“POLITICAL DISCOURSE AS A MEANS
OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF
LINGUISTS AND TRANSLATORS”
LEVENKOVA E.R.
Speeches of political leaders of the UK and the
USA are characterized by powerful teaching
potential in developing languag...
“ANGLO-AMERICAN
POLITICAL DISCOURSE”
“Anglo-American political discourse”
is the elective course for fourth-year
students ...
The aim of the course is to make Anglo-
American political discourse accessible to
University students of EFL, to make it
...
Educationists claim
that the range of
materials currently
available to the teacher
of English is wide and
varied. However,...
DISADVANTAGES OF
USING POLITICAL
DISCOURSE IN ELT:
• politics (and especially ideology) is now
considered unfashionable;
•...
BENEFITS OF INCLUDING
POLITICAL DISCOURSE IN THE
RANGE OF TEACHING
OPTIONS:
• convenient authentic materials including the...
TASKS THE TEACHER IS ABLE
TO SOLVE INTEGRATING
POLITICAL DISCOURSE INTO
ELT:
• to provide facts, themes and ideas that are...
KEY TERMS OF THE WEBINAR AND
THE COURSE: POLITICAL
DISCOURSE AND COMPETENCE
“Political discourse” is public speaking of
pr...
COMPETENCE AS THE DEFINING
CONCEPT OF LANGUAGE
TEACHING
“Linguistic competence” (N.Chomsky) vs
“communicative competence” ...
DEVELOPMENT OF GENERAL
AND SPECIFIC
COMPETENCES IN THE
ELECTIVE COURSE
General competences include:
• acquisition of socio...
SPECIFIC COMPETENCES
INCORPORATE:
• improvement of linguistic skills as well as
understanding of different registers (SC-1...
Today it’s time to meet
innovative demands and shift
the focus to cultural differences
in the World of Englishes.
These di...
This kind of awareness, however, is not easily
achieved as culture-specific differences of the
British and the Americans c...
The widely-aired quotation by B. Shaw about
America and Britain divided by a common
language gets paradoxical development ...
The study of Anglo-American
political discourse does not
only illustrate how language
and culture are linked, but also
pro...
The course, if we don’t touch upon its
theoretical aspect, has 3 main
objectives: 1) to develop cross-cultural
awareness b...
To achieve the objectives we
have developed a method of
inter-variant comparison of
British and American variants
of polit...
A culture is regarded as broken down into
various components. In this country we
assume that these components are
linguist...
THE FIRST LEVEL OF INTER-
VARIANT COMPARISON OF
NATIONAL VARIANTS
The first level deals with references to the
people, pla...
The references of the first level are
identified and analyzed in each of 4 units
of the course. The units are devoted to
i...
The most frequently used references are
those to the places and people; that’s
why they are analyzed at the initial stage
...
GEOGRAPHICAL
AND PROPER
NAMES IN
POLITICAL
DISCOURSE
For us, they fought and died in
places Concord and
Gettysburg; Norman...
.
Concord is a
symbol of
American
Revolution (1774-
1783), a place
where in 1775
first shots of war
were fired and the
fir...
Gettysburg is another symbol, that of the
Civil War (1861-1865). In the battle of
Gettysburg (July 4, 1863) Union won a ke...
We have seen it in the
courage of passengers,
who rushed terrorists to
save others on the
ground, passengers like
an excep...
TASKS HELPFUL
WITH THESE
MATERIALS:
categorizing references and writing
explanatory notes for them;
completing deleted ref...
THE SECOND LEVEL OF INTER-
VARIANT COMPARISON OF
NATIONAL VARIANTS
At this level students are taught
to evaluate such nati...
As the course develops, students
pass on to the analysis of another
cultural component – metaphors.
Discursive realization...
Culture permeates political
discourse through metaphors
American civilization began its life as a branch
of the English oa...
THE TASKS DESIGNED
FOR THIS MATERIAL ARE:
• compare linguistic units (metaphors,
similes, idioms) in texts devoted to the
...
Within the second level of comparison the
students identify the so called “national
concepts” [Karasik 2009; Maslova 2004]...
ANALYZING NATIONAL
CONCEPTS
The activity that works well
with concepts is comparing
their definitions. The task
enables st...
Define national vision of POWER in
British political discourse. Which
metaphor sums it up?
“And the principles of my
refor...
Read the fragments. Define national vision of the
concept POWER represented in American political
discourse. Compare metap...
I’d like to conclude with the idea that
political discourse can serve as a Tool for
Building Better Communicative
Competen...
Thank you.
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Политический дискурс как средство развития профессиональной компетенции лингвистов и переводчиков (Political discourse as a means of professional development of ling

Вебинар посвящен одной из важных проблем в рамках компетентностной парадигмы обучения лингвистов и переводчиков: В программе вебинара: выбор современных учебных материалов, обеспечивающих формирование всего комплекса общих и специальных компетенций; методические возможности включения политического дискурса - публичных выступлений лидеров Великобритании и США - в учебный процесс иллюстрирует спецкурс "Англоязычный политический дискурс" для студентов 4 курса факультета иностранных языков ПГСГА; материалы курса, построенного на сопоставлении британского и американского политического дискурса, позволяют решать задачи формирования целого ряда компетенций на основе анализа связи языка и культуры, специфики дискурсивных практик двух стран." Для просмотра видео нужно перейти по ссылке: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tLYeiJCZDaE
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Education      Technology      Business      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Политический дискурс как средство развития профессиональной компетенции лингвистов и переводчиков (Political discourse as a means of professional development of ling

  • 1. “POLITICAL DISCOURSE AS A MEANS OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF LINGUISTS AND TRANSLATORS” LEVENKOVA E.R.
  • 2. Speeches of political leaders of the UK and the USA are characterized by powerful teaching potential in developing language students’ general and vocational competences. These competences are equally vital for students majoring in foreign languages and in translation within the Competence-based Approach. INTEGRATING ANGLO-AMERICAN POLITICAL DISCOURSE IN ELT IN TERTIARY SETTING
  • 3. “ANGLO-AMERICAN POLITICAL DISCOURSE” “Anglo-American political discourse” is the elective course for fourth-year students of the Povolzhskaya State Academy of Social Sciences and Humanities which includes 20 hours of classwork.
  • 4. The aim of the course is to make Anglo- American political discourse accessible to University students of EFL, to make it possible for them to analyze it, but also to go further: to use it for developing students’ competences in cultural diversity of World Englishes, for improving the quality of their linguistic skills as well as those of textual organization.
  • 5. Educationists claim that the range of materials currently available to the teacher of English is wide and varied. However, speeches of political leaders of English speaking countries are not regarded as an important source of linguistic materials and cultural information.
  • 6. DISADVANTAGES OF USING POLITICAL DISCOURSE IN ELT: • politics (and especially ideology) is now considered unfashionable; • political discourse is thought to be too “difficult” as it is authentic and in no sense graded; • political communication is irrelevant to the “needs” of the learners.
  • 7. BENEFITS OF INCLUDING POLITICAL DISCOURSE IN THE RANGE OF TEACHING OPTIONS: • convenient authentic materials including the issues of the day and eternal themes; • socio-cultural information and values of the British and the Americans; • real-life situations and communicatively meaningful language contexts; • a variety of genres and idiolects of accomplished orators; • students’ motivation to communicate due to vital issues of political rhetoric; • development of linguistic skills.
  • 8. TASKS THE TEACHER IS ABLE TO SOLVE INTEGRATING POLITICAL DISCOURSE INTO ELT: • to provide facts, themes and ideas that are socially and ideologically significant; • to improve cross-cultural awareness in ELT classroom in general and cultural diversity of World Englishes in particular; • to widen the context of language application as a vital component in a learner’s capacity to communicate effectively; • to develop language and cognitive competences of students.
  • 9. KEY TERMS OF THE WEBINAR AND THE COURSE: POLITICAL DISCOURSE AND COMPETENCE “Political discourse” is public speaking of professional politicians, persuasive communication based on national rhetorical traditions and practices (speeches of British Prime-ministers and American Presidents within the period of 1980-2014).
  • 10. COMPETENCE AS THE DEFINING CONCEPT OF LANGUAGE TEACHING “Linguistic competence” (N.Chomsky) vs “communicative competence” (Hymes) Linguistic competence means acquiring knowledge of linguistic structure Communicative competence is what a person “needs to know in order to communicate effectively in culturally significant situations.” [Hymes 1974:75]
  • 11. DEVELOPMENT OF GENERAL AND SPECIFIC COMPETENCES IN THE ELECTIVE COURSE General competences include: • acquisition of socio-cultural and cross-cultural skills that are required for professional interaction (GC-3) • cognitive competence (GC-7)
  • 12. SPECIFIC COMPETENCES INCORPORATE: • improvement of linguistic skills as well as understanding of different registers (SC-1) • awareness of different moral norms and behaviors as well as social situations and typical scenarios of intercultural interaction (SC-2) • understanding of communicative, semantic and syntactic structure of utterances and texts (SC-4).
  • 13. Today it’s time to meet innovative demands and shift the focus to cultural differences in the World of Englishes. These differences hamper and complicate cross-cultural communication. British English and American English as two basic varieties of World English reflect substantial differences in all cultural spheres and a learner of English – a linguist or a translator - should be aware of them.
  • 14. This kind of awareness, however, is not easily achieved as culture-specific differences of the British and the Americans can be trickily concealed behind the idea of World Standard English [Crystal 1995:111]. The term, in fact, stands for a cross-cultural discourse of a specific status which incorporates a number of Standards.
  • 15. The widely-aired quotation by B. Shaw about America and Britain divided by a common language gets paradoxical development in studies which affirm that between America and Britain “is a Great Philosophical and Cultural Divide, which is obscured by the familiar lingo. Americans and Brits cherish widely different values and aspirations, and have developed separate habits of mind ” [Walmsely 1999:8].
  • 16. The study of Anglo-American political discourse does not only illustrate how language and culture are linked, but also proves that public speaking of British and American politicians constitutes the core of cross- cultural communication.
  • 17. The course, if we don’t touch upon its theoretical aspect, has 3 main objectives: 1) to develop cross-cultural awareness by providing cultural information and deepening students’ socio-cultural understanding of the world; 2) to analyze links between language and culture and their linguistic manifestations; 3) to practice and improve important language skills while focusing on discursive units and textual organization of speeches.
  • 18. To achieve the objectives we have developed a method of inter-variant comparison of British and American variants of political discourse. Parameters for the comparison of the Anglo- Saxon world and that of America include basic discourse characteristics of references, concepts, intertexuality and imagery.
  • 19. A culture is regarded as broken down into various components. In this country we assume that these components are linguistically represented by four categories: a) direct references, b) imagery and metaphors, c) associations, and d) evaluative and emotional connotations [Dobrosklonskaya 2000:202]. The 4 categories of cultural components in British and American discourse are studied at two levels in our course.
  • 20. THE FIRST LEVEL OF INTER- VARIANT COMPARISON OF NATIONAL VARIANTS The first level deals with references to the people, places, institutions, customs and traditions of a target community. These references reflect a fully fledged cultural type which political discourse faithfully reproduces as an encyclopedia of life in the 21st century.
  • 21. The references of the first level are identified and analyzed in each of 4 units of the course. The units are devoted to inter-variant comparison of conceptualization, intertextuality, cognitive metaphorization and textual organization in political communication. The units of the book offer texts which contain different types of direct references.
  • 22. The most frequently used references are those to the places and people; that’s why they are analyzed at the initial stage of our work. These words constitute an integral part of political speech making and unmistakably point at British or American national culture.
  • 23. GEOGRAPHICAL AND PROPER NAMES IN POLITICAL DISCOURSE For us, they fought and died in places Concord and Gettysburg; Normandy and Khe Sanh [B.Obama, 20.01.2009];
  • 24. . Concord is a symbol of American Revolution (1774- 1783), a place where in 1775 first shots of war were fired and the first British blood was spilled At the battle of Concord the redcoats had suffered 272 casualties, the patriots had suffered 93 casualties.
  • 25. Gettysburg is another symbol, that of the Civil War (1861-1865). In the battle of Gettysburg (July 4, 1863) Union won a key victory and Southern troops, though they displayed unforgettable courage, suffered almost 4,000 dead and 24,000 missing and wounded. The name of Khe Sanh stands for one of rare victories in the Vietnam War (1969- 1975).
  • 26. We have seen it in the courage of passengers, who rushed terrorists to save others on the ground, passengers like an exceptional man named Todd Beamer [G.W.Bush, 20.09.2001]. Explaining the unalienable rights of men, Jefferson said, “The God who gave us life, gave us liberty at the same time” [R.Reagan 08.03.1983].
  • 27. TASKS HELPFUL WITH THESE MATERIALS: categorizing references and writing explanatory notes for them; completing deleted references in speeches. (name of the 1st President or the greatest Englishman, names of the Founding Fathers). As a rule, students are motivated to participate in these tasks and motivation is a key factor in successful teaching.
  • 28. THE SECOND LEVEL OF INTER- VARIANT COMPARISON OF NATIONAL VARIANTS At this level students are taught to evaluate such nationally relevant elements as metaphors, nationally specific notions, and cultural associations of words. Thus, cultural associations of such words as ‘Britain’, ‘nation’, ‘Europe’ are linked with positive view in the world of British politics, for example: We British are as much heirs to the legacy of European culture as any other nation. Our ancestors – Celts, Saxons, Danes – came from the Continent [M.Thatcher 20.09.1988].
  • 29. As the course develops, students pass on to the analysis of another cultural component – metaphors. Discursive realizations of metaphors in political communication are, as a rule, nationally specific.
  • 30. Culture permeates political discourse through metaphors American civilization began its life as a branch of the English oak [M.Thatcher 11.05.1996]; Let us remember that if this financial crisis taught us anything, it’s that we cannot have a thriving Wall Street while Main Street suffers – in this country, we rise or fall as one nation; as one people [B.Obama 04.11.2008].
  • 31. THE TASKS DESIGNED FOR THIS MATERIAL ARE: • compare linguistic units (metaphors, similes, idioms) in texts devoted to the same theme in British and American national variants; • comment on associations and evaluative connotations of metaphors ( for example, “Path”) in two national traditions.
  • 32. Within the second level of comparison the students identify the so called “national concepts” [Karasik 2009; Maslova 2004]. These concepts, which constitute a category of its own, are defined as markers of nationally specific discourse. ‘British genius’, ‘Englishness’, ‘the British way of life’; ‘American spirit’, ‘the American promise’, “the American Dream”.
  • 33. ANALYZING NATIONAL CONCEPTS The activity that works well with concepts is comparing their definitions. The task enables students to identify cultural references in the descriptions of the national concept, and answer the question “What makes this English?” or “What makes this American?” An illustrative example in this case is the concept of the American Dream: Traditionally, Americans have sought to realize the American Dream of success, fame and wealth through thrift and hard work [W.J.Clinton 22.01.1993]. More Americans are buying and building houses – a central part of the American Dream. The homeownership is now 68%, close to the highest ever [G.W.Bush 07.01.2003].
  • 34. Define national vision of POWER in British political discourse. Which metaphor sums it up? “And the principles of my reforms are these: Government giving more power to Parliament; both government and Parliamet giving more power to the people...” [G.Brown,2007]. “Removing Saddam and his sons from ower, as with removing the Taliban was over with relative ease” [T.Blair, 2007].
  • 35. Read the fragments. Define national vision of the concept POWER represented in American political discourse. Compare metaphors used by politicians in the USA and in the UK. 1.“Our government has no power except that granted by the people”[R.Reagan,1981]; “...for the first time in history, government was not our master, it is our servant; it has only power that which we the people allow it to have” [R.Reagan, 1985]. 2. «Heavenly Father, write on our hearts these words “Use power to help people”. For we are given power not to advance our own purposes, nor to make a great show in the world, nor a name. There is but one just use of power, and it is to serve peple» [G.H.Bush, 1989].
  • 36. I’d like to conclude with the idea that political discourse can serve as a Tool for Building Better Communicative Competences of language students, as a type of discourse with practically unlimited teaching potential. Translators and linguists can use it to acquire cross- cultural awareness based on two basic varieties of World English.
  • 37. Thank you. webinar.pgsga.ru vk.com/webinar.pgsga.ru