Copyright 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
Fixed-Dose Combination Therapy With Daclatasvir,
Asunapr...
Copyright 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
C
urrent estimates indicate that 130 million to 150 mil-...
Copyright 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
naive patients was significantly higher than the histori...
Copyright 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
were no treatment-emergent RAVs in NS3 or NS5B. The sec-...
Copyright 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
the sequence was non–genotype 1a and non–genotype 1b. Th...
Copyright 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
(2 with Q30H, 1 with M28T-Q30R, and 1 with Q30H-Y93H).
T...
Copyright 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
sion in the regimen: SVR rates for genotype 1b were 99.5...
Copyright 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have
compl...
of 8

Poordad 2015 JAMA UNITY1

Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Poordad 2015 JAMA UNITY1

  • 1. Copyright 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Fixed-Dose Combination Therapy With Daclatasvir, Asunaprevir, and Beclabuvir for Noncirrhotic Patients With HCV Genotype 1 Infection Fred Poordad, MD; William Sievert, MD; Lindsay Mollison, MD; Michael Bennett, MD; Edmund Tse, MD; Norbert Bräu, MD; James Levin, MD; Thomas Sepe, MD; Samuel S. Lee, MD; Peter Angus, MD; Brian Conway, MD; Stanislas Pol, MD; Nathalie Boyer, MD; Jean-Pierre Bronowicki, MD; Ira Jacobson, MD; Andrew J. Muir, MD; K. Rajender Reddy, MD; Edward Tam, MD; Grisell Ortiz-Lasanta, MD; Victor de Lédinghen, MD; Mark Sulkowski, MD; Navdeep Boparai, MS; Fiona McPhee, PhD; Eric Hughes, MD; E. Scott Swenson, MD; Philip D. Yin, MD; for the UNITY-1 Study Group IMPORTANCE The antiviral activity of all-oral, ribavirin-free, direct-acting antiviral regimens requires evaluation in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. OBJECTIVE To determine the rates of sustained virologic response (SVR) in patients receiving the 3-drug combination of daclatasvir (a pan-genotypic NS5A inhibitor), asunaprevir (an NS3 protease inhibitor), and beclabuvir (a nonnucleoside NS5B inhibitor). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This was an open-label, single-group, uncontrolled international study (UNITY-1) conducted at 66 sites in the United States, Canada, France, and Australia between December 2013 and August 2014. Patients without cirrhosis who were either treatment-naive (n = 312) or treatment-experienced (n = 103) and had chronic HCV genotype 1 infection were included. INTERVENTIONS Patients received a twice-daily fixed-dose combination of daclatasvir, 30 mg; asunaprevir, 200 mg; and beclabuvir, 75 mg. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary study outcome was SVR12 (HCV-RNA <25 IU/mL at posttreatment week 12) in patients naive to treatment. A key secondary outcome was SVR12 in the treatment-experienced cohort. RESULTS Baseline characteristics were comparable between the treatment-naive and treatment-experienced cohorts. Patients were 58% male, 26% had IL28B (rs12979860) CC genotype, 73% were infected with genotype 1a, and 27% were infected with genotype 1b. Overall, SVR12 was observed in 379 of 415 patients (91.3%; 95% CI, 88.6%-94.0%): 287 of 312 treatment-naive patients (92.0%; 95% CI, 89.0%-95.0%) and 92 of 103 treatment-experienced patients (89.3%; 95% CI, 83.4%-95.3%). Virologic failure occurred in 34 patients (8%) overall. One patient died at posttreatment week 3; this was not considered related to study medication. There were 7 serious adverse events, all considered unrelated to study treatment, and 3 adverse events (<1%) leading to treatment discontinuation, including 2 grade 4 alanine aminotransferase elevations. The most common adverse events (in Ն10% of patients) were headache, fatigue, diarrhea, and nausea. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this open-label, nonrandomized, uncontrolled study, a high rate of SVR12 was achieved in treatment-naive and treatment-experienced noncirrhotic patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection who received 12 weeks of treatment with the oral fixed-dose regimen of daclatasvir, asunaprevir, and beclabuvir. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01979939 JAMA. 2015;313(17):1728-1735. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.3860 Editorial page 1716 Related article page 1736 Supplemental content at jama.com CME Quiz at jamanetworkcme.com and CME Questions page 1752 Author Affiliations: Author affiliations are listed at the end of this article. Group Information: The UNITY-1 Study Group members are listed at the end of this article. Corresponding Author: Fred Poordad, MD, Texas Liver Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center, 607 Camden St, Ste 101, San Antonio, TX 78215 (poordad @uthscsa.edu). Research Original Investigation 1728 (Reprinted) jama.com Copyright 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Downloaded From: http://jama.jamanetwork.com/ by a Bristol-Myers Squibb User on 07/07/2015
  • 2. Copyright 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. C urrent estimates indicate that 130 million to 150 mil- lion people worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitisCvirus(HCV),resultinginupto350 000deaths per annum due primarily to cirrhosis, hepatic decompensa- tion, and hepatocellular carcinoma.1,2 Of the 7 HCV geno- types identified, genotype 1 is the most prevalent worldwide, accounting for approximately 60% of infections.3 Treatment options for HCV genotype 1 are evolving rapidly from inter- feron-based regimens to all-oral, direct-acting antiviral (DAA)– only regimens. Daclatasvir is a potent, pan-genotypic inhibitor of the HCV NS5AproteinthathasdemonstratedactivityagainstHCVgeno- types 1 through 6 in vitro.4 Asunaprevir is an NS3 protease in- hibitor with activity against genotypes 1 and 4.5 Beclabuvir (BMS-791325)isanonnucleosideNS5Bthumb-1polymerasein- hibitor with activity against genotypes 1 and 4. All-oral therapy with daclatasvir and asunaprevir for 24 weeks achieved a sus- tained virologic response at posttreatment week 12 (SVR12) in 90% of treatment-naive patients infected with genotype 1b.6 In phase 2b studies, 92% of treatment-naive patients infected with genotype 1 (1a and 1b) and 100% of treatment-naive pa- tients infected with genotype 4 achieved SVR12 with the all- oral,ribavirin-freecombinationofdaclatasvir,asunaprevir,and beclabuvir for 12 weeks.7,8 Here we report the findings of the multinational UNITY-1 study evaluating the all-oral, fixed- dose combination of daclatasvir, asunaprevir, and beclabuvir (DCV-TRIO regimen) among both treatment-naive and treat- ment-experiencedpatientswithHCVgenotype1infectionwho did not have cirrhosis (see the trial protocol in Supplement 1). Methods Patients were enrolled between December 2013 and February 2014 at 66 sites in the United States, Canada, France, and Aus- tralia, with patients followed up through August 2014. Patients receivedatwice-daily,fixed-dosecombinationofdaclatasvir,30 mg;asunaprevir,200mg;andbeclabuvir,75mg,for12weeksand were subsequently followed up for 24 weeks after treatment (posttreatment-week-24 evaluations are currently ongoing). Treatmentwasdiscontinuedincasesofvirologicbreakthrough, defined as a confirmed increase in HCV-RNA of 1 log10 IU/mL or greaterfromnadirorconfirmedincreaseinHCV-RNAtogreater than or equal to the assay lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ; 25 IU/mL) after a previous decline to less than the LLOQ. Eligible patients did not have cirrhosis, were treatment- naive or treatment-experienced, had chronic HCV genotype 1 infection,were18yearsorolder,andhadHCV-RNAgreaterthan 10 000 IU/mL. Treatment-naive patients had no prior expo- sure to any interferon formulation, ribavirin, or DAA. Treat- ment-experienced patients had received prior interferon-alfa therapy, with or without ribavirin; previous exposure to host- targeted and DAA agents of a mechanistic class other than NS5A, NS3 protease, or nonnucleoside NS5B (thumb-1 domain) polymerase inhibitors was permitted. The absence of cirrhosis was established by 1 of 3 criteria: a liver biopsy within 3 years of screening demonstrating a Metavir fibrosis score of F0 to F3, a FibroScan value of 9.6 kPa or less within 1 year of screen- ing, or a FibroTest score of 0.48 or less and aspartate amino- transferase (AST)-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) less than 1. If no biopsy or FibroScan result was available, the FibroTest/ APRI results could be used only if patients met the criteria for exclusion of cirrhosis with both assays. Patients were considered ineligible if they were co- infected with human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis B virus,hadalanineaminotransferase(ALT)levels5×upperlimit of normal or higher, or had any evidence of hepatic decom- pensation. Patient race was self-described as white, black/ African American, Asian, American Indian/Alaska native, or other to provide the basis for assessing the effect of race on virologic response. The protocol was approved by the institu- tional review board or independent ethics committee at each site, and all patients provided written informed consent. Assessments and End Points HepatitisCvirusRNAwasquantifiedatacentrallaboratoryusing the Roche HCV COBAS TaqMan Test v2.0 (LLOQ 25 IU/mL; limit of detection, ≈10 IU/mL). Genotype and subtype were deter- mined by the Abbott HCV Genotype II assay. In cases where genotype 1 was confirmed but subtype could not be deter- mined, the VERSANT HCV genotype 2.0 line probe assay (LiPA) was used to confirm subtype. IL28B genotype (rs12979860 single-nucleotidepolymorphism),whichisassociatedwithapa- tient’s response to antiviral therapy, was determined using the Applied Biosystems TaqMan assay. Resistance testing was per- formed by population-based sequencing (sensitivity, ≈25%) of NS3, NS5A, and NS5B at baseline and on samples with HCV- RNA of 1000 IU/mL or greater from patients with virologic fail- ure, defined as virologic breakthrough, detectable HCV-RNA at end of treatment, or relapse (undetectable HCV-RNA at end of treatment followed by confirmed detectable HCV-RNA >LLOQ during follow-up). Additional assessments included the inci- denceofadverseevents(AEs)andabnormalitiesinclinicallabo- ratory parameters, vital signs, and physical examinations. Virologic response was defined as an HCV-RNA value less thanLLOQ(<25IU/mL)ontreatmentandduringfollow-up.The primary end point was SVR12 (HCV-RNA <25 IU/mL, detectable or undetectable) among treatment-naive patients. A key sec- ondary end point was SVR12 in treatment-experienced pa- tients. Other secondary end points included the proportion of patientswithHCV-RNAlessthanLLOQandtheproportionwith undetectable HCV-RNA at treatment weeks 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 and posttreatment weeks 4, 8, and 12. Additional on-treatment end points included the frequency of serious AEs and discon- tinuations due to AEs. Statistical Analyses Analyses of SVR12 rates were based on an all-treated analysis that included all patients who received at least 1 dose of study medication (see the statistical analysis plan in Supplement 2). To determine whether the primary end point of SVR12 in treat- ment-naive patients was significantly higher than the histori- cal threshold rate of 79%, a 2-sided 95% confidence interval approach was used. If the lower bound of the 95% CI for the primaryendpointexceeded79%,itwasconcludedthatthepri- mary end point was met and that the SVR12 rate in treatment- Daclatasvir, Asunaprevir, and Beclabuvir for HCV Genotype 1 Original Investigation Research jama.com (Reprinted) JAMA May 5, 2015 Volume 313, Number 17 1729 Copyright 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Downloaded From: http://jama.jamanetwork.com/ by a Bristol-Myers Squibb User on 07/07/2015
  • 3. Copyright 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. naive patients was significantly higher than the historical threshold. The historical threshold rate was derived from SVR rates in treatment-naive, noncirrhotic patients treated with so- fosbuvirpluspeginterferon/ribavirin(eMethodsinSupplement 3). Similarly, for the key secondary end point of SVR12 in treat- ment-experienced patients, it was concluded that the SVR12 rate in this patient population was significantly higher than the historical control if the lower bound of the 95% CI exceeded 48%. For the treatment-experienced population, the histori- cal control rate was derived from a composite of SVR rates ob- served with simeprevir plus peginterferon/ribavirin in non- cirrhotic, previously treated patients. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS version 9.02 (SAS Institute). A target sample size of 300 treatment-naive patients was selected based on the anticipated minimum observed SVR12 rateof84%(252/300;95%CI,79.9%-88.1%)forthelowerbound to exceed 79% and conclude that the DCV-TRIO regimen is sig- nificantly higher than the historical control threshold. This sample size provided 95% confidence that the observed SVR12 rate can be estimated to within 4.1% of the estimates when the observed SVR12 is 84% or greater. The target sample size of 100 treatment-experienced patients was based on the antici- pated minimum observed SVR12 rate of 58% (58/100; 95% CI, 48.3%-67.7%) for the lower bound to exceed 48% and con- clude that the DCV-TRIO regimen is significantly higher than the historical threshold. This sample size provided 95% con- fidencethattheobservedSVR12ratecanbeestimatedtowithin 9.7% of the estimates when the observed SVR12 is 58% or greater. Results A total of 415 patients were enrolled and treated: 312 in the treatment-naivecohortand103inthetreatment-experiencedco- hort.Fifty-sevenpatientswereenrolledbutnottreated;reasons fornottreatingincludednolongermeetingstudycriteria(52pa- tients,primarilyduetolaboratoryexclusionsorcomorbidmedi- cal conditions, including cirrhosis), patient withdrawal of con- sent(3patients),losstofollow-up(1patient),andanunreported reason (1 patient). Among treatment-naive patients, there were 7treatmentdiscontinuations(2.2%);6patients(1.9%)discontin- uedtreatmentbeforeweek8becauseofvirologicbreakthrough and1patientdiscontinuedatweek6forpregnancy(thispatient achieved SVR12). Among treatment-experienced patients, 4 (3.9%) discontinued treatment: 1 patient experienced virologic breakthrough and discontinued before week 10, and 3 patients discontinuedbecauseofAEs.Allpatientswhodiscontinuedtreat- mentremainedinthestudytotheendoffollow-up.Basedonpill counts, patient diaries, and completed study visits, more than 90% of patients in the study were 95% adherent for both treat- ment dose and study duration. Patient demographics and baseline disease characteristics are summarized in Table 1. The study population was mostly male (58%) and white (87%), had genotype 1a (73%), and had a non–CC IL28B genotype (74%). The proportion of patients with baseline HCV-RNA of 800 000 IU/mL or greater and a non–CC IL28B genotype was higher among treatment-experienced pa- tientsthanamongtreatment-naivepatients.Amongtreatment- experienced patients, 39 patients (38%) had experienced a pre- viousposttreatmentrelapsewithinterferon-basedtherapyand 25 (24%) had a previous null response (Table 1). Virologic Response High rates of on-treatment (week 4 and week 12/end of treat- ment) virologic response were observed in both treatment- naive and treatment-experienced patients (Table 2 and the eTable in Supplement 3). Overall, an SVR12 was achieved by 379 of 415 patients (91.3%; 95% CI, 88.6%-94.0%) of this popu- lation infected with HCV genotype 1. The SVR12 rate was sig- nificantly higher than the historical control in both treatment- naive and treatment-experienced patients (the lower bounds of the 95% CI exceeded the threshold rates: 89% vs 79% for treatment-naive patients and 83% vs 48% for treatment- experienced patients); thus, the primary objective of the study was met. Compared with patients infected with genotype 1a, patientswithgenotype1binfectionachievedhigherSVR12rates (Table 2). Rates of SVR12 were comparable across subpopula- tionsbasedonbaselinecharacteristics,includingsex,age,HCV- RNA level, and IL28B genotype (Figure). Virologic Failure Virologic failure occurred in 34 patients (8%). A further 2 pa- tients were considered nonresponders because of missing data (1 death at posttreatment week 4 and 1 loss to follow-up after posttreatment week 4). Reasons that patients did not achieve SVR12 were similar in the treatment-naive and treatment- experienced populations (Table 2). Posttreatment relapse was the most frequent reason for failure (15 patients [5%] in the treatment-naive cohort and 6 patients [6%] in the treatment- experienced cohort). Virologic breakthrough occurred in 8 pa- tients (2%) overall. Among patients with genotype 1a infection, NS5A resistance-associated variants (RAVs) emerged in 30 of 31 pa- tients with available baseline and failure sequences, with the NS5A-Q30 RAV observed most frequently at failure (20 pa- tients). NS3 RAVs emerged at failure in 29 of 31 patients with available sequences; the NS3-R155 RAV was observed most fre- quently (26 patients). NS5B RAVs emerged at failure in 12 of 31 patients with available sequences; the NS5B-P495 RAV was ob- served most frequently (11 patients). Analysis of multiple RAVs waspossiblein32patientswhohadall3sequences(NS5A,NS3, and NS5B) available at virologic failure. Eleven patients had RAVs to all 3 drugs: virologic breakthrough was the most com- mon cause of treatment failure (5 virologic breakthrough, 4 de- tectable HCV-RNA at the end of treatment, 2 relapse). Nine- teen patients had RAVs to 2 drugs (all NS5A and NS3 RAVs); the most common cause of treatment failure was relapse (1 viro- logic breakthrough, 1 detectable HCV-RNA at end of treat- ment, 17 relapse). Two patients with genotype 1b infection experienced vi- rologic failure. One patient had been classified as genotype 1b at screening by the Abbott assay. In this patient, sequencing at virologic breakthrough showed HCV genotype 2b se- quence but not genotype 1b. Treatment-emergent NS5A RAVs were detected in this genotype 2b–infected patient, but there Research Original Investigation Daclatasvir, Asunaprevir, and Beclabuvir for HCV Genotype 1 1730 JAMA May 5, 2015 Volume 313, Number 17 (Reprinted) jama.com Copyright 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Downloaded From: http://jama.jamanetwork.com/ by a Bristol-Myers Squibb User on 07/07/2015
  • 4. Copyright 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. were no treatment-emergent RAVs in NS3 or NS5B. The sec- ond patient infected with genotype 1b whose treatment failed had been classified as genotype 1 without subtype by the Abbott assay during screening and was genotype 1b by LiPA. Amplification of NS5A and NS3 regions from samples at base- line and at failure was not possible with genotype 1b– or geno- type 1a–specific primers used for genotypic analysis; amplifi- cationoftheseregionsusingalternativeprimersconfirmedthat Table 1. Baseline Demographic and Disease Characteristics Treatment-Naive Patients (n = 312) Treatment-Experienced Patients (n = 103) Total (N = 415) Age, median (range), y 53.5 (19-77) 57.0 (22-69) 55.0 (19-77) Male sex, No. (%) 175 (56.1) 64 (62.1) 239 (57.6) Race, No. (%) White 270 (86.5) 91 (88.3) 361 (87.0) Black/African American 34 (10.9) 7 (6.8) 41 (9.9) Asian 6 (1.9) 2 (1.9) 8 (1.9) Other 2 (0.6) 3 (2.9) 5 (1.2) HCV-RNA, No. (%) <800 000 IU/mL 68 (21.8) 10 (9.7) 78 (18.8) ≥800 000 IU/mL 244 (78.2) 93 (90.3) 337 (81.2) HCV genotype 1 subtype, No. (%) 1a 229 (73.4) 75 (72.8) 304 (73.3) 1b 83 (26.6) 28 (27.2) 111 (26.7) IL28B genotype, No. (%) CC 90 (28.8) 16 (15.5) 106 (25.5) CT 174 (55.8) 73 (70.9) 247 (59.5) TT 47 (15.1) 14 (13.6) 61 (14.7) Not reported 1 (0.3) 0 1 (0.2) Prior interferon-based treatment, No. (%) 93 (90.3) 93 (22.4) Posttreatment relapse 39 (37.9) 39 (9.4) Null response 25 (24.3) 25 (6.0) Partial response 12 (11.7) 12 (2.9) Interferon intolerant 7 (6.8) 7 (1.7) Indeterminatea 10 (9.7) 10 (2.4) Other prior anti-HCV treatment, No. (%) 10 (9.7)b 10 (2.4) Abbreviation: HCV, hepatitis C virus. a Prior treatment response missing or could not be categorized. b Other treatments included balapiravir, IDX184, mericitabine, and amantadine in combination with peginterferon. Table 2. Virologic Response Treatment-Naive Patients (n = 312)a Treatment-Experienced Patients (n = 103)a Total (N = 415)a SVR12, No./Total No. (%) [95% CI] 287 (92.0) [89.0-95.0] 92 (89.3) [83.4-95.3] 379 (91.3) [88.6-94.0] Genotype 1a 206/229 (90.0) [86.1-93.8] 64/75 (85.3) [77.3-93.3] 270/304 (88.8) [85.3-92.4] Genotype 1b 81/83 (97.6) [91.6-99.7]b 28/28 (100.0) [87.7-100]b 109/111 (98.2) [93.6-99.8]b Undetectable HCV-RNA, No. (%) [95% CI] Week 4 248 (79.5) [75.0-84.0] 71 (68.9) [60.0-77.9] 319 (76.9) [72.8-80.9] Week 12/end of treatment 301 (96.5) [93.8-98.2]b 98 (95.1) [89.0-98.4]b 399 (96.1) [93.8-97.8]b Nonresponse (non-SVR12), No. (%) All 25 (8.0) 11 (10.7) 36 (8.7) On-treatment failures, No. (%) Virologic breakthrough 6 (1.9) 2 (1.9) 8 (1.9) Otherc 3 (1.0) 2 (1.9) 5 (1.2) Posttreatment failures, No./Total No. (%)d Posttreatment relapse 15/301 (5.0) 6/98 (6.1) 21/399 (5.3) Other posttreatment nonresponse 1/301 (<1)e 1/98 (<1)f 2/399 (<1) Abbreviations: HCV, hepatitis C virus; SVR12, sustained virologic response at posttreatment week 12. a Column heading values apply to all entries unless denominator provided. b Exact binomial confidence interval. c Other on-treatment failures included nonresponders with missing or detectable HCV-RNA at end of treatment. d Posttreatment failure rates based on patients with undetectable HCV-RNA at end of treatment. e Patient was lost to follow-up at posttreatment week 4. f Patient died before posttreatment week 4. Daclatasvir, Asunaprevir, and Beclabuvir for HCV Genotype 1 Original Investigation Research jama.com (Reprinted) JAMA May 5, 2015 Volume 313, Number 17 1731 Copyright 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Downloaded From: http://jama.jamanetwork.com/ by a Bristol-Myers Squibb User on 07/07/2015
  • 5. Copyright 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. the sequence was non–genotype 1a and non–genotype 1b. This patient was of African descent with an HCV genotype se- quence approximately 96% homologous to that of a previ- ously reported GT1 sequence yet to be designated a subtype.9 Baseline NS5A polymorphisms at amino acid positions 28, 30, 31, or 93 (positions previously associated with resistance to daclatasvir) were detected in genotype 1a samples from 34 of 302 patients (11%) and in genotype 1b samples from 17 of 106 patients (16%) with available data. All 17 patients with geno- type 1b infection achieved SVR12 (Table 3). Among the 34 pa- tients with genotype 1a infection and baseline NS5A RAVs, 25 (74%) achieved SVR12. Of the 9 patients who did not achieve SVR12, 1 had undetectable HCV-RNA before being lost to follow-up at posttreatment week 4, and of the remaining 8 pa- tients, 4 had baseline NS5A polymorphisms that conferred 1000-fold or greater reduction in susceptibility to daclatasvir Figure. Sustained Virologic Response Rates at Posttreatment Week 12 by Baseline Subgroups in Treatment- Naive and Treatment-Experienced Patients 0 60 10040 80 % of Patients (95% CI) 20 Treatment-naive patientsA No. of Patients Achieving SVR12/Total No. of Patients (%) Sex Male Overall Female Age, y <65 ≥65a HCV genotype 1a 1ba Baseline HCV-RNA <800000 IU/mLa ≥800000 IU/mL IL28B rs12979860 CC Non-CC Asiana Othera Race White 164/175 (93.7) 287/312 (92.0) 123/137 (89.8) 271/293 (92.5) 16/19 (84.2) 206/229 (90.0) 81/83 (97.6) 65/68 (95.6) 222/244 (91.0) 85/90 (94.4) 201/221 (91.0) 5/6 ( 83.3) 2/2 (100.0) 248/270 (91.9) 32/34 (94.1)Black/African American 0 60 10040 80 % of Patients (95% CI) 20 Treatment-experienced patientsB No. of Patients Achieving SVR12/Total No. of Patients (%) Sex Male Overall Femalea Age, y <65 ≥65 HCV genotype 1a 1ba Baseline HCV-RNA <800000 IU/mLa ≥800000 IU/mL IL28B rs12979860 CCa Non-CC Asiana Othera Race White 54/64 (84.4) 92/103 (89.3) 38/39 (97.4) 86/97 (88.7) 6/6 (100.0) 64/75 (85.3) 28/28 (100.0) 10/10 (100.0) 82/93 (88.2) 15/16 (93.8) 77/87 (88.5) 2/2 (100.0) 3/3 (100.0) 81/91 (89.0) 6/7 (85.7)Black/African Americana HCV indicates hepatitis C virus; SVR12, sustained virologic response at posttreatment week 12. a Exact binomial confidence interval. Research Original Investigation Daclatasvir, Asunaprevir, and Beclabuvir for HCV Genotype 1 1732 JAMA May 5, 2015 Volume 313, Number 17 (Reprinted) jama.com Copyright 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Downloaded From: http://jama.jamanetwork.com/ by a Bristol-Myers Squibb User on 07/07/2015
  • 6. Copyright 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. (2 with Q30H, 1 with M28T-Q30R, and 1 with Q30H-Y93H). There was no association between baseline polymorphisms in NS3 or NS5B and SVR12; the frequency of NS3-Q80K and NS5B- A421V variants at baseline (36% and 22%, respectively) was comparable in those who achieved or failed to achieve SVR12 (39% and 23%, respectively). AEs and Laboratory Abnormalities SeriousAEsoccurredin7patients,allofwhichwereconsidered unrelatedtostudytreatment.Onepatientdiedatposttreatment week 3 due to a heroin overdose, which was not considered re- latedtostudymedicationbytheinvestigator.Themostcommon AEsobservedduringtreatment(≥10%ofpatients)wereheadache, fatigue, diarrhea, and nausea (Table 4). Adverse events leading tothediscontinuationoftreatmentoccurredin3patients(<1%): insomnia (reported as an AE at week 2, but treatment was not discontinued until week 10), elevated ALT (grade 4 at week 6 [579U/L];ALTlevelsreturnedtonearbaselineafter4weeks;total bilirubin,internationalnormalizedratio[INR],andalbuminwere within normal ranges), and elevated ALT/AST (grade 4 ALT [862 U/L] and grade 2 total bilirubin [2.3 mg/dL] at week 11; ALT andbilirubinlevelsnormalizedafter3weeksand9days,respec- tively; INR and albumin remained normal). All these AEs were consideredrelatedtostudytreatmentandall3patientsachieved SVR12.Grade1through4on-treatmentALTelevationswereob- served in 38 patients overall, with grade 3 or 4 elevations in 19 patients(4.6%).Themajorityofgrade3or4ALTelevations(14/19) occurred at treatment week 12 and all resolved during follow- up.Twopatientswithgrade3ALTelevation(peakALToccurring at day 57 and 73, respectively) continued treatment without in- terruption and resolved during follow-up. One patient exper- iencedagrade3ALTelevationinthecontextofmildrhabdomy- olysis at day 48 caused by an ankle injury (peak ALT = 184 U/L, AST = 405U/L,creatinephosphokinase = 4550U/L);HCVtreat- mentcontinuedwithoutinterruptionbutwassubsequentlydis- continued because of viral breakthrough at day 57. Grade 1 or 2 on-treatment bilirubin elevations were reported in 10 patients (2.4%),butnonewereassociatedwithALTgreaterthan2×base- line and 5× upper limit of normal. Discussion This study evaluated 12 weeks of treatment with a fixed-dose combination of daclatasvir, asunaprevir, and beclabuvir in pa- tients infected with HCV genotype 1 without cirrhosis. Sus- tained virologic response at posttreatment week 12 was achieved by 92% of treatment-naive patients and 89% of pa- tients previously treated for HCV infection, with low rates of serious AEs and treatment discontinuations. Thus, this study demonstratesthat12weeksoftherapywiththeDCV-TRIOregi- men without ribavirin was associated with high rates of SVR12 in patients with HCV genotype 1 infection. TheSVR12ratesobservedinthisstudyarecomparablewith results observed with other phase 3 studies of all-oral, DAA- onlyregimensinpatientswithHCVgenotype1infection.Treat- mentwithafixed-dosecombinationofsofosbuvirplusledipas- vir for 12 weeks resulted in SVR12 rates of 95% to 99% and 94% in treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients, respectively.10-12 Similarly,aregimenofABT-450/ritonavir,om- bitasvir, dasabuvir, and ribavirin for 12 weeks provided SVR12 rates of 96% in both treatment-naive and treatment- experienced patients.13,14 The SVR12 rates in this study are also similartothoseobservedamongtreatment-naivepatientswith genotype 1 infection in phase 2 studies of this regimen7,15 ; how- ever,thedatapresentedhereincludetreatment-experiencedpa- tients and only the beclabuvir, 75-mg, dose component of the DCV-TRIOfixed-dosecombination.Furthermore,SVR12ratesin this study were consistently high across baseline subgroups of patients, including sex, age, HCV-RNA level, and IL28B geno- type,suggestingthatthisregimenhasthepotentialtobebroadly effective across genotype 1 patient populations. Rates of SVR12 among patients infected with genotype 1b were higher com- pared with patients infected with genotype 1a in both the treat- ment-naive cohort (98% vs 90%, respectively) and treatment- experiencedcohort(100%vs85%,respectively).LowerSVRrates with genotype 1a compared with genotype 1b were also ob- served with a 12-week regimen of paritaprevir/ritonavir, ombi- tasvir, and dasabuvir and further affected by ribavirin inclu- Table 3. Sustained Virologic Response Rates at Posttreatment Week 12 by Baseline NS5A Polymorphisms NS5A Polymorphisma No./Total No. (%)b Treatment-Naive Patients (n = 312) Treatment-Experienced Patients (n = 103) Total (N = 415) Genotype 1a M28: L/I/T/V 12/17 (71) 8/9 (89) 20/26 (77) Q30: H/R 0/5 1/1 (100) 1/6 (17) L31: M 2/2 (100) 2/2 (100) 4/4 (100) Y93: C/H 1/2 (50) 0 1/2 (50) M28, Q30, L31, or Y93c 15/23 (65) 10/11 (91) 25/34 (74) Genotype 1b L28: M/V 1/1 (100) 1/1 (100) 2/2 (100) R30: Q 3/3 (100) 1/1 (100) 4/4 (100) L31: I/M 3/3 (100) 1/1 (100) 4/4 (100) Y93: H 6/6 (100) 3/3 (100) 9/9 (100) L28, R30, L31, or Y93c 12/12 (100) 5/5 (100) 17/17 (100) Abbreviations: C, cysteine; H, histidine; I, isoleucine; L, leucine; M, methionine; Q, glutamine; R, arginine; SVR12, sustained virologic response at posttreatment week 12; T, threonine; V, valine; Y, tyrosine. a Reference wild-type amino acid (for genotype 1a, H77 strain; for genotype 1b, Con1 strain), NS5A amino acid number: polymorphism. Multiple polymorphisms identified at an amino acid number are separated by a slash. b Number of patients achieving SVR12/total number of patients with baseline polymorphism (%). c Includes patients with Ն1 NS5A resistance-associated variants at baseline. Daclatasvir, Asunaprevir, and Beclabuvir for HCV Genotype 1 Original Investigation Research jama.com (Reprinted) JAMA May 5, 2015 Volume 313, Number 17 1733 Copyright 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Downloaded From: http://jama.jamanetwork.com/ by a Bristol-Myers Squibb User on 07/07/2015
  • 7. Copyright 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. sion in the regimen: SVR rates for genotype 1b were 99.5% with ribavirin and 99.0% without ribavirin, and among those with genotype 1a, SVR rates were 97% and 90%, respectively.16 The addition of ribavirin to the DCV-TRIO regimen was not evalu- atedinthisstudybutmayincreaseratesofSVR12inpatientsin- fectedwithHCVgenotype1a.DCV-TRIOplusribavirinwasevalu- ated in patients with compensated cirrhosis and demonstrated high SVR12 rates of 98% and 93% in treatment-naive and treat- ment-experienced patients, respectively (UNITY-217 ). Baseline NS5A polymorphisms associated with resis- tance to daclatasvir were observed infrequently in this study (12.5%ofpatients).Allgenotype1b–infectedpatientswithbase- line NS5A polymorphisms achieved SVR12, and of the 34 geno- type 1a patients with baseline polymorphisms, 25 achieved SVR12,demonstratingthatthesepolymorphismswerenotfully predictive of treatment failure in genotype 1a–infected pa- tients. Emergent RAVs detected in patients experiencing vi- rologic failure were similar to those observed previously with DCV-TRIO.15 Resistance-associated variants at amino acid po- sitions NS5A-Q30, NS3-R155K, and NS5B-P495 were observed mostfrequentlyatviralbreakthrough;NS5Bvariantsweregen- erally not observed in patients experiencing relapse. The limitations of this study include an open-label study design with no active comparator; at the time of study initia- tion,theonlyactivecomparatorwouldhavebeenaninterferon- containing regimen. Patients with cirrhosis, who represent a population with a current unmet need that is predicted to in- crease significantly as the HCV-infected patient population in- creases in age, were also excluded from this study. Further- more,thisstudyenrolledalownumberofpatientsofblackrace; while this may make extrapolation of these results to the wider population of black patients with HCV more difficult, high SVR12 rates (93%; 38/41) were observed among black patients receiving DCV-TRIO in this study. Consistent with other all-oral, DAA-only regimens, DCV- TRIO was associated with low frequencies of serious AEs and discontinuationsduetoAEs.Themostcommongrade3/4labo- ratory abnormality occurring in the study was ALT elevation, occurring in 4.6% of patients. No concomitant grade 3/4 total bilirubinelevationswereobserved,andallALTelevationswere reversible, consistent with previous studies evaluating asu- naprevir-containing regimens.6,18-21 No grade 3/4 anemia was observed with the ribavirin-free DCV-TRIO regimen. Conclusions Inthisopen-label,nonrandomized,uncontrolledstudy,ahighrate of SVR12 was achieved in treatment-naive and treatment- experiencednoncirrhoticpatientswithchronicHCVgenotype1 infectionwhoreceived12weeksoftreatmentwiththeoralfixed- dose regimen of daclatasvir, asunaprevir, and beclabuvir. ARTICLE INFORMATION Author Affiliations: Texas Liver Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (Poordad); Monash Health and Monash University, Melbourne, Australia (Sievert); Fremantle Hepatitis Services, School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Fremantle, Australia (Mollison); Medical Associates Research Group, San Diego, California (Bennett); Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, Australia (Tse); James J. Peters Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Bronx, New York (Bräu); Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York (Bräu); Dean Foundation, Madison, Wisconsin (Levin); University Gastroenterology, Providence, Rhode Island (Sepe); University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada (Lee); Austin Hospital, Victoria, Australia (Angus); Vancouver Infectious Diseases Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (Conway); Université Paris Descartes, AP-HP, Unité d’Hépatologie, Hôpital Cochin, INSERM UMS-20, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France (Pol); Service d’Hépatologie, Hôpital Beaujon, Clichy, France (Boyer); INSERM U954, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nancy, Université de Lorraine, Vandoeuvre les Nancy, France (Bronowicki); Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York (Jacobson); Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (Muir); University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (Reddy); LAIR Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (Tam); Fundacion de Investigacion, San Juan, Puerto Rico (Ortiz-Lasanta); Hôpital Du Haut- Leveque, Pessac, France (de Lédinghen); Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (Sulkowski); Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, New Jersey (Boparai, Hughes); Bristol- Myers Squibb, Wallingford, Connecticut (McPhee, Swenson, Yin). Author Contributions: Dr Poordad had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Study concept and design: Sulkowski, Boparai, Hughes, Swenson, Yin. Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors. Drafting of the manuscript: Poordad, Sievert, Angus, Boparai, McPhee, Swenson, Yin. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Poordad, Sievert, Mollison, Bennett, Tse, Bräu, Levin, Sepe, Lee, Conway, Pol, Boyer, Bronowicki, Jacobson, Muir, Reddy, Tam, Ortiz-Lasanta, de Lédinghen, Sulkowski, Boparai, McPhee, Hughes, Swenson, Yin. Statistical analysis: Muir, Boparai, Swenson, Yin. Obtained funding: Yin. Administrative, technical, or material support: Mollison, Tse, Bräu, Sepe, Boyer, Jacobson, Reddy, Tam, Sulkowski, McPhee, Hughes, Swenson, Yin. Study supervision: Mollison, Bennett, Bräu, Conway, Boyer, Muir, Tam, Hughes, Yin. Table 4. Summary of On-Treatment Adverse Events and Grade 3/4 Laboratory Abnormalities No. of Patients (%) (N = 415) Serious AEsa 7 (1.7) AEs leading to discontinuationb 3 (0.7) AEs (any grade) in ≥10% of patients Headache 107 (25.8) Fatigue 69 (16.6) Diarrhea 58 (14.0) Nausea 56 (13.5) Grade 3/4 laboratory abnormalities Hemoglobin <9.0 g/dL 0 Platelets <50 × 109 /L 0 Leukocytes <1.5 × 109 /L 0 Lymphocytes <0.5 × 109 /L 1 (0.2) Neutrophils <0.75 × 109 /L 2 (0.5) Alanine aminotransferase >5× ULN 19 (4.6) Aspartate aminotransferase >5× ULN 9 (2.2) Bilirubin, total >2.5× ULN 0 Lipase, total >3.0× ULN 16 (3.9)c Abbreviations: AEs, adverse events; SVR12, sustained virologic response at posttreatment week 12; ULN, upper limit of normal. a All serious AEs were judged by the investigator as not related to study drug. b All 3 patients discontinued because of related AEs, and all 3 achieved SVR12. c None of the grade 3/4 total lipase elevations were associated with pancreatitis. Research Original Investigation Daclatasvir, Asunaprevir, and Beclabuvir for HCV Genotype 1 1734 JAMA May 5, 2015 Volume 313, Number 17 (Reprinted) jama.com Copyright 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Downloaded From: http://jama.jamanetwork.com/ by a Bristol-Myers Squibb User on 07/07/2015
  • 8. Copyright 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Poordad reported having received grants and personal fees from Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead, AbbVie, Janssen, Merck, Novartis, and Salix and grants from Idenix, Theravance, and Achillion. Dr Sievert reported having received grants and personal fees from Bristol-Myers Squibb and personal fees from Merck, AbbVie, Gilead, and Roche. Dr Mollison reported having received personal fees from Bristol-Myers Squibb. Dr Bräu reported having received grants from Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead, AbbVie, and Vertex. Dr Levin reported having received personal fees or other support from Merck, Gilead, Bristol-Myers Squibb, and Janssen. Dr Sepe reported having received grants and personal fees from and having served on a speakers’ bureau for Gilead and AbbVie. Dr Lee reported having received grants and personal fees from Bristol-Myers Squibb, AbbVie, Achillion, Boehringer Ingelheim, Debio, GlaxoSmithKline, Gilead, Janssen, Genentech-Roche, Merck, Novartis, and Vertex. Dr Conway reported having received grants and personal fees from Vertex Pharmaceuticals, Merck, Boehringer Ingelheim, and Janssen Pharmaceuticals and grants from AbbVie and Gilead Sciences. Dr Pol reported having received research funding from Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead, Roche, and Merck Sharp & Dohme and serving as a speaker and board member for Bristol-Myers Squibb, GlaxoSmithKline, Boehringer Ingelheim, Janssen, Gilead, Roche, Merck, Sanofi, Novartis, Vertex Pharmaceuticals, and AbbVie. Dr Boyer reported having received personal fees from Merck Sharp & Dohme, Janssen, Gilead, AbbVie, and Bristol-Myers Squibb. Dr Bronowicki reported having received grants and personal fees from Bristol-Myers Squibb and personal fees from Merck Sharp & Dohme, AbbVie, Gilead, Novartis, Roche, and Boehringer Ingelheim. Dr Jacobson reported having received grants and personal fees from Bristol-Myers Squibb, AbbVie, Achillion, Boehringer Ingelheim, Gilead, Genentech, Merck, Janssen, and Vertex Pharmaceuticals, personal fees from Idenix, and grants from Novartis; having served as a consultant and advisor for Bristol-Myers Squibb, AbbVie, Achillion, Boehringer Ingelheim, Gilead, Genentech, Merck, Janssen, Vertex Pharmaceuticals, and Idenix; and having served on a speakers’ bureau for Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead, Idenix, and Vertex Pharmaceuticals. Dr Muir reported having received grants from Bristol-Myers Squibb and Roche; grants and personal fees from AbbVie, Achillion, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead, and Merck; and personal fees from Theravance. Dr Reddy reported having received personal fees from Genentech-Roche, Vertex, and Novartis; grants and personal fees from Merck, Janssen, Gilead, Bristol- Myers Squibb, and AbbVie; and grants from Ikaria. Dr Tam reported having received grants from Bristol-Myers Squibb. Dr de Lédinghen reported having received personal fees from AbbVie, Bristol- Myers Squibb, Gilead, Janssen, and Merck. Dr Sulkowski reported having received grants and personal fees from Bristol-Myers Squibb, AbbVie, Gilead, Janssen, and Merck and personal fees from Achillion. Ms Boparai and Drs McPhee, Hughes, Swenson, and Yin reported being employees of Bristol-Myers Squibb. No other disclosures were reported. Study AI443-102 (UNITY-1) Principal Investigators: P. Angus, L. Bank, K. Beavers, M. Bennett, N. Boyer, N. Bräu, J.-P. Bronowicki, S. Cohen, B. Conway, J. Cooper, V. de Lédinghen, C. Dietz, G. Dore, M. Elkhashab, K. P. Etzkorn, G. Everson, B. Freilich, W. Ghesquiere, S. Gordon, S. Haider, S. Harrison, R. Herring Jr, F. Hinestrosa, I. Jacobson, W. W. King, K. Korenblat, P. Kwo, J. P. Lalezari, R. Lalonde, D. Larrey, R. P. LeBlanc, S. S. Lee, J. M. Levin, D. Longpre, V. Loustaud-Ratti, P. Marcellin, G. Matusow, J. Mccone, L. Mollison, D. Morris, A. Muir, G. Ortiz-Lasanta, P. Pockros, S. Pol, G. Poleynard, F. Poordad, M. Rabinovitz, A. Ramji, N. Ravendhran, N. Reau, R. Reddy, R. W. Reindollar, H. Schwartz, T. Sepe, A. Sheikh, M. Shiffman, W. Sievert, K. Stuart, M. Sulkowski, E. Tam, H. A. Tatum, A. Thompson, E. Tse, P. Varunok, J. M. Vierling, F. Wootton, J. Yozviak. Funding/Support: This study was funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb. Editorial support was provided by Andrew Street, PhD, of Articulate Science and was funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb. Role of the Funder/Sponsor: Bristol-Myers Squibb (the sponsor) designed the study in collaboration with the principal investigator (Dr Poordad), conducted the study, collected study data, and performed statistical analyses. The sponsor, together with all authors, interpreted the data and drafted the manuscript with the assistance of a medical writer funded by the sponsor. Authors employed by the sponsor (Ms Boparai and Drs McPhee, Hughes, Swenson, and Yin), in concert with all other authors, approved the final manuscript and made the decision to submit the manuscript for publication. Additional Contributions: We would like to thank Meghan Lovegren, BS, of Bristol-Myers Squibb, for support of study execution and Fei Yu, MS; Vincent Vellucci, BS; Joseph Ueland, BA; and Dennis Hernandez, PhD, of Bristol-Myers Squibb, for resistance and sequence analyses. None of these individuals received compensation for their contributions besides salary. REFERENCES 1. Hepatitis C [factsheet No. 164]. World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/mediacentre /factsheets/fs164/en/. Accessed December 12, 2014. 2. Mohd Hanafiah K, Groeger J, Flaxman AD, Wiersma ST. Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection. Hepatology. 2013;57(4):1333-1342. 3. Smith DB, Bukh J, Kuiken C, et al. Expanded classification of hepatitis C virus into 7 genotypes and 67 subtypes. Hepatology. 2014;59(1):318-327. 4. Gao M. Antiviral activity and resistance of HCV NS5A replication complex inhibitors. Curr Opin Virol. 2013;3(5):514-520. 5. McPhee F, Sheaffer AK, Friborg J, et al. Preclinical profile and characterization of the hepatitis C virus NS3 protease inhibitor asunaprevir (BMS-650032). Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56(10):5387-5396. 6. Manns M, Pol S, Jacobson IM, et al. All-oral daclatasvir plus asunaprevir for hepatitis C virus genotype 1b. Lancet. 2014;384(9954):1597-1605. 7. Everson GT, Sims KD, Rodriguez-Torres M, et al. Efficacy of an interferon- and ribavirin-free regimen of daclatasvir, asunaprevir, and BMS-791325 in treatment-naive patients with HCV genotype 1 infection. Gastroenterology. 2014;146(2):420-429. 8. Hassanein T, Sims KD, Bennett M, et al. A randomized trial of daclatasvir in combination with asunaprevir and beclabuvir in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 4 infection [published online January 2, 1015]. J Hepatol. doi:10 .1016/j.jhep.2014.12.025. 9. Li C, Njouom R, Pépin J, et al. Characterization of full-length hepatitis C virus sequences for subtypes 1e, 1h and 1l, and a novel variant revealed Cameroon as an area in origin for genotype 1. J Gen Virol. 2013;94(Pt 8):1780-1790. 10. Afdhal N, Zeuzem S, Kwo P, et al; ION-1 Investigators. Ledipasvir and sofosbuvir for untreated HCV genotype 1 infection. N Engl J Med. 2014;370(20):1889-1898. 11. Kowdley KV, Gordon SC, Reddy KR, et al; ION-3 Investigators. Ledipasvir and sofosbuvir for 8 or 12 weeks for chronic HCV without cirrhosis. N Engl J Med. 2014;370(20):1879-1888. 12. Afdhal N, Reddy KR, Nelson DR, et al; ION-2 Investigators. Ledipasvir and sofosbuvir for previously treated HCV genotype 1 infection. N Engl J Med. 2014;370(16):1483-1493. 13. Feld JJ, Kowdley KV, Coakley E, et al. Treatment of HCV with ABT-450/r-ombitasvir and dasabuvir with ribavirin. N Engl J Med. 2014;370(17):1594-1603. 14. Zeuzem S, Jacobson IM, Baykal T, et al. Retreatment of HCV with ABT-450/r-ombitasvir and dasabuvir with ribavirin. N Engl J Med. 2014; 370(17):1604-1614. 15. Everson GT, Sims KD, Thuluvath PJ, et al. Phase 2b study of the interferon-free and ribavirin-free combination of daclatasvir, asunaprevir, and BMS-791325 for 12 weeks in treatment-naive patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection. Hepatology. 2013;58(6)(suppl):1377A. 16. Ferenci P, Bernstein D, Lalezari J, et al; PEARL-III Study; PEARL-IV Study. ABT-450/r-ombitasvir and dasabuvir with or without ribavirin for HCV. N Engl J Med. 2014;370(21):1983-1992. 17. Muir AJ, Poordad F, Lalezari J, et al. Daclatasvir in combination with asunaprevir and beclabuvir for hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection with compensated cirrhosis. JAMA. doi:10.1001/jama .2015.3868. 18. Kumada H, Suzuki Y, Ikeda K, et al. Daclatasvir plus asunaprevir for chronic HCV genotype 1b infection. Hepatology. 2014;59(6):2083-2091. 19. Lok AS, Gardiner DF, Lawitz E, et al. Preliminary study of two antiviral agents for hepatitis C genotype 1. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(3):216-224. 20. Lok AS, Gardiner DF, Hézode C, et al. Randomized trial of daclatasvir and asunaprevir with or without PegIFN/RBV for hepatitis C virus genotype 1 null responders. J Hepatol. 2014;60(3): 490-499. 21. Bronowicki JP, Pol S, Thuluvath PJ, et al. Randomized study of asunaprevir plus pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin for previously untreated genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C. Antivir Ther. 2013;18 (7):885-893. Daclatasvir, Asunaprevir, and Beclabuvir for HCV Genotype 1 Original Investigation Research jama.com (Reprinted) JAMA May 5, 2015 Volume 313, Number 17 1735 Copyright 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Downloaded From: http://jama.jamanetwork.com/ by a Bristol-Myers Squibb User on 07/07/2015

Related Documents