English is a melting pot of indo-european languages <ul><li>Celtic Latin German French </li></ul>
Quick History of English Language <ul><li>Old English (OE) dates from approximately* 400 A.D. to 1066 </li></ul><ul><li>Mi...
Old english <ul><li>Old English also known as SAXON </li></ul><ul><li>The principle invading Germanic Tribes were the ...
<ul><li>Anglo-Saxon Alphabet </li></ul>
pronunciations <ul><li>sc is pronounced as the “sh” sound, as in &quot;ship“ </li></ul><ul><li>The Old English word for a...
pronunciations <ul><li>The Old English word for king is cyning </li></ul><ul><li>The sound is largely determined by the w...
Overview of Periods of Early English History Pre-History—1066 A. D. <ul><li>Pre-Roman/Pre-Historical  up to 55 B. C. </...
<ul><li>Pre-Historical / Pre-Roman </li></ul>
Theories of first Inhabitants <ul><li>Iberians--came from the Iberian peninsula of portugal and Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Ce...
<ul><li>Roman Occupation </li></ul>
The Conquest of Briton <ul><li>Between 800 – 600 B.C.: Celts </li></ul><ul><li>55 B.C.: Romans </li></ul><ul><li>About ...
Celts <ul><li>Fourth century b.c. </li></ul><ul><li>Loved nature </li></ul><ul><li>Peace loving within their tribes </li><...
CELTIC LEGENDS <ul><li>King Arthur- celtic warrior </li></ul><ul><li>Filled with strong women </li></ul><ul><li>Tall, fier...
romans <ul><li>55 BC Julius Caesar </li></ul><ul><li>43 AD Emperor Claudius </li></ul>
<ul><li>Picts </li></ul><ul><li>Painted people </li></ul><ul><li>Wore blue dye (berry juice) </li></ul><ul><li>Screeched w...
<ul><li>Celts were pushed to Scotland, Wales , and Ireland by Romans </li></ul>
Romans <ul><li>Conquered celts </li></ul><ul><li>Established cities </li></ul><ul><li>Organized law </li></ul><ul><li>Road...
<ul><li>Hadrian’s Wall </li></ul><ul><li>73 miles long </li></ul><ul><li>Wide enough for two people side by side </li></ul...
 
<ul><li>61 ad queen Boadecia </li></ul><ul><li>Queen of a briton Tribe </li></ul><ul><li>Killed 70,000 Romans </li></ul>
<ul><li>409 Romans withdrew from Britain leaving no central government </li></ul>
BEDE THE VENERABLE 673-737 <ul><li>A monk and scholar recorded knowledge of England before the 8th century </li></ul>
<ul><li>ANGLO-SAXON Background </li></ul><ul><li>449-1066AD </li></ul>
 
Angles <ul><li>Angles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germanic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Migrated from Germany 5th Century </li><...
saxons <ul><li>large and powerful Germanic people from northwestern German and the eastern Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>i...
JUTES <ul><li>from Jutland in modern Denmark </li></ul><ul><li>less well known than the Angles and Saxons </li></ul>
Anglo-saxons
7 KINGDOMS OF THE ANGLO SAXONS
Anglo-Saxons <ul><li>Blond-haired, blue-eyed </li></ul><ul><li>Fair, sturdy </li></ul><ul><li>Loved nature and the sea </l...
Anglo-Saxon Society <ul><li>King’s home in center of all others </li></ul><ul><li>Mead hall (communal hall) </li></ul><ul>...
Mead hall
Pagan gods <ul><li>Woden - Wednesday </li></ul><ul><li>Fria - Friday; goddess of love </li></ul><ul><li>Tui - Tuesday; go...
Hierarchal system
THANES <ul><li>LIKE MEDIEVAL KNIGHTS </li></ul><ul><li>SWORN TO PROTECT KING </li></ul><ul><li>FOUGHT FOR GLORY, FAME, & H...
WERGILD (WIERGILD) <ul><li>“ MANPRICE” </li></ul><ul><li>VICTIM’S RELATIVES WOULD SEEK REVENGE IN FORM OF WERGILD. FAILUR...
wiergild <ul><li>Under the wiergild system, every Anglo-Saxon, in common with other Germanic and Scandinavian peoples, kne...
treasures
scops <ul><li>Old English poetry was meant to be read/sung aloud before an audience. </li></ul><ul><li>the Scop , would e...
Christianity <ul><li>first arrived in Britain in the 6th Century - St. Augustine </li></ul><ul><li>gradually converted po...
<ul><li>871 alfred the Great unified tribes </li></ul><ul><li>1066 norman french invasion </li></ul><ul><li>King Harold vs...
The site of sutton hoo <ul><li>1930’S the site of the grave was on the land of Edith pretty. She was convinced the site c...
<ul><li>The graves of a warrior and his horse were found in one of the smaller mounds </li></ul>
Dig Site
 
Anglo-saxon literature <ul><li>Oral Tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Beowulf </li></ul><ul><li>Epic </li></ul><ul><li>latin </l...
Characteristics of anglo-saxon poetry <ul><li>Love of freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Responsiveness to nature </li></ul><ul><li...
The epic <ul><li>Is narrative poem </li></ul><ul><li>Gives “biography” of great hero </li></ul><ul><li>Is based in myth an...
epic <ul><li>Long, majestic narrative poem </li></ul><ul><li>legendary or historical events </li></ul><ul><li>ideals of a...
epic <ul><li>ideals of a great cultural or religious movement </li></ul>
epic <ul><li>Supernatural forces </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict in form of combat </li></ul><ul><li>Stylistic conventions (inv...
Epic <ul><li>Characters experience universal emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Hero is demigod </li></ul><ul><li>Begins in medias...
KENNINGS <ul><li>POETIC DEVICE </li></ul><ul><li>COMPOUND OF 2 WORDS IN PLACE OF ANOTHER </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLES: </li>...
OTHER TERMS <ul><li>LITOTES: IRONIC UNDERSTATEMENT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EX. “SHE WELCOMED IN HER CLAWS” </li></ul></ul><...
Epic hero <ul><li>Represents a whole culture </li></ul><ul><li>Univeral aspects of human condition </li></ul><ul><li>Embod...
End of anglo-saxon period <ul><li>Norman French Invasion 1066 </li></ul>
Beowulf Introduction
beowulf <ul><li>Anglo-Saxon epic poem </li></ul><ul><li>Dates from late 10 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Considered work o...
The basics <ul><li>Who? </li></ul><ul><li>What? </li></ul><ul><li>When? </li></ul><ul><li>Where? </li></ul><ul><li>Why? <...
By whom? <ul><li>By whom was it written? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most Anglo-Saxon poetry was oral at first, meaning it was t...
By whom? <ul><ul><li>The Beowulf -poet, scholars believe, was an English monk (and therefore, Christian ) who probably l...
About whom? <ul><li>Even though the poet himself was English and Christian, the poem is about neither Englishmen nor (full...
 
Main characters <ul><li>Beowulf (Geat) </li></ul><ul><li>Hrothgar (Dane) </li></ul><ul><li>Unferth (Dane) </li></ul><ul><l...
Where and when? <ul><li>Where was it written? It was written down, most likely, in the kingdom of Mercia (East Central En...
The scary, horror movie where? <ul><li>Beowulf takes place in a “once upon a time world” and that it taps into “three arch...
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Prewitt anglo saxon

Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Education      Technology      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Prewitt anglo saxon

  • 1. English is a melting pot of indo-european languages <ul><li>Celtic Latin German French </li></ul>
  • 2. Quick History of English Language <ul><li>Old English (OE) dates from approximately* 400 A.D. to 1066 </li></ul><ul><li>Middle English (ME) dates from approximately 1066-1485 </li></ul><ul><li>They are quite different to the eye and ear. Old English is nearly impossible to read or understand without studying it much like and English speaker today would study French, Latin, or Chinese </li></ul>
  • 3. Old english <ul><li>Old English also known as SAXON </li></ul><ul><li>The principle invading Germanic Tribes were the ANGLES , SAXONS , JUTES, and FRISIANS </li></ul><ul><li>Anglo- Saxon dialects developed into Old English </li></ul><ul><li>The most commonly used words today derive from those early Anglo- Saxon roots </li></ul><ul><li>Later the language was influenced by the French speaking NORMAN INVADERS </li></ul>
  • 4. <ul><li>Anglo-Saxon Alphabet </li></ul>
  • 5. pronunciations <ul><li>sc is pronounced as the “sh” sound, as in &quot;ship“ </li></ul><ul><li>The Old English word for a ship is scip </li></ul><ul><li>The Old English word for fish is fisc </li></ul><ul><li>c can be rendered either a soft consonant pair as in “child” </li></ul><ul><li>The Old English word for child is cild </li></ul>
  • 6. pronunciations <ul><li>The Old English word for king is cyning </li></ul><ul><li>The sound is largely determined by the word itself and the vowels adjoining it in that word </li></ul><ul><li>In modern editions, a soft “c”, with a sound like the modern “ch”, will be indicated with a dot above the c </li></ul>
  • 7. Overview of Periods of Early English History Pre-History—1066 A. D. <ul><li>Pre-Roman/Pre-Historical  up to 55 B. C. </li></ul><ul><li>Roman Occupation  55 B. C. – 410 A. D. </li></ul><ul><li>Anglo-Saxon Period  410 – 1066 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Norman -French Invasion  1066 AD </li></ul>
  • 8. <ul><li>Pre-Historical / Pre-Roman </li></ul>
  • 9. Theories of first Inhabitants <ul><li>Iberians--came from the Iberian peninsula of portugal and Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Celts called “Brythons” hence Britain 300’s BC </li></ul>
  • 10. <ul><li>Roman Occupation </li></ul>
  • 11. The Conquest of Briton <ul><li>Between 800 – 600 B.C.: Celts </li></ul><ul><li>55 B.C.: Romans </li></ul><ul><li>About 407 A. D.: Anglo-Saxons/ Jutes </li></ul>
  • 12. Celts <ul><li>Fourth century b.c. </li></ul><ul><li>Loved nature </li></ul><ul><li>Peace loving within their tribes </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled craftsmen iron </li></ul><ul><li>Religion - Animism “spirit” in rivers, rocks </li></ul><ul><li>War-like </li></ul><ul><li>Druids - Priests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demanded total dedication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mistletoe (sacred) and oak </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary human sacrifice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of stones in worship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stone Henge - used in worship, astrology </li></ul></ul>
  • 13. CELTIC LEGENDS <ul><li>King Arthur- celtic warrior </li></ul><ul><li>Filled with strong women </li></ul><ul><li>Tall, fierce, beautiful </li></ul><ul><li>Bloody </li></ul><ul><li>magical </li></ul>
  • 14. romans <ul><li>55 BC Julius Caesar </li></ul><ul><li>43 AD Emperor Claudius </li></ul>
  • 15. <ul><li>Picts </li></ul><ul><li>Painted people </li></ul><ul><li>Wore blue dye (berry juice) </li></ul><ul><li>Screeched when they attacked </li></ul><ul><li>Frightened the Romans according to historians and Julius Ceasar’s description </li></ul>
  • 16. <ul><li>Celts were pushed to Scotland, Wales , and Ireland by Romans </li></ul>
  • 17. Romans <ul><li>Conquered celts </li></ul><ul><li>Established cities </li></ul><ul><li>Organized law </li></ul><ul><li>Roadways </li></ul><ul><li>Roman baths </li></ul>
  • 18. <ul><li>Hadrian’s Wall </li></ul><ul><li>73 miles long </li></ul><ul><li>Wide enough for two people side by side </li></ul><ul><li>To keep out Celts and Picts </li></ul><ul><li>Romans Brought Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Patrick brought missionaries to Ireland bringing Christianity </li></ul>
  • 20. <ul><li>61 ad queen Boadecia </li></ul><ul><li>Queen of a briton Tribe </li></ul><ul><li>Killed 70,000 Romans </li></ul>
  • 21. <ul><li>409 Romans withdrew from Britain leaving no central government </li></ul>
  • 22. BEDE THE VENERABLE 673-737 <ul><li>A monk and scholar recorded knowledge of England before the 8th century </li></ul>
  • 23. <ul><li>ANGLO-SAXON Background </li></ul><ul><li>449-1066AD </li></ul>
  • 25. Angles <ul><li>Angles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germanic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Migrated from Germany 5th Century </li></ul></ul><ul><li>That land was later called Engla-lond now known as England </li></ul>
  • 26. saxons <ul><li>large and powerful Germanic people from northwestern German and the eastern Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>invaded Britain in the early Middle Ages, giving their names to the kingdoms of Essex, Sussex and Wessex </li></ul>
  • 27. JUTES <ul><li>from Jutland in modern Denmark </li></ul><ul><li>less well known than the Angles and Saxons </li></ul>
  • 28. Anglo-saxons
  • 29. 7 KINGDOMS OF THE ANGLO SAXONS
  • 30. Anglo-Saxons <ul><li>Blond-haired, blue-eyed </li></ul><ul><li>Fair, sturdy </li></ul><ul><li>Loved nature and the sea </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of honor </li></ul><ul><li>Generous: Love to eat and drink </li></ul><ul><li>Loved glory of battle </li></ul><ul><li>braggarts </li></ul>
  • 31. Anglo-Saxon Society <ul><li>King’s home in center of all others </li></ul><ul><li>Mead hall (communal hall) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mead - potent drink made from honey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women not allowed except for serving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scops told stories/riddles in the halls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>King received power from gods (Woden) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Somewhat democratic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye for eye justice - immediate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pagan religion / mixed with Christianity later </li></ul></ul>
  • 32. Mead hall
  • 33. Pagan gods <ul><li>Woden - Wednesday </li></ul><ul><li>Fria - Friday; goddess of love </li></ul><ul><li>Tui - Tuesday; god of war </li></ul><ul><li>Thor - Thursday; god of thunder </li></ul><ul><li>Eostre - goddess of dawn and new life </li></ul><ul><li>Wyrd - god of fate </li></ul>
  • 34. Hierarchal system
  • 35. THANES <ul><li>LIKE MEDIEVAL KNIGHTS </li></ul><ul><li>SWORN TO PROTECT KING </li></ul><ul><li>FOUGHT FOR GLORY, FAME, & HONOR </li></ul>
  • 36. WERGILD (WIERGILD) <ul><li>“ MANPRICE” </li></ul><ul><li>VICTIM’S RELATIVES WOULD SEEK REVENGE IN FORM OF WERGILD. FAILURE TO DO SO WOULD KEEP FAMILY FROM EVER BEING ABLE TO SATISFY THEIR GRIEF </li></ul>
  • 37. wiergild <ul><li>Under the wiergild system, every Anglo-Saxon, in common with other Germanic and Scandinavian peoples, knew the exact value of his life, and that depended on his rank.The life of a churl was worth two hundred shillings; that of a thane ... six times as much, and the price to be paid for injury, like the loss of a hand or a leg, was calculated in proportion.&quot; </li></ul>
  • 38. treasures
  • 39. scops <ul><li>Old English poetry was meant to be read/sung aloud before an audience. </li></ul><ul><li>the Scop , would entertain with tales of past deeds, battles of old and history was kept alive for the Anglo-Saxons. </li></ul><ul><li>The scop had to be a master of his art, being able to recite thousands of lines from memory (the epic Beowulf has 3182 lines) </li></ul><ul><li>Some more experienced scops would add to the stories as they were told </li></ul>
  • 40. Christianity <ul><li>first arrived in Britain in the 6th Century - St. Augustine </li></ul><ul><li>gradually converted population until 9th Century when most Britons were Christian </li></ul><ul><li>Latin introduced to Anglo Saxons who integrated Old English with Latin Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Centers for learning </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation of manuscripts </li></ul>
  • 41. <ul><li>871 alfred the Great unified tribes </li></ul><ul><li>1066 norman french invasion </li></ul><ul><li>King Harold vs william, the conqueror </li></ul>
  • 42. The site of sutton hoo <ul><li>1930’S the site of the grave was on the land of Edith pretty. She was convinced the site contained treasure. She had a dream in which she saw an ancient funeral procession </li></ul>
  • 43. <ul><li>The graves of a warrior and his horse were found in one of the smaller mounds </li></ul>
  • 44. Dig Site
  • 46. Anglo-saxon literature <ul><li>Oral Tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Beowulf </li></ul><ul><li>Epic </li></ul><ul><li>latin </li></ul>
  • 47. Characteristics of anglo-saxon poetry <ul><li>Love of freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Responsiveness to nature </li></ul><ul><li>Devotion to glory as ruling motive in warriors’ lives </li></ul><ul><li>Brooding melancholy </li></ul>
  • 48. The epic <ul><li>Is narrative poem </li></ul><ul><li>Gives “biography” of great hero </li></ul><ul><li>Is based in myth and tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Was sung by minstrels </li></ul>
  • 49. epic <ul><li>Long, majestic narrative poem </li></ul><ul><li>legendary or historical events </li></ul><ul><li>ideals of an entire nation at critical point of its history; gratifies national pride </li></ul>
  • 50. epic <ul><li>ideals of a great cultural or religious movement </li></ul>
  • 51. epic <ul><li>Supernatural forces </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict in form of combat </li></ul><ul><li>Stylistic conventions (invocation to Muse, formal theme statement, long lists of protagonists, set speeches in elevated language) </li></ul>
  • 52. Epic <ul><li>Characters experience universal emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Hero is demigod </li></ul><ul><li>Begins in medias res </li></ul><ul><li>Contains good vs evil battle </li></ul><ul><li>Exaggeration and superlatives </li></ul>
  • 53. KENNINGS <ul><li>POETIC DEVICE </li></ul><ul><li>COMPOUND OF 2 WORDS IN PLACE OF ANOTHER </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bait gallows=hook </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood worm = sword </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeder of ravens = warrior </li></ul></ul>
  • 54. OTHER TERMS <ul><li>LITOTES: IRONIC UNDERSTATEMENT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EX. “SHE WELCOMED IN HER CLAWS” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>STICHE: POETIC VERSE OR LINE </li></ul><ul><li>HEMI-STICHE: A HALF LINE </li></ul><ul><li>COMITATUS - DISPENSING OF TREASURE AS A SYMBOL OF LOYALTY TO KING </li></ul>
  • 55. Epic hero <ul><li>Represents a whole culture </li></ul><ul><li>Univeral aspects of human condition </li></ul><ul><li>Embodies qualities of human greatness </li></ul><ul><li>Exists for the sake of community and protect community from evil </li></ul><ul><li>Larger than life </li></ul><ul><li>Shows proof of victory </li></ul><ul><li>Boasts of prowess </li></ul><ul><li>Acclaimed after death </li></ul>
  • 56. End of anglo-saxon period <ul><li>Norman French Invasion 1066 </li></ul>
  • 57. Beowulf Introduction
  • 58. beowulf <ul><li>Anglo-Saxon epic poem </li></ul><ul><li>Dates from late 10 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Considered work of anonymous 8 th -century poet </li></ul><ul><li>Fuses Scandinavian history and pagan mythology </li></ul>
  • 59. The basics <ul><li>Who? </li></ul><ul><li>What? </li></ul><ul><li>When? </li></ul><ul><li>Where? </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul>
  • 60. By whom? <ul><li>By whom was it written? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most Anglo-Saxon poetry was oral at first, meaning it was transmitted or performed by a Bard (Scop) from memory; it wasn’t actually written down, per se until . . . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Somewhere between the eighth and ninth centuries A.D., “The Beowulf -Poet” (his identity is unknown) wrote down the poem which for many years had been sung/spoken. </li></ul></ul>
  • 61. By whom? <ul><ul><li>The Beowulf -poet, scholars believe, was an English monk (and therefore, Christian ) who probably lived in one of the Anglo-Saxon settlements in Western England (Mercia) </li></ul></ul>
  • 62. About whom? <ul><li>Even though the poet himself was English and Christian, the poem is about neither Englishmen nor (full-fledged) Christians </li></ul><ul><li>It is the story of several Scandinavian peoples (tribes, really), mainly the Geats and the Danes, but also the Swedes. Beowulf is a Geat. He goes to the aid of the Danes, whose king is Hrothgar </li></ul><ul><li>They live in . . . </li></ul>
  • 64. Main characters <ul><li>Beowulf (Geat) </li></ul><ul><li>Hrothgar (Dane) </li></ul><ul><li>Unferth (Dane) </li></ul><ul><li>Wiglaf (Geat) </li></ul><ul><li>Grendel </li></ul><ul><li>Grendel’s mother </li></ul><ul><li>The dragon </li></ul>
  • 65. Where and when? <ul><li>Where was it written? It was written down, most likely, in the kingdom of Mercia (East Central Enlgand today). Around 700 AD </li></ul><ul><li>Where do the events in the poem take place? The action in the poem takes place in Geatland and Denmark (the island of Zealand and in Southern Sweden) . . . Or more generally, in the Baltic region of Scandinavia </li></ul><ul><li>Also consider more specific settings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The sea, the meadhall, the swamp, the cliff, the battlefield, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the modern world, it is Denmark and Sweden and the islands in the Baltic between the two countries. </li></ul>
  • 66. The scary, horror movie where? <ul><li>Beowulf takes place in a “once upon a time world” and that it taps into “three archetypal sites of fear”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The barricaded night house (Grendel) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The infested underwater current (Grendel’s mother) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reptile-haunted rocks of a wilderness (dragon) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>in terms which may mean more to us </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Our beds on a stormy night when we are alone in the house (where we should feel safe) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A murky lake, or the beach where Jaws takes place (Ever been waterskiing and wondered what was nibbling on your toes?). Or, how about a dark forest by yourself? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The dark recesses of the earth: a cave, or even better, your own, dark basement </li></ul></ul>