NEUROANATOMY
*PONS
*CRANIAL NERVE 1
*CRANIAL NERVE 2
1
PONS
ANTERIOR TO CEREBELLUM
CONNECT MEDULLA OBLONGATA TO MID
BRAIN
 1 INCH (2.5 CM LONG).
2
ANTERIOR SURFACE OF PONS.
♣ CONVEX
♣ TRANSVERSE FIBRES CONVERGE AND FORM MIDDLE
CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLE
♣ SHALLOW GROOVE I...
ANTERIOR AND LATERAL SURFACE
4
POSTERIOR SURFACE OF PONS
• HIDDEN FROM VIEW BY CEREBELLUM
• FORMS UPPER HALF OF FLOOR OF 4TH
VENTRICLE
• TRIANGLE IN ...
POSTERIOR SURFACE
 LATERAL TO SULCUS ELONGATED ELEVATION –MEDIAL EMINENCE
 BOUNDED BY SULCUS –SULCUS LIMITANS
 INFER...
POSTERIOR SURFACE OF PONS.
7
INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF PONS
DIVIDED TO TWO PARTS
o POSTERIOR PART –TEGMENTUM
o ANTERIOR PART-BASAL PART
STUCTURE DIVIDE...
TRANSVERSE SECTION THROUGH
CAUDAL PART.
MEDIAL LEMNISCUS ROTATE WHEN IT PASS
FROM MEDULLA INTO PONS
 SITUATED ANTERI...
• MEDIAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS LATERAL TO ABDUCENT NUCLEUS
• SUPERIOR AND INFERIOR PART OF SUPERIOR VESTIBULAR NUCLES FOUND ...
TRANSVER SECTION THROGH CAUDAL PART
11
TRANSVERSE SECTION THROUGH
CRANIAL PART.
MOTOR NUCLEUS OF TRIGEMINAL NERVE
• BENEATH LATERAL PART OF FOURTH VENTRICLE W...
THROUGH CRANIAL PART -TRIGEMINAL
NUCLEI
13
CLINICAL NOTES OF PONS
TUMORS OF PONS
 ASTROCYTOMA IN CHILDHOOD MOST COMMON
 SYMPTOM –IPSILATERAL CRANIAL NERVE
PARA...
 INFRACTIONS OF PONS
 DUE TO THROMBOSIS OR EMBOLISM OF BASILAR ARTERY
 IF THROUGH PARAMEDIAN AREA –CORTICOSPINAL TRAC...
CRANIAL NERVE 1
OLFACTORY NERVE
SENSORY,SMELL,OPENING IN CRIBRIFORM PLATE OF ETHMOID BONE
16
OLFACTORY NERVE
≈ THIS NERVE ARISE FROM OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NERVE CELLS
≈ LOCATED UPPER PART OF NASAL CAVITY
≈ EACH BIPO...
• OLFACTORY RECEPTOR ,OLFACTORY
HAIRS,AND NERVE FIBRES OLFACTORY NERVE
• OVOID STUCTURE-MITRAL CELLS,,,,TUFTED CELLS
AN...
OLFACTORY NERVE
19
OLFACTORY NERVE CLINICAL NOTE
• BILATERAL ANOSMIA –CAUSED BY DISEASE OF OLFACTORY MUCOUS
MEMBRANE SUCH AS COMMON COLD AL...
CRANIAL NERVE 2 OPTIC NERVE
 SENSORY ,VISION,OPENING THROGH OPTIC CANAL
21
CRANIAL NERVE 2 -OPTIC NERVE
♣ ORIGIN OF OPTIC NERVE-IN GANGLIONIC LAYER
♣ OPTIC FIBRES EXIT OPTIC DISC AS OPTIC NERVE(M...
 LATERAL GENICULATE BODY-SMALL OVAL SWELLING FROM PULIVINAR THALAMUS
 THEY LEAVE THIS BODY AND FORM OPTIC RADIATION
 ...
NEURONS OF VISUAL PATHWAY AND
BINOCULAR VISION
• 4 NEURONS CONDUCT VISUAL IMPULSE TO VISUAL CORTEX
a. RODS AND CONES – ...
REFLEXES
 VISUAL REFLEX –DIRECT AND CONSENSUAL LIGHT REFLEX
 DIRECT –CONSTIRCTION OF PUPIL ON WHICH LIGHT IS SHONE
 ...
26
CLINICALNOTE OF OPTIC NERVE
 LESIONS OF VISUAL PATHWAY-TUMORS OF BRAIN,COZ OF ACCIDENTS
 CIRCUMFERENTIAL BLINDNESS-CAU...
28
THANK YOU
PRESENTED
BY
PLENCY K.R 
29
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pons,and cranial nerve (1&2) presented by plency kr

Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - pons,and cranial nerve (1&2) presented by plency kr

  • 1. NEUROANATOMY *PONS *CRANIAL NERVE 1 *CRANIAL NERVE 2 1
  • 2. PONS ANTERIOR TO CEREBELLUM CONNECT MEDULLA OBLONGATA TO MID BRAIN  1 INCH (2.5 CM LONG). 2
  • 3. ANTERIOR SURFACE OF PONS. ♣ CONVEX ♣ TRANSVERSE FIBRES CONVERGE AND FORM MIDDLE CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLE ♣ SHALLOW GROOVE IN MIDDLE-BASILAR GROOVE LODGE BASILAR ARTERY. ♣ ANTEROLATERAL SURFACE -TRIGEMINAL NERVE. ♣ TRIGEMINAL NERVE HAVE SMALL MEDIAL PART-MOTOR ROOT AND LARGE LATERAL PART –SENSORY ROOT ♣ GROOVE BETWEEN PONS AND MEDULLA CONTAIN MEDIAL TO LATERAL – ABDUCENT,FACIAL,VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVES 3
  • 4. ANTERIOR AND LATERAL SURFACE 4
  • 5. POSTERIOR SURFACE OF PONS • HIDDEN FROM VIEW BY CEREBELLUM • FORMS UPPER HALF OF FLOOR OF 4TH VENTRICLE • TRIANGLE IN SHAPE • LIMITED LATERALLY BY SUPERIOR CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLE • DIVIDED INTO TWO HALF BY MEDIAN SULCUS 5
  • 6. POSTERIOR SURFACE  LATERAL TO SULCUS ELONGATED ELEVATION –MEDIAL EMINENCE  BOUNDED BY SULCUS –SULCUS LIMITANS  INFERIOR END OF MEDIAL EMINENCE EXPANDED TO FORM –FACIAL FOLLICULUS  FACIAL FOLLICULUS FORMED BY ROOT OF FACIAL NERVE  FLOOR OF SUPERIOR PART OF SULCUS LIMITANS BLUISH GRAY COLOUR CALLED SUBSTANTIA FERRUGINEA BECAUSE OF DEEPLY PIGMENTED NERVE CELLS  LATERAL TO SULCUS LIMITANS –AREA OF VESTIBULI PRODUCED BY VESTIBULAR NUCLEI 6
  • 7. POSTERIOR SURFACE OF PONS. 7
  • 8. INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF PONS DIVIDED TO TWO PARTS o POSTERIOR PART –TEGMENTUM o ANTERIOR PART-BASAL PART STUCTURE DIVIDED AT TWO LEVELS  TRANSVERSE SECTION THROUGH CAUDAL PART  TRANSVERSE SECTION THROUGH CRANIAL PART 8
  • 9. TRANSVERSE SECTION THROUGH CAUDAL PART. MEDIAL LEMNISCUS ROTATE WHEN IT PASS FROM MEDULLA INTO PONS  SITUATED ANTERIOR PART OF TEGMENTUM FACIAL NUCLEUS LIE POSTERIOR TO LATERAL OF MEDIAL LEMINSCUS  FIBRES OF FACIAL NERVE PASS AROUND ABDUCENT NERVE AND PRODUCE FACIAL COLLICULUS 9
  • 10. • MEDIAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS LATERAL TO ABDUCENT NUCLEUS • SUPERIOR AND INFERIOR PART OF SUPERIOR VESTIBULAR NUCLES FOUND • SPINAL NUCLEUS OF TRIGEMINALL NERVE AND TRACT LIE ANTEROMEDIALY TO INFERIOR CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLE • TRAPEZOID BODY –MADE FROM FIBRES OF COCHLEAR NUCLEI AND NUCLEI OF TRAPEZOID BODY. • RUN ANTERIORLY TO TEGMENTUM. • BASE PART OF PONS PONTINE NUCLEI-THE CORTICOPONTINE FIBRES TERMINATE IN PONTINE NUCLEI • OTHER FIBRES LIKE TRANSVERSE FIBRES CROSS MIDLINE AND INTERSECT CORTICOSPINAL ABD CORTICONUCLEAR TRACT . • TRANSVERSE FIBRES ENTER MIDDLE CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLE AND REACH CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. 10
  • 11. TRANSVER SECTION THROGH CAUDAL PART 11
  • 12. TRANSVERSE SECTION THROUGH CRANIAL PART. MOTOR NUCLEUS OF TRIGEMINAL NERVE • BENEATH LATERAL PART OF FOURTH VENTRICLE WITHIN RETICULAR FORMATION • PASS THROUGH SUBSTANCE OF PONS AND EXIT ANTERIOR SURFACE • SUPERIOR CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLE POSTEROLATERAL TO MOTOR NUCLEI OF T.NERVE SENSORY NUCLEUS OF TRIGEMINAL NERVE • LATERAL SIDE OF MOTOR NUCLEUS • CONTINUOUS WITH NUCLEUS OF SPINAL TRACT • PASS THROUGH SUBSTANCE OF PONS • TRAPEZOID BODY AND MEDIAL LEMNISCUS SAME POSITION AS BEFORE • LATERL AND SPINAL LEMNISCI LIE LATERALY TO MEDIAL LEMNISCUS. 12
  • 13. THROUGH CRANIAL PART -TRIGEMINAL NUCLEI 13
  • 14. CLINICAL NOTES OF PONS TUMORS OF PONS  ASTROCYTOMA IN CHILDHOOD MOST COMMON  SYMPTOM –IPSILATERAL CRANIAL NERVE PARALYSIS,CONTRALATERAL HEMIPARESIS,WEAKNESS OD FACIAL MUSCLE ON SAME SIDE AND LATERAL RECTUS MUSCLE ON ONE OR BOTH SIDE ,JAW MUSCLES,NYSTAGMUS,HEARING PROBLEM AND DEFECT OF TRUNK AND LIMB ON CONTRALATERAL SIDE,DEVIATION OF EYEBALL DUE TO MEDIAL LONGITUDINAL FASICULUS INVOLVEMENT PONTINE HEMORRHAGE  PONS IS SUPPLIED BY BASILAR ARTERY AND INFERIOR,SUPERIOR ANTERIOR CEREBELLAR ARTERIES 14
  • 15.  INFRACTIONS OF PONS  DUE TO THROMBOSIS OR EMBOLISM OF BASILAR ARTERY  IF THROUGH PARAMEDIAN AREA –CORTICOSPINAL TRACT,PONTINE NUCLEI,-MIDDLE CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLE DAMAGED  IF LATERAL –TRIGEMINAL NERVE ,MEDIAL LEMNISCUS,MIDDLE CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLE,-CORTICOSPINAL FIBERS TO LMB AFFECTED 15
  • 16. CRANIAL NERVE 1 OLFACTORY NERVE SENSORY,SMELL,OPENING IN CRIBRIFORM PLATE OF ETHMOID BONE 16
  • 17. OLFACTORY NERVE ≈ THIS NERVE ARISE FROM OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NERVE CELLS ≈ LOCATED UPPER PART OF NASAL CAVITY ≈ EACH BIPOLAR NERVE CELL HAVE PERIPHERAL PROCESS AND CENTRAL PROCESS ≈ FROM PERIPHERAL PROCESS SHORT CILIA ARISE KNOWN AS OLFACTORY HAIRS REACT TO ODOURS AND STIMULATE OLFACTORY CELLS ≈ SURFACE IS COVERED BY MUCOUS MEMBRANE ≈ FROM CENTRAL PROCESS FORM OLFACTORY NERVE FIBRES(UNMYLELINATED)COVERED WITH SCHWANN CELLS. THEY PASS THROUGH CRIBRIFORM PLATE OF ETHMOID BONE AND ENTER OLFACTORY BULB 17
  • 18. • OLFACTORY RECEPTOR ,OLFACTORY HAIRS,AND NERVE FIBRES OLFACTORY NERVE • OVOID STUCTURE-MITRAL CELLS,,,,TUFTED CELLS AND GRANULAR CELLS SYNAPSE WITH MITRAL CELLS • RECEIVE AXONS FROM CONTRALATERAL BULB THROUGH OLFACTORY TRACT. OLFACTORY BULB OLFACTORY TRACT • ON REACHING ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE DIVIDE TO MEDIAL AND LATERAL OLFACTORY STRIAE-MEDIAL STRIAE CARRY FIBRES THAT CROSS MEDIAN PLANE IN ANTERIOR COMMISURE PASS TO OLFACTORY BULB OF OPPOSITE SIDE NARROW WHITE MATTER FROM POSTERIOR END OF OLFACTORY BULB BENEATH FRONTAL LOBE •CARRIES OLFACTORY AREA OF CEREBRAL CORTEX –PERIAMYGDALOID AND PREPIRIFORM AREAS • ENTORHINAL AREA 28 OF PARAHIPPOCAMPUS GYRUS RECEIVE NUMEROUS CONNECTION FROM OLFACTORY CORTEX CALLED SECONDARY OLFACTORY CORTEX •AREA OF CORTEX RESPONSIBLE FOR OLFACTORY SENSATIONS. LATERAL STRIAE 18
  • 19. OLFACTORY NERVE 19
  • 20. OLFACTORY NERVE CLINICAL NOTE • BILATERAL ANOSMIA –CAUSED BY DISEASE OF OLFACTORY MUCOUS MEMBRANE SUCH AS COMMON COLD ALLERGIC RHINITIS • UNILATERAL ANOSMIA-AFFECT OLFACTORY NERVE ,BULB,TRACT • LESION ON ONE SIDE PRODUCE COMPLETE ANOSMIA COZ FIBRES FROM OLFACTORY TRACT TRAVEL BOTH CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE • FRACTURES OF ANTERIOR CRANIAL FOSSA CAN TEAR OLFACTORY NERVES • TUMORS OF FRONTALLOBE CAUSE ANOSMIA BY PRESSING ON BULB OR TRACT OF OLFACTORY 20
  • 21. CRANIAL NERVE 2 OPTIC NERVE  SENSORY ,VISION,OPENING THROGH OPTIC CANAL 21
  • 22. CRANIAL NERVE 2 -OPTIC NERVE ♣ ORIGIN OF OPTIC NERVE-IN GANGLIONIC LAYER ♣ OPTIC FIBRES EXIT OPTIC DISC AS OPTIC NERVE(MYLINATED)FORMED BY OLIGODENDROCYTES ♣ OPTIC NERVE LEAVE ORBITAL CAVITY THROUGH OPTIC CANAL ♣ OPTIC NERVE UNITE WITH OPPOSITE SIDE NERVES FORM OPTIC CHIASMA ♣ OPTIC CHIASMA-JUNCTION OF ANTERIOR WALL AND FLOOR OF 3RD VENTRICLE ♣ OPTIC TRACT-EMERGE FROM OPTIC CHIASMA AND PASS AROUND CEREBRAL PEDUNCLE ♣ TERMINATE AT LATERAL GENICULATE BODY SOME PASS TO PRETECTAL NUCLEUS AND SUPERIOR COLLICULUS OF MIDBRAIN 22
  • 23.  LATERAL GENICULATE BODY-SMALL OVAL SWELLING FROM PULIVINAR THALAMUS  THEY LEAVE THIS BODY AND FORM OPTIC RADIATION  OPTIC RADIATION –TRACTPASS THROGH RETROLENTICULAR PART AND TERMINATE VISUAL CORTEX AREA 17  VISUAL CORTX AREA 18 AND 19 FOR RECOGNITION OF OBJECT AND COLOUR 23
  • 24. NEURONS OF VISUAL PATHWAY AND BINOCULAR VISION • 4 NEURONS CONDUCT VISUAL IMPULSE TO VISUAL CORTEX a. RODS AND CONES – SPEACIALIZED NEURONS OF RETINA b. BIPOLAR NEURONS-CONNECT ROD AND CONES TO GANGLION CELLS c. GANGLION CELLS –AXON PASS TO LATERAL GENICULATE BODY d. NEURONS OF LATERAL GENICULATE BODY-AXON PASS TO CEREBRAL CORTEX ,PROJECT RIGHT FIELD VISION ON VISUALCORTEX OF LEFT HEMISPHERE AND VICE VERSA 24
  • 25. REFLEXES  VISUAL REFLEX –DIRECT AND CONSENSUAL LIGHT REFLEX  DIRECT –CONSTIRCTION OF PUPIL ON WHICH LIGHT IS SHONE  CONSENSUAL-CONTRICTION OF OPPOSITE PUPIL EVEN NO LIGHT HAS FALLEN,BOTH PUPIL CONSTICT  IMPULSE PASS TO PRETECTAL NERVE TO PARASYMPATHETIC NUCLEI IN MIDBRAIN (EDINGER WESTPHAL NUCLEI) OF 3RD CRANIAL NERVE-THEN TO CILIARY GANGLION-TO SHORT CILIARY NERVES AND CONSTRICT PUPIL MUSCLE  ACCOMODATION REFLEX –ADJUSTMENT OF EYES AS OBJECT MOVE FROM DISTANT VISION TO CLOSE  CORNEAL REFLEX –WHEN LIGHT TOUCH EYELID BLINKS,CLOSURE OR EYELID IS BY FACIAL NERVE THT SUPPLY ORBICULARIS OCULI MUSCLE.  VISUAL BODY REFLEX-SCANNING MOVEMENT OF EYE WHILE READING-TOWARDS VISUAL STIMULUS ,CLOSING EYES,IMPULSE PASS TO TECTOSPINAL,TECTOBULBAR TRACT TO ANTERIOR GRAY COLUMN  PUPILLARY SKIN REFLEX-PUPIL DILATE ON PAIN,POSTGANGLIONIC FIBRES PASS THROUGH INTERNAL CAROTD PLEXUS ANDLONG CILIARY NERES –AND DILATE THE PUPILLAE MUSCLE OF IRIS. 25
  • 26. 26
  • 27. CLINICALNOTE OF OPTIC NERVE  LESIONS OF VISUAL PATHWAY-TUMORS OF BRAIN,COZ OF ACCIDENTS  CIRCUMFERENTIAL BLINDNESS-CAUSED BY HYSTERIA OR OPTIC NEURITIS,RIGHT SIDED  TOTAL BLINDNESS OF ONE EYE BY COMPLETE SECTION OF ONE OPTIC NERVE  NASAL HEMIANOPIA –PARTIAL LESION OF OPTIC CHIASMA ON LATERAL SIDE  BITEMPORAL HEMIANOPIA-SAGITAL SECTION OF OPTIC CHIASMA,PRODUCED BY TUMOR OF PITUTARY GLAND EXERT PRESSURE ON OPTIC CHIASMA.  CONTRALATERAL HOMONYMOUS HEMIANOPIA DIVISION OF OPTIC TRACT,OR OPTIC RADIATION,OR DESTRUCTION OF VISUAL CORTEX,,SAME HEMIANOPIA FOR BOTH EYES 27
  • 28. 28
  • 29. THANK YOU PRESENTED BY PLENCY K.R  29