NATURAL LAW

“Natural law is the sharing in the
eternal law by intelligent creatures”.
Thomas Aquinas
Does natural = good? youtube
Origin: Aristotle & The Stoics
‘The natural is that which is equally valid
and depends not on being or not being ...
It is...
Aristotle’s teleological worldview
 Everything has a telos or purpose
 The telos comes from the nature (form,
design) of...
What is the natural purpose of….
 Bees
 A rose
 Volcanos
 Cows
 Humans?
Any problems?
3.2
But……
 Aristotle sees humans as “rational animals”,
so we have reason and animal instincts.
 Only by using our reason ca...
Aquinas
1224 - 1274
Absolutist Deontological
But derived from the teleological worldview
Eudaimonia – the telos of man
 The telos for Aristotle was a fulfilled, happy
life.
 Eudaimonia – human flourishing.
 A...
Unrelated good - God
 “Our ultimate end
is unrelated
good, namely
God, who alone
can fill our will to
the brim because
of...
Rational appetites – we have…
 Natural appetites we share with animals.
 Sense appetites such as love, fear, hate.
 Rat...
Four ideas of law in Aquinas
3.5 useful
analogy
 Eternal Law
 Divine Law
 Natural Law
 Human Law
The designer’s plan
A...
How to flourish (Aquinas)
The idea of our true human nature
What’s
best for
me?
Look how you’ve
grown! And so
wise! Exerci...
Aquinas’ starting point - synderesis
“Do good and avoid evil”
 General teleological principle
 Innate – a priori
 Reaso...
Primary Precepts
There are five:
 Preservation of life
 Reproduction
 Educate children
 Live in society
 Worship God
...
Q. Which of these natural goods
would you accept today?
 You are a Martian landing in the UK.
Would you observe humans pu...
Secondary Precepts
 Are an application of the primary precepts
 Exercise: in two columns fill in the primary
precepts an...
Self preservation and preservation of others
=
 Do not murder
 Do not abort unborn
 Defend the weak
 Do not commit sui...
Veritatis splendor (1995)
 “In order to perfect himself in his specific
order, the person must do good and avoid
evil, be...
Real and apparent goods
 Aquinas thought people couldn’t sin
deliberately because of synderesis.
 A real good is good ac...
Sexual ethics -
how do we interpret the application of the primary
precept of reproduction?
Continuation of species  sex ...
What if sex is not just for reproduction?
3.13
What if the function of sex is also :
 a). Pleasure
 b). Human bonding ??
And what if pleasure comes first!!!
Humanae Vitae 1967
 “Every marital act must of necessity retain
its intrinsic relationship to the procreation of
human li...
a false inference……..
 Sex may not be just for reproduction
 We can observe sex having more purposes
 If so…the inferen...
Ultimate purpose: to reach eternal
destiny with God
“ Man needs to be directed to his
supernatural end in a higher way.”
A...
We’re work-in-progress……
 Humans are work in progress to achieve our
ultimate end or telos.
 This ultimate end is to flo...
Strengths?
 Universality – Nuremberg trials
 Rational – “pattern of life according to
reason”, based on free choice.
 D...
Weaknesses?
 There isn’t one human nature.
 There isn’t one way of reasoning eg
Buddhist way different from scientific.
...
Final thought: was Paul a NL
theorist?
Summarise
Paul’s argument
in your own
words
“The Gentiles do not have the Law; but ...
Self-test questions
 Aristotle
http://www.jcu.edu/philosophy/gensler/ms/arist-05.htm
 Aquinas (22 multiple choice questi...
of 31

Natural law new version pmb ppt (2)

An exploration of the strengths and weaknesses of natural law as derived from Aquinas.
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Natural law new version pmb ppt (2)

  • 1. NATURAL LAW 
  • 2. “Natural law is the sharing in the eternal law by intelligent creatures”. Thomas Aquinas
  • 3. Does natural = good? youtube
  • 4. Origin: Aristotle & The Stoics ‘The natural is that which is equally valid and depends not on being or not being ... It is unchangeable’ . Nicomachean Ethics : Book V Chapter 7 ‘The law is right reason in agreement with nature’ . Cicero De Republica III xxii 3.1
  • 5. Aristotle’s teleological worldview  Everything has a telos or purpose  The telos comes from the nature (form, design) of a thing.  The efficient cause is anything that brings about the final cause eg going to school (efficient) produces A grades(final) which provides education (telos of human life)
  • 6. What is the natural purpose of….  Bees  A rose  Volcanos  Cows  Humans? Any problems? 3.2
  • 7. But……  Aristotle sees humans as “rational animals”, so we have reason and animal instincts.  Only by using our reason can we be moral agents (and knowledge is a natural or intrinisic good).  Our reason can frustrate this telos or purpose. 3.3
  • 8. Aquinas 1224 - 1274 Absolutist Deontological But derived from the teleological worldview
  • 9. Eudaimonia – the telos of man  The telos for Aristotle was a fulfilled, happy life.  Eudaimonia – human flourishing.  Aquinas believed there was a more perfect and fulfilling telos – God.  We have reason to discern the moral principles to live by.
  • 10. Unrelated good - God  “Our ultimate end is unrelated good, namely God, who alone can fill our will to the brim because of infinite goodness”. Thomas Aquinas
  • 11. Rational appetites – we have…  Natural appetites we share with animals.  Sense appetites such as love, fear, hate.  Rational appetites that make us special. “Whatever is contrary to the order of reason is contrary to the order of human beings….the good of the human being is to be in accordance with reason.” Aquinas 3.5
  • 12. Four ideas of law in Aquinas 3.5 useful analogy  Eternal Law  Divine Law  Natural Law  Human Law The designer’s plan A manual sent to us What we observe What we write down
  • 13. How to flourish (Aquinas) The idea of our true human nature What’s best for me? Look how you’ve grown! And so wise! Exercise 3.6
  • 14. Aquinas’ starting point - synderesis “Do good and avoid evil”  General teleological principle  Innate – a priori  Reasonable  “The habitual knowledge of first principles” - Aquinas Exercise 3.7
  • 15. Primary Precepts There are five:  Preservation of life  Reproduction  Educate children  Live in society  Worship God Can you think up an acronym to remember these by? ?
  • 16. Q. Which of these natural goods would you accept today?  You are a Martian landing in the UK. Would you observe humans pursuing these five ends (primary precepts) ?  Which end(s) would you change? Can you change it/them to something similar, but more up to date? 3.8 clip 2
  • 17. Secondary Precepts  Are an application of the primary precepts  Exercise: in two columns fill in the primary precepts and some secondary precepts which are applications of them. 3.9
  • 18. Self preservation and preservation of others =  Do not murder  Do not abort unborn  Defend the weak  Do not commit suicide Example: primary precept preservation of life
  • 19. Veritatis splendor (1995)  “In order to perfect himself in his specific order, the person must do good and avoid evil, be concerned for the transmission and preservation of life, refine and develop the riches of the material world, cultivate social life, seek truth, practise good and contemplate beauty.” para 51  How have the primary precepts altered? 3.10
  • 20. Real and apparent goods  Aquinas thought people couldn’t sin deliberately because of synderesis.  A real good is good according to NL.  An apparent good is a rational decision to pursue something that doesn’t perfect our nature, and “is opposed to the universal judgement of reason” – Aquinas ST I-II Q58 a5 3.12
  • 21. Sexual ethics - how do we interpret the application of the primary precept of reproduction? Continuation of species  sex is for Therefore, contraception is wrong. reproduction
  • 22. What if sex is not just for reproduction? 3.13
  • 23. What if the function of sex is also :  a). Pleasure  b). Human bonding ?? And what if pleasure comes first!!!
  • 24. Humanae Vitae 1967  “Every marital act must of necessity retain its intrinsic relationship to the procreation of human life, as a result of laws written into the actual nature of human beings..this teaching is in harmony with human reason”.  Do you agree? 3.13
  • 25. a false inference……..  Sex may not be just for reproduction  We can observe sex having more purposes  If so…the inference is false…from natural law itself!!  It’s based on partial observation of the telos of sex
  • 26. Ultimate purpose: to reach eternal destiny with God “ Man needs to be directed to his supernatural end in a higher way.” Aquinas II.i.Q91 art 4 Reason agrees with this, and so we should not be enslaved by our desires. Note: to Cicero and the stoic NL theorists our passions were the great enemy.
  • 27. We’re work-in-progress……  Humans are work in progress to achieve our ultimate end or telos.  This ultimate end is to flourish as human beings (Greek: eudaimonia = flourishing)  We can use our reason (God-given) to derive and interpret the design imprinted naturally (in nature..hence NATURAL LAW)
  • 28. Strengths?  Universality – Nuremberg trials  Rational – “pattern of life according to reason”, based on free choice.  Denies relativism.  Flexible in secondary precepts. 3.14
  • 29. Weaknesses?  There isn’t one human nature.  There isn’t one way of reasoning eg Buddhist way different from scientific.  There is no purpose – Richard Dawkins.  Derives an “ought” from an “is” – from state of nature to what’s good. 3.15
  • 30. Final thought: was Paul a NL theorist? Summarise Paul’s argument in your own words “The Gentiles do not have the Law; but they do by instinct what the Law commands, they are their own law, even though they do not have the Law. Their conduct shows that what the commands say, is written in their hearts. Their consciences also show that this is true, since their thoughts sometimes accuse them and sometimes defend them.’ Romans 2: 14-15
  • 31. Self-test questions  Aristotle http://www.jcu.edu/philosophy/gensler/ms/arist-05.htm  Aquinas (22 multiple choice questions) http://www.jcu.edu/philosophy/gensler/ms/aquina0n.htm  Link to the website for games and more questions http://www.philosophicalinvestigations.co.uk/index.php? view=category&id=41%3Anatural- law&option=com_content&Itemid=54