural production in Central Travancore Region. Project comprises of awareness as well as action components put prime focus for the direct involvement of farmers through multitude of programs. Considering the agricultural background of Central Travancore, the project selected Paddy Cultivation, Animal Husbandry, Mixed Farming/Cultivation, Coconut Development, Ornamental/Edible Fish Farming and Herbal Farming are as the focus areas for intervention. Radio MACFSAT scheduled to broadcast a program ‘Krishipadam’ thrice in a week which creates a venue for farmers to debate, discuss and disseminate various matters on agriculture. Additionally, the project envisages for exhibitions, seminars and site visits related to various areas of discussion. The Project Radio FARMDI in association with NABARD has an immense opportunity to reach directly the farmers. As an impetus to the inclusive growth and second phase green revolution, Radio FARMDI Project will contribute lots for the enhancement of agriculture development in Central Travancore Region. By bridging the knowledge divide, it triggers a knowledge revolution in agriculture sector and develops a platform for farmers empowerment.
  • 6. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 6 2. Introduction Community Radio is a trusted source of information for the rural community. It is highly cost effective and accessible media for people especially the rural community. It has an active role in the development of different social indices through its myriad activities. To cater to the needs of people especially in the rural area, Community Radio can perform multitude of programs to enhance their knowledge, skill and awareness in different areas of interest. Now community radio has the power to address the voices of voiceless by empowering marginalized and neglected. It builds a platform for participatory approach and creates a win-win situation. It is community Radio that can disseminate local knowledge, traditions, arts & cultures, human rights and social justice, environmental issues and community problems as well as the issues related to development. It can enhance the social harmony among the communities. Thus the knowledge divide in society can build by interconnecting the community through radio. While encapsulating, community radio can play the role as promoter of participatory, accountable and transparent governance system in a society and it can also create enormous opportunities for growth and community development. 3. About Radio MACFAST 90.4 Radio MACFAST 90.4(Reg. No.PR0268) - a social service arm and community radio of MACFAST (Mar Athanasios College for Advanced Studies Tiruvalla) is the first on campus Community Radio in the State and 46th in the country which was launched on 1st November 2009. It believes that the emergence of a knowledge society is possible through focused work at the grass-root level. It realizes that transfer of knowledge happens in both directions - from the urban society to the rural one and vice versa. It ensures its extensive presence in the Central Travancore(CT) (parts of Pathanamthitta, Alappuzha, Kollam, Idukki and Kottayam districts) as a catalyst by bridging the knowledge divide in people. It has almost five lakh listeners from different parts of these five districts. Now Radio MACFAST 90.4 is a trendsetter in community radio segment through its wide range of diverse and interesting programs, which airs 16 hours a day. It has a key position in the hearts of people by closely
  • 7. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 7 serving the community by reflecting vital community issues and focusing specifically on their needs True to its punch line — “Nattukarku Kuttai” (Community’s Companion) – it strives to achieve exactly the same: “a partner friend in all the endeavors of the local populace”. It is located within its founding philosophy – to give a voice to the voiceless. It acts as a centre for religious, social, cultural and national integration. It intends to work towards creating a civil society with a growing sense of community values, irrespective of caste, creed, age, gender or discrimination based on level of education. But at the same time, it also realizes that as community stations are the pulse of their community, so the community is its lifeblood, and it needs to be fully a part of it to allow the station to grow. RADIO MACFAST 90.4 now becomes the coordinating centre for uniting the knowledge from all sources of information and knowledge, thus facilitating positive transformation in the society through community development, reconstruction and national integration. The objectives of RADIO MACFAST are: Achieving social change and development objectives To empower communities to speak for themselves, to give a voice to the voiceless and to be force for social and economic good. To provide opportunity and exposure to groups that are traditionally marginalised by mainstream media, to broadcast their programmes. To establish community radio as an important part of community development and of the community and voluntary sector. To enhance the capacities of local people to work together to tackle a range of social problems, including poverty and exclusion through radio.
  • 8. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 8 To nurture the creative talents of the community and to provide a forum for a diversity of opinions and useful information. 3.1. Radio Programmes Radio MACFAST 90.4 offers a multitude of programmes for the community which is informative, educative, motivating and entertaining. Around thirty nine (39) programmes are broadcasted through this radio which dedicates 5-6 hours for live telephonic programs. Utmost importance is given by Radio MACFAST in educating people along with entertainment. It telecasts special programs on days related to national, environmental and community importance. Additionally Radio MACFAST encourages people by conducting various seminars, exhibitions, shows and competitions. The program distribution pattern is shown below. It clearly shows that Radio MACFAST 90.4 aims for bridging knowledge gap in society. Diagram 1: Program distribution pattern of Radio MACFSAT 90.4
  • 9. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 9 List of important programmes is shown in the table below. Sl. No Name of the Program About/Features 1 Sadvachanam (Inspiring Thoughts) Thought of the day 2 Morning Plus Inspiring quotes 3 Greeting Cards Wishes (phoning) 4 Morning Show Discussion on the topic of general interest to generate awareness (phoning) 5 Adukkala (Kitchen) Cooking techniques, cuisine making and unique dishes 6 Vithu Muthal Vilavu Vare (From sowing to harvest) Agri-techniques, fertilizers, subsidies and climatic conditions (exclusively for farmers) 7 Chamayam (Make up & Costumes) Recent trends in fashion and designing 8 Clean and Green Tiruvalla Environmental awareness (Discussion and phoning) 9 Sat Mate Game show Entertainment (phoning) 10 Hits Song dedication (phoning) 11 Time Pass Talkies Entertainment (dialogues and stories) 12 Let’s talk English English language training (spoken and grammar) 13 Paithrakam (Heritage) Kerala/ India heritage 14 Letters Listeners’ letters response 15 Pusthakaparichayam(Book review) Introducing new books 16 Malayalam Shuddham Sundaram Folk Tales and stories in Malayalam 17 Vijaya Manthram (Success Mantra) Motivational and inspiring stories 18 Vijayashilpi (Successful Leader) Entrepreneurship development, experience of successful entrepreneurs 19 Niyamavum Ningalaum (Law and You) Law and rules 20 Kalikkalam (Game Show) Entertainment program for senior citizens 21 Hridayatalam (Heart Rhythm) Heart specialist about heart health 22 Aksharavilakku (Literacy) Poems, stories and tales 23 School Radio Club Programmes of school students of Radio clubs 23 Thozhilavasaram ( Employment Opportunities) Job Opportunities 24 Ootty Villa Comedy programme 25 Arogyam (Health) Health 26 Narmma Puranam Social Satire 27 Sthri Shakthi Women empowerment
  • 10. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 10 28 Kilukkaam Petti Entertainment exclusively for children (phoning) 29 Quiz Time Quiz 30 Ulkkazcha (Insight) Discussion about current issues 31 Spell check English spelling competitions and quiz Table 1: List of Radio Programs 3.2. Radio MACFAST 90.4 – an effective Participatory Model This unique initiative, which envisions bridging the knowledge gap, is looking forward to valuable contributions to make this a highly successful venture within a short span of time. People from all walks of life participate and contribute towards its efforts to bridge knowledge gap by: Production of programs Letting know people’s expectations Forwarding suggestions Voluntary work as reporter, script writer, promotion of radio literacy in a new place Contribute to the RADIO MACFAST Charities 3.3. Model Initiatives of Radio MACFAST 3.3.1. Clean and Green Tiruvalla Project It is an initiative of Radio MACFAST 90.4 in association with Tiruvalla Municipality to achieve the aim - Clean and Green Tiruvalla. The concept put forward is NIMBY (Not In My Backyard) Syndrome to IMBY (In My Back Yard) habit i.e. waste management at the source itself which is an initiative to practice micro level decentralized waste management. The project gives utmost importance to schools and colleges (65 units) for awareness. Additionally, the project works in government offices and housing colonies to attain the target ‘zero waste centers’. In short, the project focuses on awareness and technical support to make a paradigm shift in the attitude of community towards waste management. Here, Radio MACFAST 90.4 acts as an effective tool for continuous awareness.
  • 11. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 11 3.3.2. Radio MACFAST School Clubs Radio MACFAST School club is one of the novel initiatives of this community radio. Almost 15 schools in and around Tiruvalla participate in this program. They have the opportunity to perform their programs on every Fridays and Saturdays. 3.3.3. RADIO MACFAST CHARITIES (RM Charities) RM Charities finds the poor and the needy in the community who are financially deprived and provides financial and labor help towards building houses for the houseless and for treatment to the terminally ill. 3.3.4. Hrudayaspandanam (Heart Operation Program) This heart operation program ‘Hruduyaspandanam’ is one of the Social Responsibility activities of Radio in association with Pushpagiri Medical College, Tiruvalla and different stake holders of Radio MACFAST 90.4. One operation costs around Rs. 50,000. It envisages offering 50 free heart operations for those who are in need. So far 8 persons were successfully treated under ‘Hruduyaspandanam’. 3.3.5. Participation from the Students As part of Industry Interface initiative, students are participating with Radio MACFAST 90.4 programs. They can not only expose their talents but also get an exposure to explore the unlimited opportunities of community radio. Additionally, radio offers them fair remuneration to exercise the concept of a self sustainable campus. Students have the opportunity to work with radio from evening 5 PM– 10PM every day and on all holidays.
  • 12. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 12 4. Agriculture – Backbone of Indian Economy Agriculture is the livelihood of almost two thirds of the work force in the country and it accounts for 18% of India's GDP. About 43 % of India's geographical area is used for agricultural activity. Even though the contribution of agriculture sector in the GDP has declined alarmingly, it is still the single largest contributor to the GDP and plays a vital role in the overall socio- economic development of India. Green Revolution efforts helped to bringing additional area under cultivation, extension of irrigation facilities, the use of improved high-yielding variety of seeds, better techniques evolved through agricultural research, water management, and plant protection through judicious use of fertilizers, pesticides and cropping practices. Seed villages, food parks, food security bills, increased subsidies and loan weaving exercises etc. are some of the model initiatives in this aspect. Realizing the importance of agricultural production for economic development, the central government has played an active role in all aspects of agricultural development. Planning is centralized; plan priorities, policies, and resource allocations are decided at the central level. Food and price policy also are decided by the central government. However, there are still a host of issues that need to be addressed regarding Indian agriculture. Low agricultural productivity is the one of the greatest challenges facing Indian agriculture. If India is to evolve into a middle income country with a broad-based middle class, then rural reform, greater agricultural productivity, and sufficient employment growth in the manufacturing and services sectors are all necessary conditions. In order to ensure sustained growth in agriculture, it needs to enhance productivity, subsidy, financial aids and capacity building exercises for farmers. Research and development exercises, technology exchange and transformation, promoting investments in agriculture sector and catalyzing public private partnerships are required to augment the development of farmers as well as agriculture sector. 4.1. Agriculture in Central Travancore – Present Scenario Kerala is land diverse with different varieties of crops, herbs and plants which make it an exuberant location. Charming paddy fields, lush green coconut, other cash crops like tea, rubber, coffee, pepper, cardamom, cashew, areca nut, nutmeg, ginger, cinnamon, cloves etc give agriculture of Kerala a diverse nature. Coconut trees also known as Kera tree suits the
  • 13. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 13 title Kerala – the Land of Kera Tree. Additionally Kerala is the leading state in the production of rubber. More than 90 percent of the Rubber produced in India is from Kerala. Main cereal of Kerala is rice. Fruits like mango and jack fruit are predominant. Herbal plants in Kerala help to enhances Ayurvedic system of medicine that has taken deep roots in Kerala. Main spices are Pepper, Cardamom, Cinnamon, Ginger, nutmeg and Turmeric. Other type of agriculture related activities include aqua culture, Honey bee culture, Seri culture, Mushroom culture, poultry and cattle farming . The thing is not different with the people of Central Travancore. The major occupation of people in Central Travancore/Kuttanad region is paddy cultivation. Tapioca is other important crop cultivating in drier region mainly in upper Kuttanad area. Besides these, people cultivating important spices like cardamom, cinnamon, clove, turmeric, nutmeg and vanilla. Areca nut, ginger and coconut are the important varieties. Kottayam district has extensive areas producing and processing rubber. Apart from rubber, other plantation crop likes plantains or bananas are also grown in plenty. Among the districts of central Travancore, Pathanathitta has the lion part of listeners of Radio MACFAST. Hence special mentioning on this district is required. While considering the district Pathanamthitta, agriculture is the main occupation of the people. About 75 per cent of people are directly or indirectly involved in agriculture activities. Major are paddy, rubber, coconut, tuber crops, banana, pepper, ginger, vegetable etc. Cashew, pineapple, sugarcane, cocoa, tree spices etc. are also cultivated in certain regions. An analysis on different crops in Pathanamthitta is shown below. Number Crop Area (in Hectares) 1 Paddy a) Virippu 3505.20 b)Mundakan 4186.60 c) Punja 3735.00 2 Minor tubers 1401.69 3 Rubber 72101.81 4 Coconut 17822.30
  • 14. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 14 5 Tapioca 6210.50 6 Pepper 4270.8 7 Ginger 1335.00 8 Cocoa 954.90 9 Vegetables 980.00 10 Pineapple 135.00 11 Banana 6663.5 12 Sugar Cane 275 13 Cardamom 664 14 Cashewnut 1188 15 Coconut 22056 Table 2: Crops Cultivation in Pathanamthitta (Source; Farm Guide 2000) Virippu, Mundakan and Punja are the major growing seasons of paddy. Certain crops like Coconut, tapioca, Rubber, Banana and pepper are predominant in this district. The district has a tremendous opportunity in fish farming due to the abundance of freshwater resources like rivers, reservoirs, streams, ponds, quarries and paddy fields. Pamba, Achankovil, Manimala and the Upper Kuttanadu areas post the district in a unique position in the inland fisheries map of Kerala. Additionally, edible as well as ornamental fish farming emerges as an opportunity. A program initiated by the district recently brought about 150 hectares under aqua culture. Through this programme, nearly 500 farmers are benefited and an incremented fish production of 125 tonnes is being recorded annually. The main species of livestock in the district are cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, pig, fowl and duck. The livestock population as per the census conducted in 1996 is as follows:- Cows 3169108 Pigs 24548 Buffaloes 97654 Fowls 25661614 Sheep 2419 Ducks 1190548 Goats 1377590 Others 112262 Table 3: Animal Population in Pathanamthitta
  • 15. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 15 Similarly, Agriculture forms the livelihood of the majority in the people in Kottayam district. Along with food crops and cash crops Paddy and Tapioca are cultivating. While rubber, coconut and pepper are the main cash crops, Annual crops like plantain and pine apple, seasonal crops like ginger, tubers, vegetables and a wide range of perennial crops like jack fruit, mango etc., are also grown. Paddy is the most important food crop. Rubber is the major cash crop - the largest area under rubber cultivation in the State and its production is going up gradually. Meenachil and Kanjirappally taluks top in rubber cultivation. A big Rubber centre, Kottayam has been chosen as the head quarters of the Indian Rubber Board. Coconut, another important cash crop has a total area of 28185 hectares under cultivation. Pepper, tea, coffee, ginger, areca nut, pulses, plantains, pine apple, sugarcane, cocoa etc., are also cultivated in the district. Sl. No. Crop Area 1 Paddy 13617 2 Tubers 14 3 Vegetables 342 4 Coconut 165 5 Arecanut 21 6 Nutmeg 314 7 Condiments 123 8 Banana 76 9 Leaves 9 10 Cane 137 11 Others 704 12 Total 15522 Table 4: Crop cultivation in Pathanamthitta * (in Hectare)
  • 16. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 16 Rice is the important agriculture product of Kuttand the gives the moniker “The Rice Bowl of Kerala". The history of the paddy cultivation in Kuttanad can be traced back to centuries. Kuttanad has for long been known as the Granary of Kerala. This major rice growing belt has more than 145,000 of wet lands under cultivation. Annually about two hundred thousand tones of paddy are produced in Kuttanad.around 2000 families in Kuttanad region depend on paddy cultivation.52 farmers union in this region working for the improvement of paddy cultivation. The majority of population of Alappuzha comprises, agricultural labourers and coir workers. 4.1.2. Agriculture – A comparative Analysis Sl. No District Paddy Area (Ha.) % to state Total Gross cropped area % of paddy area to Gross cropped area 1 Kollam 3453 1.48 161498 2.14 2 Pathanamthitta 2996 1.28 103539 2.89 3 Alappuzha 33440 14.29 105158 31.80 4 Kottayam 15474 6.61 205851 7.52 5 Idukki 2328 0.99 306681 0.76 Table 5: Paddy Cultivation CT Region - (Agriculture Statistics 2009 -Department of Agriculture) Diagram 2: Paddy Cultivation CT Region
  • 17. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 17 While comparing districts, Alappuzha is leading with an area of 33440 Ha which is 14.29% to the state total. At the same time Kottayam contributes 6.61% to the state total. By analyzing the percentage of paddy area to gross cropped area in district wise, it can be seen that Alappuzha district occupies 31.80% of paddy cultivation in 2009-10, where as Kottayam occupies 7.58%. Despite Pathanathitta devotes 2996 Ha for paddy cultivation. All these shows that focus on agriculture development and dissemination of this subject matter need special consideration. Diagram 3: Coconut Cultivation CT Region Coconut is an important crop cultivating in Central Travancore. Among the five districts Kollam has the highest production with 56675 Ha. Alappuzha and Kottayam has a notable area of cultivation. While considering other corps, it is apparent that all varieties are cultivating in certain regions of all districts. Following is the table showing the crop varieties and its cultivated area (Ha) in Central Travancore districts
  • 18. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 18 Crop Kollam Pathanamthitta Alappuzha Kottayam Idukki Areca nut 2122 1104 1711 1731 2753 Jack 6034 2431 2165 3319 10772 Banana 2068 2032 538 2839 2541 Plantain 4055 1490 1866 2631 3488 Pineapple 176 150 86 1286 1076 Cashew 2858 658 2110 404 1237 Nutmeg 70 463 210 1440 2054 Ginger 390 305 61 88 691 Turmeric 240 77 12 77 245 Drumstick 1930 563 633 656 504 Table 6: Crops Cultivation CT Region Diagram 4: Crops Cultivation CT Region While analyzing the diagram below, it is clear that Kottayam is leading the cultivation of rubber. Idukki is leading in the production of pepper, whereas Kollam has the highest cultivation of tapioca.
  • 19. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 19 Diagram 5: Area of Crops Cultivation CT Region Fisheries a sub sector of primary sector contributes a substantial value added to the SDP. This sector has around 2.2% contribution towards the GSDP of the state. Fish is a major item in the food basket of 90% of the people of Kerala. This sector provides food with nutritional value and helps in employment generation. It is an important source of livelihood for a large section of people, especially economically backward class of the state. Inland fishing and fish culture are the major fishing activities of people in Central Travancore area. Following chart depicts the Production of fish from fish culture Diagram 6: Total Fish Cultivation CT Region
  • 20. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 20 While considering the production fish through fish culture, Kollam is leading with 502.65 Quintals. Production of Kottayam is 486.42 whereas production of Alappuzha is 468.42. Pathanathitta has a production of 353.45/year. Diagram 7: Total Inland Production in CT Region There are around 50 farmers in Pathanathitta engaged with fish cultivation. At the same time, there are 61 farmers in Aalappuzha whereas 71 in Kottayam. Total number farmers involved with fish cultivation in Kollam and Idukki is 54, 71 respectively. Climate of Kerala is most suites for the growth of Medicinal and Aromatic plants due to its diverse climatic conditions.. Many foreigners are Visting Kerala for Ayurvedic treatment and make research on this system.But various limitations like absence of systematic collection, unorganized trade, manipulative and exploitive practices etc still emeges as a problem.The main medicinal plants grown in our state are Adalodakom, Asokam, Brahmi, Kattarvazha, Kurumthotti, Neem,Thulasi etc. Majority of the medicinal plants are naturally grown and some of them are commercially cultivated. Even though all these problem are existing, we have enormous opportunity of commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. Below diagram shows the area of medicinal plants cultivated in Central Travancore region.
  • 21. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 21 Diagram 8: Medicinal Cultivation CT Region It shows that Idukki is in the forefront for the cutivation of medicnal plants with 5190.75 cents. Area of cutivation of medicinal plant in Kottayam is 2942.68 cents wheras in Kollam is 2781 cents. Above analysis shows that paddy and coconut are the major cultivated crop in this region. At the same time, it is clear that mixed crops have equal importance in the agricultural sector of central Travancore. Animal husbandry is the other area of consideration. Presence of abundant water resources opens the opportunity for fish farming. While considering the sustainable practices in agriculture sector, it is essential to promote organic farming and herbal farming.
  • 22. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 22 5. Role of Community radio in Agricultural development Agriculture is a highly knowledge-intensive sector requires continuous flow of information. Farmers urge for authentic, credible and usable information in traditional as well as established systems to operate more economically and efficiently. To cater to the needs of farmers and to empower the farming community, a coordinated effort and a well established system is required. To disseminate the information on sustainable agricultural practices, recent technologies and traditional knowledge community radio can play a lot. Effective awareness programs, knowledge sharing, education and communication services are the key strategies for sustaining agricultural growth and to tackle the issue of food shortage. In order to share, develop and spread knowledge, skills and attitudes Community Radio can play a key role. Community Radio can act as a powerful communication tool. It can create a platform for farmers to share their ideas and experiences, address their issues and needs. It has the power to raise the voice of those who are neglected by the main stream media. All India Radio (AIR) has been playing a significant role in agricultural development by broadcasting updated technological information on agriculture and other allied subjects to the farmers. Thus community radio works for social, environmental and economic development of people at grass root level through a participatory approach.
  • 23. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 23 6. Radio MACFAST – a tool for Agricultural Development in Kuttanad Albeit Radio MACFAST gives equal importance for the improvement of different social indices of local community, it also envisages to provide more attention to agricultural development in Kuttanad region. Farmers from different parts of Central Travancore participated in an agricultural seminar organized by Radio MACFAST. ‘Vithu Muthal Vilavu Vare’ – an agricultural development program broadcasts by Radio MACFAST receives overwhelming community response. It handles by different experts in agriculture field comprises of various topics like paddy cultivation, crop management, organic farming, waste management, vermi composting etc. Additionally, it broadcasts experience of farmers in different sectors. Above analysis proves that more focus is required in agriculture sector of Central Travancore. Radio MACFSAT can organize multitude of program in harness with farmers for the regional agriculture development. Additionally, Radio can act as a nodal point for farmers by sharing and disseminating knowledge. At the same time, financial constraints still bulge as hurdle for Radio to reach the farmers community more extensively. In order to spearhead its initiative for regional agricultural enhancement, it needs support from various agencies related to agricultural development. Radio MACFAST now put forward a novel project plan encompasses various awareness as well as action components. Hence Radio MACFAST can act as a role by broadcasting real voice of farming community.
  • 24. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 24 7. Radio for Farmers Development and Innovation (Radio FARMDI) Project Radio FARMDI Project is a concept put forward by Radio MACFAST for the development of farmers and the promotion of their innovations. Project comprises of awareness as well as action components. It intends to put prime focus on direct the involvement in farmers. Thrust areas of the project will be 1. Paddy Cultivation 2. Animal Husbandry 3. Mixed Farming/Cultivation 4. Coconut Development 5. Ornamental/Edible Fish Farming 6. Herbal Farming Project consists of an on air programs on various topics by different experts and veterans in agriculture sector. Along with these, it plans to disseminate the information about successful, low-cost practices in sustainable agriculture, nutrition, health and community development. As part of the Radio FARMDI project, it will develop content/materials on different agricultural topics that respond to local needs. Additionally it will organize some outdoor events like seminar, exhibitions, awareness programs, field visits etc. as part of the capacity building exercises. This in turn, shares the information with around fifteen lakhs listeners in Central Travancore region. 7.1. Objective of Radio FARMDI Project Broadcast and organize constructive programs for farming community Develop a platform for the local farmers to unite and talk Promote local culture, traditions and respect voices and decisions of farmers thereby encouraging community self-reliance and control of local development. . Share, promote and promulgate innovations and knowledge of local farmers Develop collaborations between farmers and different agencies involved in agriculture sector
  • 25. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 25 Encourage practices, policies and technologies that promote sustainable and equitable development. Promote the conservation of natural resources and bio-diversity for the benefit of all. Provide awareness and training in different areas of agriculture Provide capacity building programs for farming community Introduce new technologies and provide improved education to farmers Introduce new schemes, polices, subsidies and financial aids Encourage, recognize and award best farmers in different agricultural sectors. 7.2. Methodology Radio FARMDI Project consists of two components. Viz. Awareness and Action. Awareness components focus on improving the knowledge and skill of farmers and action components looks for production enhancement. Action component consist of various activities like the development of herbal farms, organic farms, vegetable cultivation etc. Radio will be used as a prime tool for awareness. At the same time equal priority will be given for outdoor events. Radio FARMDI Project encourages participatory approach through the involvement of farmers, agricultural experts and various agricultural agencies. Prime concentration will be to motivate farm communities to help themselves. Farmers will share their experiences through radio or using scripts. Along with this, programs on different topics will be broadcasted through Radio which will be dealt by experts. Radio itself will identify best farmers/practices and same will share through Radio Program. Radio FARMDI Project aims for active participation of farming community in Central Travancore region. It put forward the notion of participatory approach to ensure its extent of reach and to make it ubiquitous in this region. Radio can act as the voice of farmers through broadcasting myriad of programs of farmers, agriculture related agencies, stake holders and radio programmers. This Radio network will facilitate an exchange of information that aimed to enhance production and promote ecologically sound and environmental sustainable practices.
  • 26. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 26 Diagram 9: Radio FARMDI Project Methodology Sl. No. Topic Components I Agriculture – An overview 1 Role of Agriculture 2 Soils And Soil Classification Soil health and Agricultural soils What is soil health? Soil Composition and Formation Classifying Soil Groups and Soil Landscapes Soil Profiles Soil Horizons Key Properties of Selected Soil Groups Parent Materials Classifying Soils According to Hydrological Properties 3 Properties of Soils and Plant Nutrition
  • 27. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 27 4 Soil Testing Methods 5 Land Degradation and Other Soil Problems Soil Structure Decline Water Repellence Erosion Hard-Layers in Soils Transient Bonding; Compaction; Cementation; and Natural Rigidity Sub-Soil Compaction: Compression, shearing and smearing Soil Acidification Alkalinity and Sodicity Water-logging Salinity Chemical Residues 6 Soil Management on Farms Conservation Farming No-Tillage (Zero tillage) Minimum Tillage Trap Cropping Cover Crops and Green Manure Cropping Alley Farming (AF) Contour Farming and Strip Farming Controlled Traffic Farming Stubble Management Establishing Water and Nutrient Management Plans Soil Conservation Earthworks Integrated Pest Management Direct Drilling in Pasture Establishment Soil Management in Orchards Soil Management in Market Gardens 7 Sustainable ways of farming Whole farm planning Land Management programs Natural farming Organic farming Permaculture No Dig techniques Biodynamics
  • 28. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 28 8 Water 1. Types of water storage Livestock water requirements Water problems Water quality Reed beds Water saving measures Irrigation systems 9 Land Care Weed Management Preventative measures Tree management Timber lots/plantations Wind breaks Pest and diseases II Paddy Cultivation 1 Land preparation Time for land preparation Depth of plough/hoe Puddling Levelling 2 Seed selection and treatment Suitable varieties of paddy Seed rate per hectare Time of sowing Seed treatment 3 Nursery raising Methods of making nursery seed bed Days required for keeping seedlings in nursery before transplanting 4 Transplanting Age of the seedlings for transplanting Spacing for transplanting Depth of planting seedlings Number of seedlings per hill 5 Water management Level of water at the time of transplanting Irrigation at critical stages Drainage to prevent water logging 6 Manures & fertilizers Application of FYM and their quantity Knowledge of chemical fertilizers Doses of chemical fertilizers Methods of fertilizer’s application Time of fertilizer’s application Knowledge of Bio-fertilizers and their doses of application Methods of Bio-fertilizers application
  • 29. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 29 7 Plant protection measures Identification of diseases and their control measures Identification of pests and their control measures Proper handlingtechniques of sprayer/other plant protection equipments Identification of beneficial bio-agents to control pests Time for using Tricho cards to control stem borers 8 Intercultural operations Identification of Weedicides Doses of Weedicides Appropriate time for application of Weedicides Biological weed control 9 Improved farm implements Making of animal drawn plough Identification of paddy threshers for efficient work Repair and maintenance of farm tools and implements 10 Loan Financing agencies and types of loan available for farming community Exposure about procedures for availing loan with terms and condition for repayment 11 Harvesting Optimum time of harvesting Economic and efficient method of threshing 12 Post harvest measures Drying of harvested paddy Storage of harvested paddy Storage of seeds III Animal Husbandry 1 Dairy development Dairy Breeds Dairy Products The Lactation Cycle Pests & Diseases of Dairy Cattle Causes and Diagnosis of Disease Feeding Dairy Cattle Managing Dairy Cattle Breeding Dairy Cattle Managing Dairy Facilities Dairy Business Planning Calving and Culling Calving Management Calf Health Management
  • 30. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 30 Calf Rearing Systems Calf Housing Weaning Vaccination Schemes 2 Pig Farming 1 Introduction Background to pig raising Pig Farming Hybrids in pig farming Pig breeds Pig Production systems Building systems Environmental controls Building materials Floors Pig pens Waterers and feeders Fencing Waste water treatment using reed beds Water flow Anaerobic ponds Suitable plants 2 Breeding and selection Heritability in pigs Testing pig performance Points for selection Pure breeding Cross breeding Crossbreeding systems Single cross Back crossing Rotational crossing Hybrid breeding Artificial insemination Animal selection 3 Feeding Pigs Types of rations Energy requirements Protein requirements Mineral requirements Vitamin requirements Digestive system Understanding feeding Feeding on pasture
  • 31. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 31 4 Pig diseases General health problems Management practices Notifiable pig diseases Some major diseases affecting all pigs Diseases affecting sows Diseases of growing and fattening pigs Handling and restraining pigs Vices in pigs Summary of pig diseases Pre-weaning period Post-weaning period Breeder pigs 5 Managing the boar Selecting a boar Housing Feeding Health Breeding 6 Managing the sow and litter Selection of gilts Housing Feeding Weaning Ovulation During pregnancy Before farrowing Farrowing Lactation After farrowing Management of the suckling pig Marking Pigs and Ear Notching Points to consider at weaning 3 Poultry Farming
  • 32. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 32 1 Introduction Small Scale Production Breeds Classifying Fowls (Egg Laying Breeds, Meat or Table Birds, Dual Purpose Breeds) Cross Breed Poultry Sex Linkage Brooders Skeletal System Poultry Husbandry (Stock Selection, Feeding, Watering, Housing, Health) Turkeys Geese Ducks 2 Poultry Nutrition Digestive System Nutrient Sources Rationing Palatability The End Product Modern Feed Requirements Phase Feeding Limited Feeding Consumption Feeding 3 Diseases Avoiding Stress Viral diseases Bacterial diseases Mycoplasmosis, fungal and protozoan disease Non-infectious diseases 4 Layers Extensive (free-range) System Semi-Intensive System Intensive Systems Housing Deep Litter System Feeders Battery Units Feeding the Laying Hen Replacing the Flock 5 Broilers Caponising Brooding Period Feeding Broilers (Starter Period, Finisher Period) Housing Hygeine and Health
  • 33. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 33 6 Incubation The natural method (using broody hens) The artificial method (using incubators) Selecting Eggs Storing Hatching Eggs Turning Eggs Managing a Incubator Reasons for Poor Hatchability 7 Brooding Heating The canopy brooder The infra-red lamp The battery brooder The haybox brooder Feeders Drinkers Floor Space Rearing Problems during rearing 8 Record Keeping, economics and Marketing Growth Records Egg Production records Small Scale Business Compatible Ventures (Manure, etc) Preparing a Farm Business plan Finance Land Management Analyzing the Market place Developing a Marketing Plan IV Fish Farming 1 Introduction To Aquaculture Scope and nature of freshwater aquaculture Equipment and material suppliers 2 Production Systems - EP and IP Open, semi closed and closed systems Extensive production Intensive production Water containment ... earth, concrete,wood, brick, stone, fibre-glass, liners, etc Water Storage, siting, site
  • 34. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 34 3 What Species To Farm Selection criteria Climate Water resources Finance Scale of operation Other resources (manpower, knowledge, support services, etc.) Market demand and access Ecological considerations Risk Considerations Review of different fish 4 Setting Up A Fish Farm Land and water Water requirements Extensive production farms Intensive production pools and raceways Cages Biological filtration systems Filter efficiency Clearing turbid water in farms Protecting fish Improving genetic quality of fish Economics of establishing and running an aquaculture farm Financial Management Financial Institutions Better planning Economics What to Plan for Production and Marketing 5 Fish Foods & Feeding Scope and nature Pelleted feed Live feed Earthworm and Compost production 6 Harvesting Introduction Harvesting techniques Fish pumps Mechanical graders Fish health management Review of diseases 7 Aquarium 8 Ornamental fishes V Coconut Development
  • 35. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 35 Introduction Climate and Soil Varieties Planting Material Site Selection Preparation of Land & Planting Spacing & Systems of Planting Time of Planting Planting 10. Care of young Palms Manuring Irrigation Inter-cultivation Husk Burial Green Manure and Cover Crops Mixed/Inter/Multi-species cropping Mixed farming Pests and diseases Plant protection Hybrid varities Coconut oil and cholesterol Coconut intercroppings Coconut based products Import of coconut products Coconut mite Coconut wood Tender coconut water – benefits Coir Value added products Marketing strategies Coconut development board Schemes Technologies Coconut climbing techniques Coconut harvesting operations and crown cleaning aspects Spraying and pest control operation Pollination and hybridization techniques Plant protection measures Identification of tender nut, mature coconut and seed nut Developing Leadership quality and communication skills Entrepreneurship development skills Thrift/ Savings management
  • 36. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 36 VI Mixed Farming Mixed Farming – Advantage And Benefits Field Preparation Varieties And Significance Pineapple Banana Vegetable Cultivation Elephant-Foot Yam Groundnut Chillies Sweet Potato Tapioca Cocoa Cinnamon Pepper Clove Nutmeg Fodder Crops VII Herbal Farming Herbs Farming Introduction Cultivation Site and Soil Conditions Sowing Herb See Vegetative Propagation Types of herbs Culinary Herbs Aromatic Herbs Ornamental Herbs Medicinal Herbs Herbs for Beginning Gardeners Ornamental use of herbs on the land scape Table 7: Topics for Radio Program 7.3. Implementation Radio will be the prime method of communication. As mentioned earlier, radio will be the tool for continuous awareness. At the same time the project will get more momentum by organizing certain outside events. Radio FARMDI Project proposes a new program called ‘Krishipadam’ exclusively for agricultural development.
  • 37. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 37 Krishipadadam will be broadcasted thrice in a week. Total time devoted for this program is three hour. It includes one hour live/telephonic program and one hour recorded program. Recorded program will be broadcasted twice in a week and one program has duration of 30min. Sl. No. Program Category Time Schedule 1 Krishipadam Live Sunday 7.00 P.M to 8.00 P.M 2 Krishipadam Recorded Wednesday 7.00 P.M to 7.30 P.M 3 Krishipadam Recorded Friday 7.00 P.M to 7.30 P.M Table 8: Krishipadam Program Schedule 7.3.1. Duration and Schedule The programs will be started from March 4th. Proposed period for the program is 2 years. Schedule of the program is shown below. Sl. No. Time Schedule Topic 1 March 4 Sunday Introductory Program 2 March 7 Wednesday Introduction and role of agriculture 3 March 9 Friday Introduction and role of agriculture 4 March 4 Sunday Soil Management 5 March 7 Wednesday Soil health 6 March 9 Friday Soil health 7 March 11 Sunday Soil Protection 8 March 14 Wednesday Soil Erosion 9 March 16 Friday Soil Erosion 10 March 18 Sunday Soil testing 11 March 21 Wednesday Properties of Soils and Plant Nutrition 12 March 23 Friday Properties of Soils and Plant Nutrition 13 March 25 Sunday Organic farming 14 March 28 Wednesday Soil testing methods 15 March 30 Friday Soil testing methods 16 April 1 Sunday Mushroom Cultivation 17 April 4 Wednesday Land Degradation and Other Soil Problems 18 April 6 Friday Land Degradation and Other Soil Problems 19 April 8 Sunday Organic farming – Experience sharing by Farmer 20 April 11 Wednesday Soil Management on Farms 21 April 13 Friday Soil Management on Farms 22 April 15 Sunday Organic farming Experience sharing by Farmer
  • 38. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 38 23 April 18 Wednesday Sustainable ways of farming 24 April 20 Friday Sustainable ways of farming 25 April 22 Sunday Honey Cultivation 26 April 25 Wednesday Paddy cultivation 27 April 27 Friday Paddy cultivation 28 April 29 Sunday Paddy cultivation – Discussion and folklores 29 May 2 Wednesday Land preparation 30 May 4 Friday Land preparation 31 May 6 Sunday Paddy cultivation – Discussion and folklores 32 May 9 Wednesday Seed selection and treatment 33 May 11 Friday Seed selection and treatment 34 May 13 Sunday Paddy cultivation – Seeds - Discussion – farmers 35 May 16 Wednesday Nursery raising and transplanting 36 May 18 Friday Nursery raising and transplanting 37 May 20 Sunday Paddy cultivation – Land Preparation - Discussion – farmers 38 May 23 Wednesday Water management 39 May 25 Friday Water management 40 May 27 Sunday Paddy cultivation/Manuaring – Discussion – farmers 41 May 30 Wednesday Manures & fertilizers 42 June 1 Friday Manures & fertilizers 43 June 3 Sunday Paddy cultivation – Discussion – farmers and folklores 44 June 6 Wednesday Plant protection measures 45 June 8 Friday Plant protection measures 46 June 10 Sunday Paddy cultivation/Plant protection – Discussion – farmers 47 June 13 Wednesday Intercultural operations 48 June 15 Friday Intercultural operations 49 June 17 Sunday Paddy cultivation – Discussion – farmers and folklores 50 June 20 Wednesday Improved farm implements 51 June 22 Friday Improved farm implements 52 June 24 Sunday Paddy cultivation – best practices by farmer 53 June 27 Wednesday Loan 54 June 29 Friday Loan 55 July 1 Sunday Paddy cultivation – Discussion – farmers and folklores 56 July 4 Wednesday Harvesting 57 July 6 Friday Harvesting 58 July 8 Sunday Paddy cultivation – Discussion – farmers 59 July 11 Wednesday Post harvest measures 60 July 13 Friday Post harvest measures 61 July 15 Sunday Paddy cultivation – Discussion – Expert and Farmer
  • 39. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 39 62 July 18 Wednesday Dairy development 63 July 20 Friday Dairy development 64 July 22 Sunday Discussion on cattle management 65 July 25 Wednesday Dairy Breeds 66 July 27 Friday Dairy Breeds 67 July 29 Sunday Breeds 68 August 1 Wednesday Dairy Products 69 August 3 Friday Dairy Products 70 August 5 Sunday Lactation 71 August 7 Wednesday The Lactation Cycle 72 August 10 Friday The Lactation Cycle 73 August 12 Sunday Discussion on diseases 74 August 14 Wednesday Pests & Diseases of Dairy Cattle and Diagnosis 75 August 17 Friday Pests & Diseases of Dairy Cattle and Diagnosis 76 August 19 Sunday Discussion on diseases 77 August 22 Wednesday Feeding Dairy Cattle 78 August 24 Friday Feeding Dairy Cattle 79 August 26 Sunday Farmers experience 80 August 29 Wednesday Managing Dairy Cattle 81 August 31 Friday Managing Dairy Cattle 82 September 2 Sunday Farmers experience 83 September 5 Wednesday Breeding Dairy Cattle 84 September 7 Friday Breeding Dairy Cattle 85 September 9 Sunday High breeds 86 September 12 Wednesday Managing Dairy Facilities 87 September 14 Friday Managing Dairy Facilities 88 September 16 Sunday Calf Housing 89 September 19 Wednesday Dairy Business Planning 90 September 21 Friday Dairy Business Planning 91 September 23 Sunday Calf Management 92 September 26 Wednesday Calving and Culling 93 September 28 Friday Calving and Culling 94 September 30 Sunday Vaccination 95 October 3 Wednesday Calving Management 96 October 5 Friday Calf Health Management 97 October 7 Sunday Expert talk 98 October 10 Wednesday Calf Rearing Systems 99 October 12 Friday Calf Rearing Systems 100 October 14 Sunday Expert talk and discussion 101 October 17 Wednesday Calf Housing 102 October 19 Friday Calf Housing
  • 40. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 40 103 October 21 Sunday Farmers experience 104 October 24 Wednesday Weaning 105 October 26 Friday Weaning 106 October 28 Sunday Success story sharing by farmer 107 October 31 Wednesday Vaccination 108 November 2 Friday Vaccination 109 November 4 Sunday Expert discussion 110 November 7 Wednesday Schemes 111 November 9 Friday Schemes 112 November 11 Sunday General discussion 113 November 14 Wednesday Pig farming - Introduction 114 November 16 Friday Pig farming - Introduction 115 November 18 Sunday General discussion 116 November 21 Wednesday Breeding and selection 117 November 23 Friday Breeding and selection 118 November 25 Sunday General discussion 119 November 28 Wednesday Feeding Pigs 120 November 3o Friday Feeding Pigs 121 December 2 Sunday Pig diseases and prevention 122 December 5 Wednesday Pig diseases 123 December 7 Friday Pig diseases 124 December 9 Sunday Opportunities and scopes 125 December 12 Wednesday Managing the boar 126 December 14 Friday Managing the boar 127 December 16 Sunday Farmers experience 128 December 19 Wednesday Managing the sow and litter 129 December 21 Friday Managing the sow and litter 130 December 23 Sunday Success story 131 December 26 Wednesday Poultry Farming – Introduction 132 December 28 Friday Poultry Farming – Introduction 133 December 30 Sunday Poultry farming general discussion 134 January 2 Wednesday Poultry Nutrition 135 January 4 Friday Poultry Nutrition 136 January 6 Sunday Diseases and prevention – discussion 137 January 9 Wednesday Diseases 138 January 11 Friday Diseases 139 January 13 Sunday Diseases and prevention – discussion 140 January 16 Wednesday Layers 141 January 18 Friday Layers 142 January 20 Sunday Farmers experience 143 January 23 Wednesday Broilers
  • 41. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 41 144 January 25 Friday Broilers 145 January 27 Sunday Farmers experience sharing 146 January 30 Wednesday Incubation 147 February 1 Friday Incubation 148 February 3 Sunday Doubts and clarification 149 February 6 Wednesday Brooding 150 February 8 Friday Brooding 151 February 10 Sunday General discussion 152 February 13 Wednesday Record Keeping, economics and Marketing 153 February 15 Friday Record Keeping, economics and Marketing 154 February 17 Sunday Expert interview 155 February 20 Wednesday Fish Farming 156 February 22 Friday Fish Farming 157 February 24 Sunday General introduction 158 February 27 Wednesday Introduction to Aquaculture 159 March 1 Friday Introduction to Aquaculture 160 March 3 Sunday Aquaculture 161 March 6 Wednesday What Species To Farm 162 March 8 Friday What Species To Farm 163 March 10 Sunday Fish farm development 164 March 13 Wednesday Setting Up A Fish Farm 165 March 15 Friday Setting Up A Fish Farm 166 March 17 Sunday Fish varieties 167 March 20 Wednesday Fish Foods & Feeding 168 March 22 Friday Fish Foods & Feeding 169 March 24 Sunday Farm management 170 March 27 Wednesday Harvesting 171 March 29 Friday Harvesting 172 March 31 Sunday Expert interview 173 April 3 Wednesday Aquarium 174 April 5 Friday Aquarium 175 April 7 Sunday Farmers experience 176 April 10 Wednesday Ornamental fishes 177 April 12 Friday Ornamental fishes 178 April 14 Sunday Ornamental fishes 179 April 17 Wednesday Coconut Development 180 April 19 Friday Coconut Development 181 April 21 Sunday General introduction 182 April 24 Wednesday Introduction 183 April 26 Friday Introduction 184 April 28 Sunday Farmers story
  • 42. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 42 185 May 1 Wednesday Climate and Soil 186 May 3 Friday Climate and Soil 187 May 5 Sunday Verities and features – discussion 188 May 8 Wednesday Varieties 189 May 10 Friday Varieties 190 May 12 Sunday Expert discussion 191 May 15 Wednesday Site Selection 192 May 17 Friday Site Selection 193 May 19 Sunday Farmers talk 194 May 22 Wednesday Preparation of Land & Planting 195 May 24 Friday Preparation of Land & Planting 196 May 26 Sunday Manuring 197 May 29 Wednesday Care of young Palms 198 May 31 Friday Care of young Palms 199 June 2 Sunday Caring of palms 200 June 5 Wednesday Manuring 201 June 7 Friday Manuring 202 June 9 Sunday Pests and diseases 203 June 12 Wednesday Irrigation 204 June 14 Friday Irrigation 205 June 16 Sunday Pests and diseases – diagnosis 206 June 19 Wednesday Inter-cultivation 207 June 21 Friday Inter-cultivation 208 June 23 Sunday Plant protection 209 June 26 Wednesday Pests and diseases 210 June 28 Friday Pests and diseases 211 June 30 Sunday Farmers experience 212 July 3 Wednesday Plant protection 213 July 5 Friday Plant protection 214 July 7 Sunday Best stories 215 July 10 Wednesday Hybrid varieties 216 July 12 Friday Hybrid varieties 217 July 14 Sunday Coconut oil 218 July 17 Wednesday Coconut oil and cholesterol 219 July 19 Friday Coconut oil and cholesterol 220 July 21 Sunday Tender coconut 221 July 24 Wednesday Coconut intercropping 222 July 26 Friday Coconut intercropping 223 July 28 Sunday Virgin coconut oil 224 July 31 Wednesday Coconut based products 225 August 2 Friday Coconut based products
  • 43. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 43 226 August 4 Sunday Value added products 227 August 7 Wednesday Coconut wood 228 August 9 Friday Coconut wood 229 August 11 Sunday Schemes and possibilities 230 August 14 Wednesday Tender coconut water – benefits 231 August 16 Friday Tender coconut water – benefits 232 August 18 Sunday Farmers feed back 233 August 21 Wednesday Coir 234 August 23 Friday Coir 235 August 25 Sunday Farmers experience 236 August 28 Wednesday Value added products 237 August 30 Friday Value added products 238 September 1 Sunday Technologies 239 September 4 Wednesday Marketing strategies 240 September 6 Friday Marketing strategies 241 September 8 Sunday Expert talk 242 September 11 Wednesday Coconut development board 143 September 13 Friday Coconut development board 144 September 15 Sunday Farmers experience 145 September 18 Wednesday Schemes 146 September 20 Friday Schemes 147 September 22 Sunday Best practices 148 September 25 Wednesday Technologies 149 September 27 Friday Technologies 250 September 29 Sunday Best practices 251 October 2 Wednesday Identification of tender nut, mature coconut and seed nut 252 October 4 Friday Identification of tender nut, mature coconut and seed nut 253 October 6 Sunday Value added products 254 October 9 Wednesday Entrepreneurship development skills 255 October 11 Friday Entrepreneurship development skills 256 October 13 Sunday General discussion 257 October 16 Wednesday Mixed Farming – Advantage And Benefits 258 October 18 Friday Mixed Farming – Advantage And Benefits 259 October 20 Sunday Farmers experience 260 October 23 Wednesday Field Preparation 261 October 25 Friday Field Preparation 262 October 27 Sunday Farmers experience 263 October 30 Wednesday Varieties And Significance of Pineapple 264 November 1 Friday Varieties And Significance of Pineapple
  • 44. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 44 265 November 3 Sunday General discussion 266 November 6 Wednesday Banana 267 November 8 Friday Banana 268 November 10 Sunday Best stories 269 November 13 Wednesday Vegetable cultivation 270 November 15 Friday Vegetable cultivation 271 November 17 Sunday Vegetable cultivation 272 November 20 Wednesday Elephant foot yam 273 November 22 Friday Elephant foot yam 274 November 24 Sunday Vegetable cultivation 275 November 27 Wednesday Groundnut 276 November 29 Friday Groundnut 277 December 1 Sunday Banana 278 December 4 Wednesday Chillies 279 December 6 Friday Chillies 280 December 8 Sunday Organic farming 281 December 11 Wednesday Sweet potato 282 December 13 Friday Sweet potato 283 December 15 Sunday Tapioca 284 December 18 Wednesday Tapioca 285 December 20 Friday Tapioca 286 December 22 Sunday Farmers discussion 287 December 25 Wednesday Cocoa 288 December 27 Friday Cocoa 289 December 29 Sunday Farmers experience sharing 290 January 1 Wednesday Cinnamon 291 January 3 Friday Cinnamon 292 January 5 Sunday Pepper 293 January 8 Wednesday Pepper 294 January 10 Friday Pepper 295 January 12 Sunday Expert talk 296 January 15 Wednesday Clove 297 January 17 Friday Clove 298 January 19 Sunday General discussion – mixed farming 299 January 22 Wednesday Nutmeg 300 January 24 Friday Nutmeg 301 January 26 Sunday Indigenous varieties 302 January 29 Wednesday Ginger and Turmeric 303 January 31 Friday Ginger and Turmeric 304 February 2 Sunday Expert talk 305 February 5 Wednesday Herbal farming
  • 45. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 45 306 February 7 Friday Herbal farming 307 February 9 Sunday Relevance of herbal farming 308 February 12 Wednesday Ornamental Herbs 309 February 14 Friday Ornamental Herbs 310 February 16 Sunday Ornamental farming experiences 311 February 19 Wednesday Medicinal herbs 312 February 21 Friday Medicinal herbs 313 February 23 Sunday Medicinal herbs cultivation – opportunities 314 February 26 Wednesday Conclusion 315 February 28 Friday Conclusion 316 March 2 Sunday Conclusion Table 9: Detailed Production Chart of Krishipadam Program 7.3.2. Other Activities All the programs will give utmost importance for farmers benefit as well as farmers participation. To make the program rich in content, we gather and research information about successful, low-cost practices in sustainable agriculture, and others engaged in agriculture development. Scripts from farmers will be invited through radio and the same will be broadcasted. To enthuse farmers Radio will provide equal priority for awareness campaigns, local sensitization programs, exhibitions, publication of materials and field trips. 7.3.2.1. Awareness campaigns Awareness is a key component to disseminate recent trends/technologies/development/schemes in agriculture sector. In order to cater to the needs of farming community, intensive awareness programs and sensitization projects are required. These initiatives will provide venue for farmers to update themselves and get to know about scientific practices in agriculture. It will catalyze the process of educating farmers and will promote sustainable practices in agriculture sector. In order to ensure the extent of reach of Radio FARMDI Project, Radio MACFAST will organize different seminars, exhibitions and awareness classes in regular intervals. It will develop a platform for farmers to discuss, share and learn different practices in agriculture sector.
  • 46. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 46 These seminars will cover myriad topics related to agriculture that will be dealt by different experts in Government departments and farming community. Farmers can clarify doubts and can seek assistance from experts. Sl.No. Topic Number of Days Date Expected Number Farmers 1 Agriculture seminar and Project Inauguration 1 March 4. 2012 200 2 Paddy cultivation 1 July 11, 2012 50 3 Dairy Development 2 December 26, 2012 35 4 Organic Farming and Manure Preparation 1 January 10, 2013 50 5 Fish Farming 1 April 10, 2013 40 6 Food Processing 3 December 27, 2013 50 7 Mixed Farming 1 January 29, 2014 50 8 Farmers Meet 1 March 2, 2014 150 Table 10: Awareness Camps 7.3.2.2. Site visit Field visits are highly useful to get know things directly. Other than class room sessions, farmers can feel the ambience of model farms/cultivation centers. Along with real experiences, farmers can examine and analyze different sustainable practices in agriculture sector. Additionally, it will help to adapt best practices. Field trips will be to the selected farms/knowledge centers/agriculture fields. Details of proposed field visits are as follows. Sl. No Date Proposed Location Number of Farmers 2 March 13, 2013 Bodhana Tiruvalla 40 2 April 13, 2013 National Seed Farm, Polachira, Kaviyoor 30 3 December 27, 2012 Ambadiyil Dairy farm, Tiruvandiyoor, Chengannoor 30 4 June 10, 2013 Duck Farm, Niranam 30 5 August 10, 2013 Central Hatchery, Chengannoor 30 6 October 19, 2013 Herbal Farm, Mar Athanasios College for Advanced Studies, Tiruvalla 35 7 February 27, 2014 Farm, Varghese Thundiyamkulath 30 Table 11: Site Visits
  • 47. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 47 7.3.2.3. Krishivedi - New letter Krishivedi is newsletter that includes articles of experts, scripts of farmers and program schedule of radio. Additionally, it will gather information about the seminars, exhibitions, awareness classes. This newsletter will cover recently announced schemes and subsidies by different government departments. This quarterly newsletter will be supplied to farmers through radio centers, farmers societies and different stake holders. It includes promotion of training resources and opportunities offered by other organizations, and the publication of guidelines, tips, information about different farming issues. A part of the material wills focus on the promotion and dissemination of traditional knowledge in farming. Additionally, it will incorporate "best practices" of farmers from different areas. 7.3.2.4. Awards In the back ground radio programs and seminars, best farmers will be selected from major categories. Paddy Cultivation, Dairy Farming, Fish Cultivation, Herbal Farming and Mixed Farming will be selected sector for evaluation and awarding. Judgment panel constitutes of government department representatives and outside experts will evaluate the performance of farmers depending on the earlier published criteria. Best farmers will be recognized with cash awards. Additionally prestigious efforts will be recognized by other prizes. Details of prices are as follows. Sl. No. Sector Prize Amount (Rs.) Numbers 1 Paddy Cultivation 5,000 1 2 Dairy Development 5,000 1 3 Fish Cultivation 5,000 1 4 Herbal Farming 5, 000 1 5 Mixed Farming 5, 000 1 Table 12 – Project Awards
  • 48. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 48 7.4. Man Power Sl. No Designation Number 1 Project Director 1 2 Project Officer 1 3 Public Relation Officer 1 Table 13: Man Power Requirement 7.5. List of associated Experts Sl. No. Name Area of Expertise 1 Dr. C. Balagopal Plant Protection and Bio technology 2 Dr. Maya Subrahmanyan Herbal Farming 3 Dr. T.V.R. Nair Organic Farming and Mixed Farming 4 Dr. Reghurajan Medicinal Plants 5 Pinchu Thomas, Faculty, MACFAST Food Processing 6 John Korath, Program Officer, Bio Science Food and Vegetable Processing 7 Sam Eapen Paddy Cultivation 8 Fr. Thomas Peeliyanikkal Paddy Cultivation 9 K.G. Luke, Agricultural Officer Coconut Development 10 K.P. Philippose, Agricultural Officer Coconut Development 11 Deputy Director, Agricultural Office Agriculture 12 Amal Varghese Fish Cultivation 13 Thomas Varghese, Asst. Director, Fisheries Fish Farming 14 Anil Kumar, Ambadiyil Dairy Farm Poultry 15 Dr. George Varghese, Public Relation Officer Animal Husbandary 16 Shankaran Nambiar, Dairy Extension Officer Diary Development 17 Varghese Thundiyamkulath Organic Farming and Mixed Farming 18 Principal Agricultural Officer Agriculture Table 14: List of Associated Experts
  • 49. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 49 7.6. List of Agencies Associated Sl. No. Agencies Sector 1 Coconut Development Board Coconut 2 Rubber Research Institute, Kottayam Rubber 3 Agriculture Department Agriculture 4 Spices Board Spices 5 Fisheries Department Fish Cultivation 6 Paddy Research Institute, Alappuzha Paddy Cultivation 7 Sugar Cane Research Institute, Mankompu Sugar Cane 8 Ambadiyil Dairy farm, Tiruvandiyoor, Chengannoor Dairy Development 9 National Seed Farm, Polachira, Kaviyoor Paddy Cultivation 10 Duck Farm, Niranam Poultry 11 Central Hatchery, Chengannoor Poultry 12 Herbal Farm, Mar Athanasios College for Advanced Studies, Tiruvalla Herbal Medicine 13 Paddy Farmers Society, Niranam Paddy Cultivation 14 Dairy Development Society Dairy Development 15 RARAS, Kumarakom Agriculture 16 Krishi Vinjan Kendra Agriculture 17 Bodhana Tiruvalla Mushroom and Honey 18 Kerala agricultural university Agriculture 19 KISSAN Kerala Project Agriculture 20 Krishi Bbhavan Agriculture 21 District Agricultural Farm Agriculture 22 Kerala State Poultry Development Corporation. Poultry 23 Centre for Water Resource Development and Management (CWRDM) Water conservation 24 The Plantation Corporation of India Plantation 25 Kerala Kerakarshaka Sahakarana Federation(KERAFED) Agriculture 26 State Farming Corporation of Kerala Agriculture 27 Kerala State Horticultural Products Development Corporation Horticulture 28 Regional Agricultural Training center Agriculture 29 Ornamental Fish Breeding resource centre Ornamental Fishing 30 National Fish Farm , Polachira Fish farming Regional Artificial Insemination Centre (R.A.I.C), Ranni Fish farming Disease Investigation Laboratory and Avian Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Pathanamthitta and Thiruvalla Animal Husbandary
  • 50. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 50 Table 15: List of Associated Agencies 7.7. Finance Sl. No. Particulars Unit Cost (Rs.) Numbers Total (Rs.) 1 Radio Programs Recorded Programs 1500 200 300000 Live Programs 2000 116 232000 Honorarium 500 216 108000 TOTAL 640000 2 Awareness Programs/Seminars Materials 20 485 9700 Food and Refreshments 75 760 57000 Rent 1500 13 19500 Power and Sound 3000 13 39000 Expert Fee 1250 40 50000 Honorarium 100 270 27000 Travelling 1500 12 18000 Coordination 2500 12 30000 TOTAL 250200 3 Site Visit 3000 7 21000 4 Awards 5000 5 25000 5 Publicity 5000 1 5000 6 Miscellaneous 15000 1 15000 7 News Letter 7000 6 42000 TOTAL 62000 9 GRAND TOTAL 998200 Table 16: Project Finance (Rupees nine lakhs ninety eight thousand two hundred only)
  • 51. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 51 8. Conclusion In this era of globalization, radio can prove to a reachable, cost effective and reliable ICT for the people. In order give robustness to second stage initiatives for green revolution good impetus from all parts of the society is required. In this back ground, a media which has strong grass root level audience can play a vital role.Community Radio can act as the friend of farmers by providing services traditional knowledge, market information, agricultural technologies and production specific knowledge are critical for farmers. However using radio for agriculture extension is just one dimension, as rural radio can serve multiple roles of extending agricultural development in rural areas. The project initiated by Radio MACFAST in association NABRAD has the caliber to the meet the needs of farming community and to enhance agriculture development to an extent. Radio MACFAST 90.4 has indeed started its journey to bridge the knowledge divide by triggering a knowledge revolution among the people in and around Tiruvalla. Many golden feathers add to this in each and every pace of its pursuit. Above all, it has a precise position in the hearts of people. Its unending passion towards community, urge to revive people, efforts to raise religious, social, cultural and national integration, social and environmental consciousness make this race a never ending frisson. ******************************************
  • 52. Radio FARMDI Project – NABARD Radio MACFAST 90.4 Tiruvalla Page 52 Reference  Administrative Profile - ENVIS Centre Kerala State Council for Science, Technology & Environment (KSCSTE)  Training Needs of Paddy Cultivators in Nagaland - J.K. Chawang1 and K.K. JhA  ACS Distance Education – Course Module  Agricutural Statistics 2009-10, Department of Economics & Statistics, Kerala Page 71  Report Of Survey on Input Cost Prevailed In Fisheries Sector in Kerala, Department of Economics & Statistics Thiruvananthapuram – 2009, Page 25  Ksheeradhara Handbook, Page 30, NPCBB  District Handbook, Pathanamthitta, Page 37-40  Farm Guide 2000  Statistical Reports, Census Data – 2001, Department of Economics & Statistics, Kerala  http://www.farmradio.org/english/partners/privacy.asp  http://kerenvis.nic.in/isbeid/adminprofile.htm  http://pathanamthitta.gov.in/statistics.htm  Kerala Karshakan, June Edition, 2010  India’s Role in World Agriculture, Directorate-General for Agriculture and Rural Development, Page 12  Agriculture: National Portal of India @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

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