NANO WHISKERS
General Definition <ul><li>WHISKERS- One of the long stiff tactile bristles or hairs that grow near the mouth and elsewher...
METALLURGY <ul><li>Metal whiskering is a crystalline metallurgical phenomenon involving the spontaneous growth of tiny, f...
Types of metal whiskers <ul><li>Zinc Whiskers  </li></ul><ul><li>Silver Whiskers </li></ul><ul><li>Gold Whiskers  </li></u...
Pictures of Metal whiskers
Properties of whiskers <ul><li>Shapes:  Whiskers may be straight, kinked, hooked or forked </li></ul><ul><li>Growth Rate...
Whiskers vs. Dendrites <ul><li>Whiskers </li></ul><ul><li>Hair like shape </li></ul><ul><li>Grow perpendicular to the surf...
Mechanism of Growth <ul><li>A Single accepted explanation of the mechanism has not been established. </li></ul><ul><li>Th...
Video Demonstration of Tin whiskers Growth
Commonly Accepted Factors <ul><li>Residual stresses within the metal plating </li></ul><ul><li>Intermetallic Formation ...
Recent Attention to Metal Whiskers? <ul><li>To reduce the use of potentially hazardous materials such as lead (Pb), so the...
Failures by Whiskers <ul><li>Galaxy IV satellite in 1998- Tin whiskers </li></ul><ul><li>F-15 Radar - Tin whiskers </li></...
Nano Whiskers <ul><li>The single crystalline metallic hair-like structure in the nanometer scale </li></ul><ul><li>Also c...
Fullerene, C 60 Nano Whiskers <ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>C 60 Nanowhiskers were discovered in 2001 in Japan by Ku...
Preparation of C 60 Nanowhiskers: <ul><li>Add 5ml of organic solvent to 20ml glass vial </li></ul><ul><li>Measure out en...
Properties of C 60 Nano whiskers <ul><li>The Nanowhiskers were found to be C60 fullerene molecules arranged into a hollow...
Solvent Solutions Tested Organic layer Polar layer Toluene Iso propyl alcohol Carbon disulfide Iso propyl alcohol Cholro b...
Carbon: C 60 Organic: Toluene Polar: Water Stored in: Solution Magnification: 60x
Transmission Electron Microscope 8000x
Silicon Nanowhiskers <ul><li>Molecular Beam Epitaxy </li></ul><ul><li>Silicon wafers were used as substrates </li></ul><ul...
SEM cross section images of Silicon whiskers grown on a Silicon substrate for a) 60 min b) 120 min growth time at T S ...
Crossed Nanowhiskers <ul><li>Bi-2212 superconducting single crystal Nano whiskers have been fabricated by annealing a melt...
<ul><li>Glass-ceramic method were used for preparation of the whiskers </li></ul><ul><li>Bi 2 O 3 ; SrCO 3 ; CaCO 3 and C...
Cellulose Nanowhiskers Properties Cellulose Nanowhiskers Physical structure Needle- whiskers Chemical structure cellulose ...
Preparation of Cellulose Nanowhiskers <ul><li>Cellulose Nanowhiskers regenerated from aqueous sodium hydroxide − urea s...
Nanowhiskers in use <ul><li>Water Repellant </li></ul><ul><li>In Nature, many small tubes or whiskers keep water and soli...
Stain Resistance <ul><li>Billions of Nanowhiskers(10 nm long) create a thin cushion of air above the cotton fabric, smooth...
<ul><li>Bioceramics </li></ul><ul><li>The calcium phosphate Nanowhiskers produced by microwave assisted method can be ...
Electronics <ul><li>Nio 2 Nanowhiskers having long life-cycle, High specific capacitance, high power, high stability, an...
Be the Best and Betray the Worst.
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Nano Whiskers

nano whiskers r thread like structure compared to the nano rods and nano wires but still controversy is there that they can be put under springs too.......... check to know more abt the whiskers
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Nano Whiskers

  • 1. NANO WHISKERS
  • 2. General Definition <ul><li>WHISKERS- One of the long stiff tactile bristles or hairs that grow near the mouth and elsewhere on the head of most mammals </li></ul>
  • 3. METALLURGY <ul><li>Metal whiskering is a crystalline metallurgical phenomenon involving the spontaneous growth of tiny, filiform hairs from a metallic surface. </li></ul>
  • 4. Types of metal whiskers <ul><li>Zinc Whiskers  </li></ul><ul><li>Silver Whiskers </li></ul><ul><li>Gold Whiskers  </li></ul><ul><li>Cadmium Whiskers </li></ul><ul><li>Aluminum Whiskers  </li></ul><ul><li>Lead (Pb) Whiskers  </li></ul><ul><li>Indium Whiskers </li></ul><ul><li>Tin whiskers </li></ul>
  • 5. Pictures of Metal whiskers
  • 6. Properties of whiskers <ul><li>Shapes:  Whiskers may be straight, kinked, hooked or forked </li></ul><ul><li>Growth Rate:  Growth rates from 0.03 to 9 mm/yr </li></ul><ul><li>Whisker Diameter: 10 um and rarely less than 100 nm </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature: room temperatures (22°C to 25°C) ; whiskers grow faster </li></ul><ul><li>Moisture: high humidity (85% RH) </li></ul>
  • 7. Whiskers vs. Dendrites <ul><li>Whiskers </li></ul><ul><li>Hair like shape </li></ul><ul><li>Grow perpendicular to the surface (90 o ) </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t require dissolution of metal/ presence of electromagnetic field </li></ul><ul><li>Dendrites </li></ul><ul><li>Fern shaped </li></ul><ul><li>Grow across the surface </li></ul><ul><li>Growth requires dissolution of metals in electromagnetic field </li></ul>
  • 8. Mechanism of Growth <ul><li>A Single accepted explanation of the mechanism has not been established. </li></ul><ul><li>Theories suggest that metal whiskers may grow in response to a mechanism of stress relief (especially &quot;compressive&quot; stress) . </li></ul>
  • 9. Video Demonstration of Tin whiskers Growth
  • 10. Commonly Accepted Factors <ul><li>Residual stresses within the metal plating </li></ul><ul><li>Intermetallic Formation </li></ul><ul><li>Externally Applied Compressive Stresses </li></ul><ul><li>Bending or Stretching </li></ul><ul><li>Scratches or nicks </li></ul><ul><li>Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Mismatches </li></ul>
  • 11. Recent Attention to Metal Whiskers? <ul><li>To reduce the use of potentially hazardous materials such as lead (Pb), so the alternatives to the widely used tin-lead alloys used for plating. </li></ul><ul><li>Restriction of certain Hazardous Substances (RoHS) and Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) </li></ul>
  • 12. Failures by Whiskers <ul><li>Galaxy IV satellite in 1998- Tin whiskers </li></ul><ul><li>F-15 Radar - Tin whiskers </li></ul><ul><li>Heart Pacemaker Recall- Tin whiskers </li></ul><ul><li>computer server rooms – Zinc whiskers </li></ul><ul><li>Paper mills- Silver whiskers </li></ul><ul><li>Satmex’s Solidaridad HS 601 - Zinc whisker </li></ul>
  • 13. Nano Whiskers <ul><li>The single crystalline metallic hair-like structure in the nanometer scale </li></ul><ul><li>Also called as nanowires or nanorods. </li></ul>
  • 14. Fullerene, C 60 Nano Whiskers <ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>C 60 Nanowhiskers were discovered in 2001 in Japan by Kun’ichi Miyazawa during the preparation of a lead zirconate titanate sol gel. </li></ul><ul><li>Thin fibrous structures that grow in the solution were named C60 Nanowhiskers. </li></ul><ul><li>The C 60 Nanowhiskers are prepared by the liquid-liquid interfacial precipitation method. </li></ul>
  • 15. Preparation of C 60 Nanowhiskers: <ul><li>Add 5ml of organic solvent to 20ml glass vial </li></ul><ul><li>Measure out enough C 60 to form saturated solution in organic solvent (using C60 solubility table) </li></ul><ul><li>Sonicate solution of solvent and C 60 until thoroughly dissolved </li></ul><ul><li>Layer with 5ml of polar solvent </li></ul><ul><li>Place in 2°C refrigerator for several days until whisker formation is observed, black dusty material on the bottom of the vial </li></ul><ul><li>Pipette small sample of solution and whiskers onto glass slide and allow solvent to dry </li></ul>
  • 16. Properties of C 60 Nano whiskers <ul><li>The Nanowhiskers were found to be C60 fullerene molecules arranged into a hollow tube by face-centered cubic packing. </li></ul><ul><li>Nanowhiskers measure from a couple hundred nanometers to one micrometer in diameter and several millimeters in length </li></ul><ul><li>Various experiments have been carried out testing different solvent solutions and the effects of environment on Nanowhiskers growth. </li></ul>
  • 17. Solvent Solutions Tested Organic layer Polar layer Toluene Iso propyl alcohol Carbon disulfide Iso propyl alcohol Cholro benzene Iso propyl alcohol Pyridine Iso propyl alcohol Toluene Acetone Toluene Water
  • 18. Carbon: C 60 Organic: Toluene Polar: Water Stored in: Solution Magnification: 60x
  • 19. Transmission Electron Microscope 8000x
  • 20. Silicon Nanowhiskers <ul><li>Molecular Beam Epitaxy </li></ul><ul><li>Silicon wafers were used as substrates </li></ul><ul><li>Desorption of the oxide layer by a thermal annealing at 850 °C. </li></ul><ul><li>Afterward, a thin Au film was deposited at a substrate temperature of 525 °C with thicknesses between 1.5 nm and 2 nm. </li></ul><ul><li>The size of the thereby generated droplets could be chosen between 70 and 200 nm. </li></ul>
  • 21. SEM cross section images of Silicon whiskers grown on a Silicon substrate for a) 60 min b) 120 min growth time at T S 525 °C. TEM cross section image of a Silicon whisker with a length of about 300 nm and a diameter of 95 nm on a Silicon substrate.
  • 22. Crossed Nanowhiskers <ul><li>Bi-2212 superconducting single crystal Nano whiskers have been fabricated by annealing a melt quenched glass Bi 3 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O x precursor. </li></ul><ul><li>A couple of Nano Whiskers obtained were placed crosswise on a YSZ single crystal substrate and then heat treated at 830 o C for 25 minute to form Nano-scale junction </li></ul>
  • 23. <ul><li>Glass-ceramic method were used for preparation of the whiskers </li></ul><ul><li>Bi 2 O 3 ; SrCO 3 ; CaCO 3 and CuO were mixed to give a composition of Bi 3 Sr 2 Ca 3 Cu 3 O 10+ x . </li></ul><ul><li>The mixture was melted in an alumina crucible at 1100 0 C for 2 h. </li></ul><ul><li>The melt was then rapidly quenched between two cold copper plates </li></ul><ul><li>After the heat treatment cycle, whiskers were grown on the surface of the glass sheets </li></ul><ul><li>Then a couple of whiskers were placed crosswise on a Yittria stabilized Zirconia, (YSZ:(ZrO 2 )1- m (Y 2 O 3 ) m )) substrate and heat treated at 830 0 C for 25 min. to form Nano-scale junction. </li></ul>
  • 24. Cellulose Nanowhiskers Properties Cellulose Nanowhiskers Physical structure Needle- whiskers Chemical structure cellulose Interactions Hydrogen bond Tensile modulus ~130 GPa Tensile strength 10 GPa Electrical resistivity 10 10 - 10 16 ohms cm Thermal conductivity Insulator Density 1.2 g/cm 3 Coef. Thermal expan 8 -16X 10 -6
  • 25. Preparation of Cellulose Nanowhiskers <ul><li>Cellulose Nanowhiskers regenerated from aqueous sodium hydroxide − urea solvent system on the basis of their temperature-dependent solubility. </li></ul><ul><li>AFM topography image of cellulose Nanowhiskers after drying on a mica surface </li></ul>
  • 26. Nanowhiskers in use <ul><li>Water Repellant </li></ul><ul><li>In Nature, many small tubes or whiskers keep water and solid at minimal contact for super hydrophobia (extreme water repellency) </li></ul>water droplet
  • 27. Stain Resistance <ul><li>Billions of Nanowhiskers(10 nm long) create a thin cushion of air above the cotton fabric, smoothing out wrinkles and allowing liquids to bead up and roll off without a trace. </li></ul><ul><li>Water droplets form spherical globules </li></ul><ul><li>Rough nanoscale surface picks up dirt </li></ul><ul><li>Water and dirt roll off </li></ul><ul><li>Biomimicry </li></ul>
  • 28. <ul><li>Bioceramics </li></ul><ul><li>The calcium phosphate Nanowhiskers produced by microwave assisted method can be used as Bioceramics to human bone </li></ul><ul><li>Gas sensor </li></ul><ul><li>SnO 2 Nanowhiskers showed a high sensitivity of 23–50 ppm ethanol gas at 300 ◦ C, which is much higher than that of regular SnO 2 films. </li></ul><ul><li>FE-SEM image of SnO 2 Nanowhiskers synthesized by thermal evaporation </li></ul>
  • 29. Electronics <ul><li>Nio 2 Nanowhiskers having long life-cycle, High specific capacitance, high power, high stability, and low cost of the electrode materials are favorable factors for commercial applications </li></ul><ul><li>Anisotropic Etching of SiC Whiskers were used as building blocks in the fabrication of sensors, cellular probes, electronic, optoelectronic, electromechanical, and other devices. </li></ul>
  • 30. Be the Best and Betray the Worst.