Port visit Mundra
Port visit Mundra
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Port visit Mundra
A comprehensive report based upon the
interaction during the 3-day port visit at
Mundra Port under Dr. B.K. Sahu from 21st
September, 2015-23rd September, 2015
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: At Mundra Port ..................................................................................................................................4
Chapter 2: Learnings at Port Visit.................................................................................................................... 15
References ........................................................................................................................................................ 19
I would like to take this opportunity to thank the administration at Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, New
Delhi and Kolkata for giving me an opportunity to visit India’s leading private port i.e. Mundra Port and as
a result gain an insight into port operations and to visually understand all of my theoretical learnings. I
would also like to thank, Dr. K. Rangarajan, Saswati Tripathi Mam and Dr. B.K. Sahu for aiding me and my
batch mates for a smooth port visit and guiding us along at each step. Without their efforts the visit would
not have come to fruition.
I am also grateful to all the stakeholders at Mundra Port who were really helpful and informative throughout
our interaction and for letting us pick their brains on important issues which enriched our thought process
for the long term and because of the invaluable learning and experience I would always be indebted to
The Port visit, which is a three days visit to any one of the prominent ports in India or abroad, organized by
IIFT every year for the second year/Final year students at the end of 4th Trimester. Every port is assigned a
faculty mentor and he/she is responsible for looking after students and arranging interaction with the port
authorities. This visit is scheduled so that the students get a live demo or feel of the theoretical concepts
taught in class about trade logistics which would help in comprehending concepts more quickly.
The following report talks about Adani port and SEZ in Mundra,
Adani Ports and Special Economic Zone Limited (APSEZ) is India’s largest private multi-port operator. APSEZ
is a part of the Adani Group, an integrated infrastructure corporation. The company (earlier known as
Mundra Port & Special Economic Zone Ltd) changed its name to "Adani Ports and Special Economic Zone
Limited" on January 6, 2012. While earlier the company had one operational port at Mundra, it today
operates across eight ports in India.
Adani Hazira Port Pvt. Ltd.
Adani Petronet (Dahej) Port Pvt. Ltd.
Adani Murmugao Port Pvt. Ltd.(Goa)
Adani Vizag Coal Terminal Pvt. Ltd. In
Adani Kandla Bulk Terminal Pvt. Ltd.
Adani Dhamra Port
Adani Ennore Port
Adani Abbot Point Terminal 1 in Australia.
Adani Abbot Point Terminal 0 Project
Dudgeon Point Coal Terminal Project
Bunyu in Indonesia
Chapter 1: At Mundra Port
The Port of Mundra is not only a private port, but it is also a special economic zone. Incorporated in 1998
as Gujarat Adani Port Limited (GAPL), the company began operating in 2001. The combined company was
renamed “Mundra Port and Special Economic Zone Limited.”
History of the Port:
In 1994, the Gujarat Maritime Board (GMB) approved setting up a captive jetty at the Port of Mundra.In
1998, a joint-sector company, the Gujarat Adani Port Ltd., was incorporated and multi-purpose berths
1 and 2 at Terminal I began operating. In 1999, multi-purpose berths 3 and 4 opened at Terminal I.
In 2001, the Port of Mundra signed a concession agreement with GMB for development, operation,
and maintenance of the port at Mundra. Also in 2001, the private Mundra-Adipur railway line was
completed and in 2002, it was integrated with the Indian Railways.
In 2002, Guru Govind Singh Refineries Ltd. signed an agreement with the Port of Mundra to handle
crude oil in the port. In 2002, additional agreements were signed with Indian Oil Corporation Limited to
set up a single-point mooring facility and handle crude oil at Mundra. In 2003, a sub-concession
agreement was signed to add a container terminal in the Port of Mundra, and the terminal began
operating that year. In 2005, Adani Port Limited and Gujarat Adani Port Limited were merged. In late
2005, the Single-Point Mooring became operational.
The Mundra Special Economic Zone was incorporated in 2003. It became India’s first multi-product
port-based special economic zone. Two new berths at Terminal II became operational to handle bulk
cargo. A double-stack container train began to operate. The Mundra Special Economic Zone Ltd. and
Adani Chemicals Limited were merged with Gujarat Adani Port Ltd., and the company name was
changed to Mundra Port and Special Economic Zone Limited (MPSEZ) in 2006.
In 2007, two more berths for bulk cargo were added at Terminal II, and the terminal trial run operations
began. A service agreement was signed with Tata Power to produce power for handling coal cargo
imports. Also in 2007, equity shares in MPSEZ were offered to the public and employees and were
listed on the National Stock Exchange and Bombay Stock Exchange. A service agreement was signed
in 2008 with Maruti Suzuki India Ltd. to handle exports of automobiles.
MPSEZ expanded its port operations and changed its name to "Adani Ports and Special Economic Zone
Limited" (APSEZ) on January 6, 2012
Mundra Special Economic Zone (Mundra SEZ) is located on the western coast of India in the Gulf of
Kachchh, within the vibrant state of Gujarat. Mundra Port is the gateway for cargo to the Northern hinterland
and Mundra SEZ is the gateway for the Indian exports.
Mundra SEZ is India's largest notified, operational multi-product SEZ with state-of-the-art infrastructure and
is planned to be spread over 15,000 Ha. Currently notified multi-product SEZs are spread over an area of
6473 Ha. The zone also has in addition a Free Trade and Warehousing Zone (FTWZ) spread over 168 Ha.
Leveraging the advantage of the robust port infrastructure, Mundra SEZ offers the best investment
opportunity for diversified industries.
Mundra SEZ can offer developed industrial clusters for
small/medium projects as well as facilitate the mega
projects with the desired land parcel, along with an
excellent logistic connectivity, power reliability and other
Infrastructure being the key to the SEZ development,
emphasis has been to develop / augment core
infrastructure facilities to attract investments.
Special features of Mundra SEZ are:
India's Largest, Port based, Notified and Functional, Multi-product SEZ
An integrated self-sustained zone with modern infrastructure and facilities
Mundra SEZ's multi-modal connectivity offers competitive logistic advantage with:
o In-zone Multi-purpose Port with Container Terminals
Fully mechanized efficient port with one of the lowest turnaround time in India.
o In-zone Road & Rail connectivity:
Well connected with National & State Highways
64 Kms Private Rail line connects Mundra to National Railway Network at Adipur near
210 kms rail network within the Zone
o In-zone private Airstrip.
Proposed International Air Cargo Hub
Integrated Infrastructure and Utilities.
Well-developed commercial & social infrastructure for Living, Learning, Healthcare & Recreations
Advantages of a SEZ:
Units located in SEZs get a host of fiscal advantages over those located in domestic area. The SEZ Policy
of the Government of India lays down a number of financial benefits for manufacturing units in the SEZ.
The present advantages include:
Direct Tax Benefits – Income Tax on export profit
o 100% exemption for the first 5 years
o 50% exemption for the sixth to tenth (next 5) years
o 50% exemption on the ploughed back profits, for an additional 5 years, after ten years
Indirect Tax Benefits - Perennial exemption in all taxes including
o Excise Duty
o Custom Duty
o Service Tax
o Value Added Tax (VAT)
o Stamp Duty / Lease Tax
o Entry Tax and various other State levies that would otherwise be applicable on operations
Domestic Tariff Area (DTA) supplier is eligible for export benefits on SEZ sales making the sourcing
External Commercial Borrowings upto US $ 500 Million without any specific approvals. Cost
competitive financing can be availed from Offshore Banking Units (OBUs).
Benefits from Gujarat State Government
VAT – Zero Rate Procurement
Exemption from Stamp duty and Registration fees on lease of land / mortgage deed.
Exemption from Electricity Duty for 10 years from the date of operation
SEZs offer a host of benefits that facilitate operations for in-zone industrial units. Besides the Government
of India benefits, the Gujarat State government has also designed a policy that offers added incentives to
the SEZ industrial units. The SEZ provides excellent flexibility through:
Single Window Clearance for statutory requirements
Waiver of routine
of imports and exports
Clearance of Export
consignments on self-
100% FDI permitted
through the automatic
approval route except
the negative list
Relaxed labour policy specifically for SEZ units (as per Gujarat State Labour policy for SEZ)
Freedom to realize and repatriate export proceeds within 12 months
No limit on quantum of DTA sales
Foreign investments allowed for items generally reserved for the Small Scale sector
Contract manufacturing permitted with units outside the SEZ or in other SEZs
Facilities and Utilities at Mundra Port and SEZ:
Out of the 15,000 Ha planned expanse of Mundra Special Economic Zone presently, two notified multi-
product SEZs spread over an area of 6473 Ha respectively and a Free Trade and Warehousing Zone (FTWZ)
spread over an area of 168 Ha is developed. Mundra SEZs allow flexibility to industries in deciding plot size
as per the respective project requirements.
Elaborate road network within Mundra SEZ has been designed for heavy freight movement, with an
objective to provide smooth access to the port, processing zone, non-processing zone, commercial,
warehousing zone and potential growth regions. As per the proposed development plan, a road network
with high level of services has been developed in the east-west and north-south directions.
All roads in the zone are designed as per IRC Standard codes and safety norms,
130 kms of road length comprising of arterial, sub-arterial and internal is built within the SEZ with
additional 20 kms to be developed.
India's largest single location Power Plant is an integral part of Mundra SEZ.
Generating capacity of 4620 MW
Reliable power through ring main unit is made available at competitive rates to the units within
APSEZ Utilities Pvt. Ltd. (MUPL) is the deemed distribution licensee for power distribution within
Sub-stations developed at various strategic locations within Mundra SEZ
Power can be supplied at different voltages ranging from 220 Kv / 66 Kv / 33 Kv / 11 Kv to the
units in the zone.
33 Kv / 11 Kv supply in the zone is through underground cable network
Mundra SEZ has a comprehensive water management system including water desalination plant, water
distribution network, etc.
200 MLD Desalination Plants planned within Mundra SEZ in a modular way
27 MLD desalination plants currently operational with additional 20 MLD to be added soon.
40 kms of water distribution network has been laid.
Gas pipeline connectivity upto Mundra proposed by GSPC
LNG Terminal planned at Mundra Port
Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETP) has been proposed at various locations of the zone in a modular
Environment Clearance received for developing 17 MLD Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CEPT)
2.5 MLD CETP is operating as part of Phase – I development.
Business Support infrastructure and facilities
Central Business District (CBD) for offices and other commercial activities ranging from
International trading, insurance, logistic services, etc. planned and developed in phases.
Nationalized and Private Sector Banks operating inside the SEZ.
Post Office & Telephone Exchange available inside the SEZ
Office of Development Commissioner and Customs’ functional in the zone.
“Mundra SEZ provides equal opportunities for all the industrial sectors. However, cluster based industrial
development strategy is based on the assumption that such strategy provides greater economic benefit to
Advantages of cluster development approach:
Clustering enables in cost saving
Sources of potential savings include a greater availability of specialized input suppliers and business
services; a larger pool of trained, specialized workers; common infrastructure investments geared to the
needs of the specific industry; ease of getting financial assistance; and an enhanced likelihood of inter firm
technology and information transfers.
Clustering facilitates industrial reorganization
Clusters are attractive locations for the specialized manufacturers. Product specialization and the adoption
of new production technologies are more prominent and easily attained among firms in industry clusters.
Proximity between the more specialized firms and their input suppliers and product markets enhances the
flow of goods through the production system. Ready access to product and input markets also enables
firms to more quickly adapt to market changes.
Clustering encourages networking among firms.
Networking is cooperation among firms to take advantage of complementaries, exploit new markets, and
integrate activities, or pool resources or knowledge. This cooperation occurs more naturally and frequently
within industry clusters.
Cluster based development model is successfully implemented at Mundra SEZ, with the development of
cluster for the textiles.
Mundra SEZ Textile & Apparel Park
Considering the strong presence of Textile industry in Gujarat, Mundra SEZ developed an Integrated Textile
and Apparel Park within the SEZ which is amongst the successfully implemented projects under the Scheme
of Integrated Textile Park by Ministry of Textiles, Government of India.
Advantages at Mundra SEZ Textile and Apparel Park
Mundra SEZ Integrated Textile and Apparel Park (MITAP), spread over 133 acres, offers excellent
opportunities for the textile sector:
Well-developed common and specialized infrastructure for the textile units.
Common Effluent Treatment plant
MITAP members will share common users facilities created inside the Park like reduces the
individual project cost.
Mundra is emerging as a hub for producing technical textiles in Gujarat.
Inspired by the successful implementation of Textile & Apparel Park, Mundra SEZ proposes the
development of ‘Plastic Park’ which shall contribute towards the development of industry by establishing
cluster approach along with modern common infrastructure and facilities required by the industry.
Key advantages in the proposed Plastic Park at Mundra SEZ:
Availability of raw material domestic & imports
Zone will provide a ready market for certain products developed in the Park.
Key features of the proposed Plastic Park are:
Developed plots with roads and utility connectivity
Quality Power at Competitive Rates through dedicated Sub-station within the Park
Buildings for support services like Admin Block/canteen/rest and recreational facilities, marketing
support system, etc.
Common Lab with Research & Development Centre
Common Warehousing and Storage Space
Solid / hazardous waste management system, incinerators, etc.
Food / Agri Cluster
The increased demand for processed food, and the burgeoning trade of castor and other oil seeds, makes
players of this sector look for a port based location and proximity to raw material sources.
Key Features of the Agri Storage Park are as under:
Only Port based commodity specific facility of its kind in India, where storage as well as trading can
Progressive planning for a dedicated agro berth at Mundra Port.
Transit warehouse with full rake length along the railway siding.
Two loading and unloading platforms: each platform has 6 m width on either sides on the railway
Loading/Unloading bays (paved area) with drains
Internal roads: paved with drains (5000 m x 7.5 m)
Empty bags storage yard and amenities for truck drivers
Ample potential for further expansion to meet business needs.
With the successful implementation of Textile & Apparel Park under 'Scheme for Integrated Textile Park’,
by Ministry of Textiles, Government of India, cluster based development for Food Processing Sector is
proposed at Mundra SEZ:
Key features of the proposed Food Park are as under:
Well planned internal roads with storm water drains, utility corridors, street furniture, etc.
Dedicated 66 KV substation with underground power distribution network
Admin building providing office space, display hall, conference room, Testing Lab, etc
Sector specific infrastructure such as multi-commodity cold storage, sub-zero storage, warehouses,
Free Trade Warehousing Zone (FTWZ)
Free Trade Warehousing Zone (FTWZ) is notified and it is spread over an area of 168 Hectares at Mundra.
Advantages at FTWZ are as under:
FTWZ in the proximity of India's largest private port with modern infrastructure and facilities.
Availability of third party logistics (3PL) Infrastructure.
Infrastructure in terms of Warehouses, Open storage, office space, CFS, etc
Handling and Transportation equipment’s
FTWZ permits tax-free international trading
Processes like sorting, stuffing, repacking,
segregation, etc are permitted in FTWZ
Commercial Office Space
Availability of all related utilities like telecom,
power, water, etc.
Facilities for clearance of import and export cargo.
Natural Advantages at Adani Ports
• Close to one of the major global maritime trade routes
• Bridging the resource rich Middle East, Africa and Australia, and regions with high resource demand and
consumer exports in East and North Asia and Europe
• Assets positioned on western and eastern coast of India to strategically service the land locked hinterland.
• Ample land available for development of incremental storage and evacuation infrastructure
• Ability to berth larger vessels, deeper natural drafts with lesser maintenance dredging requirements
• Low transit time to reach northern, western & central hinterland
– Rail routes traverse through the sparsely populated desert regions of Kutch and Rajasthan
– Well connected rail and road infrastructure to Mumbai & Delhi, key industrial hubs of India.
Adani Wilmar Limited (AWL) is a joint venture incorporated in January 1999 between Adani Group, the
leaders in International trading & Private Infrastructure with businesses in key industry verticals - resources,
logistics and energy. The Group was created with a vision of ‘Nation Building’ by developing assets of
national economic significance. Wilmar International Limited - Singapore, Asia's leading Agri-business group
& its business activities include oil palm cultivation, oilseed crushing, edible oil refining, sugar milling and
refining, specialty fat, oleochemical, biodiesel and fertilizer manufacturing and grain processing. It has over
450 manufacturing plants and an extensive distribution network covering China, India, Indonesia and some
50 other countries.
The joint venture kicked off with the commissioning of India's first port-based refinery at Mundra, Gujarat
and lateron other such units were setup across other locations.
Today, AWL owns refineries in 17 strategic locations across India, has 8 crushing units and 18 toll packing
units. Cumulatively, this translates to a refining capacity of over 10400 tonnes per day, seed crushing
capacity of 7400 tonnes per day and packaging capacity of 9000 tonnes per day.
AWL has the largest distribution network among all branded edible oil players in India, with more than 93
stock points, 3500 distributors and *10% Retail Penetration which spans across approx. 1 Million outlets
all over India.
*Source Nielsen Retail Index
Leading the Way
At Adani Wilmar, we are committed to a healthy growing India. We believe that the future of a nation rests
on its people. People, who don’t just dream, but aspire. With our wide range of products we spread the
goodness and health. We nourish the dreams of our fellow Indians.
With a vision to be a global admired leader in integrated agri-business, we shall be known for our scale of
ambition, speed of execution and quality of operation, Adani Wilmar is poised to lead the growth story of
Indian Food Industry.
Fortune is the most prestigious brand in the Adani Wilmar portfolio. Fortune became the no.1 brand in the
market within just 2 years of its launch and still continues to be a leader. Reader’s Digest honored Fortune
as the Most Trusted brand for 4 years, most recently in 2014, and it was adjudged as a ‘The Economic
Times Best Brands 2014’.Also, it has been chosen as the Most Valuable Brands for the year 2013-
14.Besides these it has also won “Mint Strategy Award” in September 2014.Fortune has grown from
strength to strength and continues to deliver the ‘joy of eating’ to Indian households.
Adani Wilmar has a range of premium edible oils, vanaspati, packed Basmati Rice, pulses,Soya Chunks
and also the first national brand in besan. It also has a range of customized specialty fats for institutional
customers. The product portfolio of Adani Wilmar spans under various brands such as - Fortune, King’s,
Bullet, Raag, Avsar, Pilaf, Jubilee, A-Kote, Fryola, Alpha and Aadhaar.
It has the largest portfolio of brands in the Indian edible oil industry. It goes to great lengths to deliver its
brand promise ‘For a healthy growing India’.
Following the success in India, AWL introduced branded Edible oil to Middle-East and is now exporting its
products to more than 19 countries in the Middle-East, South East Asia & East Africa including Singapore,
Australia & New Zealand
Chapter 2: Learnings at Port Visit
After three days of interactions with the port authorities and other stakeholders, my understanding from
the port was,
Key snapshots of Adani Group
Among top 10 business houses of India
Among India’s Top Five in Power Sector
Operator of largest Leading Private Port
Developer of the largest multi-Product SEZ in India
Owns the largest edible oil refining capacity in India
Largest coal importer/Operator of world’s largest automated import Coal terminal
Has Crude oil berths,
• APSEZ Single Point Mooring
APSEZ SPM caters exclusively to IOCL cargo
Capable of handling very large crude carriers (VLCC) and ultra large crude carriers
(ULCC) up to 360,000 tonnes DWT Located at the distance of 5 nautical miles
Located at the distance of 5 nautical miles
Discharge rate of 8,000 to 12,000 tonnes per hour
• HMEL Single Point Mooring
HMEL SPM handles HMEL cargo only
Capable of handling very large crude carriers (VLCC) and ultra large crude carriers
(ULCC) up to 360,000 tonnes DWT
Located at the distance of 5 nautical miles
Discharge rate of 8,000 to 12,000 tonnes per hour
There are 12 major ports in the country; 6 on the Eastern coast and 6 on the Western coast
Major ports are under the jurisdiction of the Government of India and are governed by the Major
Port Trusts Act 1963, except Ennore port, which is administered under the Companies Act 1956
India has about 187 non major Ports of which one third are operational
Non-major ports come under the jurisdiction of the respective state Governments’ Maritime Boards
There is a dedicated development commissioner at APSEZ to look after the functioning and other
issues at the facility.
It has a quay length of 631m and 750m of turning circle ( biggest at Terminal 3 at South Basin)
Highest parcel size that it has handled is 7504 TEU ( MSC Antigue Voyage IP346R)
It has 3 terminals with 4 berths each
Currently it has 13 tugs to guide a ship and help it in berthing (marine operations)
It has 20% higher port tariff then Government
The port has a strong Cross current (7km/hr water flow)
Highest revenue generating ( cash cow for Adani group)
The port also has a Ro-Ro terminal for automobiles
Strong growth potential, favorable investment climate, and sops provided by state governments have
encouraged domestic and foreign private players to enter the Indian ports sector. In addition to the
development of ports and terminals –
• The private sector has extensively participated in port logistics services
• By March’15, around 99 Public Private Partnership (PPP) projects are operational with a total cost of
around USD8813.8 million and capacity of 683.29 million tonnes per annum.
• In FY15, total cargo handled at Indian ports increased by 8.2 per cent to 1052.5million tonnes from
972.4 million tonnes during FY14
• India is witnessing a robust economic growth and an upward trend in export and import trade volumes
as well as in domestic trade.
• Increased international and domestic investments in Greenfield commercial and captive ports and in
various port related logistics and support activities.
• Non-major ports are emerging as strong competitors due to their flexibility in fixing market driven tariff
rates, efficiency, and spillover cargo traffic due to capacity constraints at major ports.
• Market conditions are favorable: By FY17, cargo capacity in India is expected to increase to 2,493.1
MMT from 1,806.8 MMT in FY15
• By FY17, cargo traffic at major ports in India is expected to rise to 943.1 MMT from 581.3 MMT in FY15
• Robust demand
• Port traffic in India is set to rise at a CAGR of 29.2 per cent over FY15–17
• CAGR in traffic over FY15–17 for:
• Non-major ports: 31.5 per cent to 815 MMT by 2017
• Major ports: 27.4 per cent to 943 MMT by 2017
• The government initiated NMDP, an initiative to develop the maritime sector; the planned outlay is
• FDI of 100 per cent under the automatic route and a ten year tax holiday for enterprises engaged in ports
• Plans to create port capacity of around 3200 MMT to handle the expected traffic of about 2500 MMT by
There is also a significant financial risk arising from uncertainty in upward slope in cargo traffic volume and
tariff rates at both ports due to stronger positioning of their respective competitors.
The Income at the Port constitutes of,
• Pilotage Income – 33%
• Berthing Charges – 22%
• Terminal Royalty – 20%
• Port duty – 14%
The values at Adani port are Courage, trust and commitment
While there culture is based on,
P = Passion
R = Result
D = Dedication
E = Entrepreneurship
In conclusion, the visit was personally very enriching and informative and I am grateful to IIFT for providing
me with this opportunity.
1. "Mundra Port and SEZ Ltd". Gujarat Maritime Port. Retrieved 2012-10-01.
2. "Mundra Port co is now Adani Ports and SEZ Ltd". The Hindu Business Line. 9 January 2012.
3. "Mundra Port & SEZ Ltd." (PDF). Myiris. 28 July 2011.
8. IBEF report on Port, August 2015