Made By : Priyanka Chavan(114007)
Department : DCP 2nd year.
a paper presentation on
NaNoTechNoLoGY
7/11/2013 1
ABSTRACT
• The future of technology at times becomes easier to predict when Computers will compute
faster, materials will ...
CONTENTS:
1. What is nanotechnology?
2. Goal of nanotechnology
3. Pioneers of nanotechnology.
4. Up and down approaches in...
INTRODUCTION
• A nanometer is billionth of a meter
that is about 1/80,000th of the
diameter of a human hair, or 10 times
t...
GOAL OF NANO TECHNOLOGY:
• Manipulate atoms individually.
• Placement of atoms in pattern to
produce desired structure
7/1...
WHAT IS NANOTECHNOLOGY?
• Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the
molecular scale.
• It’s a Hybrid ...
PIONEER OF NANOTECHNOLOGY:
• Arthur von hippee, an
electrical engineer from
massachussetts
institute of technology
(MIT).
...
UP AND DOWN APPROACHES IN
NANOTECHNOLOGY:
 TOP DOWN APPROACH:
 Large machines small
(Process)machines
 Processes used i...
COMBINING OF ATOMS:
DEVICES OF NANOTECHNOLOGY:
The devices nanotechnology are generally called
nano size robots
• Nano ass...
 This is able to bond atoms together, in virtually and pattern adding a few at a
time, until a complex structure is compl...
NANO REPLICATORS:
 Capability of assembler is ability to self-replicate or to take many copies.
 Nano assembler works at...
 Nanotechnology can also
be used for dissembling
materials.
 Nanocomputers record
layer by layer, taking apart
of the sa...
• This method stores data by flipping electron in
structure called carbon nanotubes.
• Carbon cylinders have 1to2 nanomete...
FORMATION OF NANOTUBE CIRCUITS:
• Existing silicon based circuits were replaced by nanotechnology circuits. Until now no o...
ENABLING TECHNIQUES IN
NANOTECHNOLOGY:
 PROTEIN ENGG:
 Develop techniques for designing molecular devices made of protei...
The top 10 nanotechnology applications are:
• 1. Energy storage, production and conversion.
• 2. Agricultural productivity...
Applications
 IMPACT ON MEDICINE:
• Patients will drink medicinal fluid, which contain nano-
robots, programmed to attack...
SUPER COMPUTING:
• The ability to shrink the size
of transistors on silicon
microprocessors is already
reaching limits, bu...
ONTHE FIELD OF COSMETOLOGY:
 In the field of
cosmetology, nanotechnology
will go to be act as milestone in
future.
 Nano...
• It can produce computer hardware like
molecular gates, wires etc.
even the lithographic method couldn’t
achieve.
• Inexp...
• Nanotechnology, with all its challenges and
opportunities, is an unavoidable part of our
future. The possibility of nano...
7/11/2013 22
 1. ARTICLE – “How Nanotechnology Could
Help (Miniaturized?) Human Beings
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU
 2. J. BR. In...
of 22

Nano ppt

nanotechnology
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Education      Technology      Business      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Nano ppt

  • 1. Made By : Priyanka Chavan(114007) Department : DCP 2nd year. a paper presentation on NaNoTechNoLoGY 7/11/2013 1
  • 2. ABSTRACT • The future of technology at times becomes easier to predict when Computers will compute faster, materials will become stronger and medicine will cure more diseases. • This technology that works at the nanometer scale of molecules • Atom will be enable part of this future, enabling great improvements in future, it must be used in all the fields, in which the human present. • Nanotechnology will touch our lives right-out to the water we drink and the air we breathe. Once we have ability to capture position and change the configuration of the molecule, we would be able to create filtration systems that will scrub the toxins from the air or remove hazardous organisms from the water we drink. • Space will always open up to us in new ways. With the current cost of transporting pay loads into space being as, high as $20,000 per kg, little is being done to take the advantage of space. Nanotechnology helps us to deliver more machines of smaller size and greater, functional it into space, paving the way for solar system expansion. The application of nanotechnology might even allow us to adapt our body for survive in space. • We will able to expand control of systems from the macro level to the micro level and beyond, while simultaneously reducing the cost associated with manufacturing of products. 7/11/2013 2
  • 3. CONTENTS: 1. What is nanotechnology? 2. Goal of nanotechnology 3. Pioneers of nanotechnology. 4. Up and down approaches in nanotechnology 5. Combining of Atoms 6. Devices of nanotechnology 7. Formation of carbon Nanotube circuits. 8. Enabling techniques in nanotechnology 9. Applications : - Impact on medicine. - Super computing - Impact on environment. - On cosmetology - Growing & replacement of blood vessels. 10. Advantages 11. Conclusion 7/11/2013 3
  • 4. INTRODUCTION • A nanometer is billionth of a meter that is about 1/80,000th of the diameter of a human hair, or 10 times the diameter of the hydrogen atom. • If we blow a tennis ball to the size of the earth, the atoms of the tennis ball will be about the size of grapes. • If we measure the width of ten atoms placed side by side by size, we would have a Nanometer. • All the technology which deals in nanometer is called Nanotechnology. 7/11/2013 4
  • 5. GOAL OF NANO TECHNOLOGY: • Manipulate atoms individually. • Placement of atoms in pattern to produce desired structure 7/11/2013 5
  • 6. WHAT IS NANOTECHNOLOGY? • Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. • It’s a Hybrid science combining engineering, chemistry and to certain extent Biology. • It Deals with creation of functional materials, devices, systems through control of matter on Nanoscale • Generally, atoms and molecules stick together and have complementary shapes; millions of these atoms are pieced by nanomachines at a certain shapes for specific products. • The original vision of nanotechnology is some times termed as “molecular manufacturing” or “manufacturing based nano technology” • Nanotechnology placed the foot prints in the field of energy medicine, electronics, computing, Security and materials. 7/11/2013 6
  • 7. PIONEER OF NANOTECHNOLOGY: • Arthur von hippee, an electrical engineer from massachussetts institute of technology (MIT). • He coined the term ‘molecular engineering’. • He predicted feasibility of constructing nano molecular devices, at late 1950. 7/11/2013 7
  • 8. UP AND DOWN APPROACHES IN NANOTECHNOLOGY:  TOP DOWN APPROACH:  Large machines small (Process)machines  Processes used in this approach are : photolithography, thin films, selecting etching.  Used to made micro electronic system, mechanical structures of gears and motors (such devices are tens of microns).  BOTTOM UP APPROACH:  Atomic level manner molecular level in precise. (machines)  The machines isolate the atom from the molecules are artificial molecular machines, molecular assembler, assembler based replicators & mechanical nanocomputers. 7/11/2013 8
  • 9. COMBINING OF ATOMS: DEVICES OF NANOTECHNOLOGY: The devices nanotechnology are generally called nano size robots • Nano assembler. • Nano replicator. • Nano disassembler. • Carbon nanotubes. 7/11/2013 9
  • 10.  This is able to bond atoms together, in virtually and pattern adding a few at a time, until a complex structure is complete.  We can build any thing, as the laws of nature allow. Assembler picks up molecules, as they need.  Then each assembler constructs its part, diamonded plastic, graphite sensor etc.,Gives reinforcing wherever necessary.  Eg: assembler building large structure  Now we are going to see most advanced rocket engine construction, by Eric drexler, worlds leading nano technologist. 7/11/2013 10
  • 11. NANO REPLICATORS:  Capability of assembler is ability to self-replicate or to take many copies.  Nano assembler works atom by atom, it’s slow because for desired products, needs trillions of atoms to make. However such assembler’s robot arm designed to make copies and those copies to further copies.  This Nano Replicators process to be speed, and is object assembled.  Self-replicating assembler (replicator) if supplied with enough raw materials abundant carbon atoms and energy they can quickly create vast number of themselves as growth is expendental.  Similarly using this method conservative estimate in 10 hrs produces 68 billions.  In 1951 john von Neumann outlined principle of replicated machines exactly like neuman snoke for molecular machines. 7/11/2013 11
  • 12.  Nanotechnology can also be used for dissembling materials.  Nanocomputers record layer by layer, taking apart of the same layer until the entire atomic structure is computed.  This information is feed by nanocomputers and copied by assembler.  Use : in advent of discovering a new alloy, perhaps in an asteroid.  Resource extraction and able to extract right element and leave unvalued one. 7/11/2013 12
  • 13. • This method stores data by flipping electron in structure called carbon nanotubes. • Carbon cylinders have 1to2 nanometer in dia, structure similar to seamless rolls of chickenwire. • Carbon nanotube serve as nanowires in molecular computer, by quantum property called electron tunneling. • Carbon nanotubes are stronger than kelver durable than diamonds adding even small fractions. • It does not corrode and make plastics electrically conductive. • Nanoscale zinc oxide flakes by nanophase tech. make invisible sunscreen possible and tiny nanoflakes reflects harmful UV rays. •Today’s IBM created nanowire switches, transistor and other components by input and output of carbon nanotubes in bulk. CARBON NANOTUBES : 7/11/2013 13
  • 14. FORMATION OF NANOTUBE CIRCUITS: • Existing silicon based circuits were replaced by nanotechnology circuits. Until now no one demonstrated the practical molecular circuits, for that electrical property of number of molecules to be investigated. • Its significant success for denser and denser integration. • To create a FET must place an insulated GATE electrode. The FET is controlled by the current passing through the Nanotube can be controlled by a voltage supplied to the GATE. • Inverter is a basic circuit that changes zero to one and one to zero. To create an inverter, two distinct transistors are needed for molecular, one N-type and one P-type placed on silicon substrate insulated with a silicon oxide layer, that acts as GATE. • In future individual GATEs consisting of aluminium deposited on Nanotube, allow GATEs to be controlled separately. 7/11/2013 14
  • 15. ENABLING TECHNIQUES IN NANOTECHNOLOGY:  PROTEIN ENGG:  Develop techniques for designing molecular devices made of proteins.  GENERAL MACRO MOLECULAR ENGG:  Design and synthesizing molecular devices made of more tractable materials.  MACROMANIPULATION TECHNIQUE:  This nanotechnic Extend technology of scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopy to chemical synthesis and construct molecular devices.  THERMODYNAMICS:  Its flow energy and heat in matter in bulk.  STATISTICAL MECHANICS:  Constrain all physical system and the subject is regarded as prequisite. 7/11/2013 15
  • 16. The top 10 nanotechnology applications are: • 1. Energy storage, production and conversion. • 2. Agricultural productivity enhancement. • 3. Water treatment and remediation. • 4. Disease diagnosis and screening. • 5. Drug delivery systems. • 6. Food processing and storage. • 7. Air pollution and remediation. • 8. Construction. • 9. Health. • 10 Monitoring. • 11. Vector and pest detection and control. 7/11/2013 16
  • 17. Applications  IMPACT ON MEDICINE: • Patients will drink medicinal fluid, which contain nano- robots, programmed to attack and reconstruct the molecular structure of cancer cells and reconstruct them for harmless. • Diseases causes mostly due to damage at cellular and molecular level. • Today’s surgical tools are large and erude, from the point of view on cell, even the finest scalpel is blunt, more suited to tear and injure, than heal and cure. • Nanoknives are 1000 times sharpest than today’s scalpel, • Nanotechnology lead us build broad range of complex molecular machines, fleets of computer controlled molecular tools much smaller than human cell, built with accuracy and precision of drug molecules • Also remove obstruction in the circulatory system, it’ll cancerous cells or take over the function of sub-cellular organelles. • Just like today’s artificial heart, future will have artificial mitochondria. 7/11/2013 17
  • 18. SUPER COMPUTING: • The ability to shrink the size of transistors on silicon microprocessors is already reaching limits, but nanotechnology creates new generation of computer components. • Molecular computers have a property of storing trillions of bytes in a structure, as the size of sugar cube. • Components made from molecules are smaller than today’s IC fabrication method. They have potentially “self assemble”, which would allow inexpensive manufacturing. IMPACT ON ENVIRONMENT: • Nanotechnology takes a major role in the processes like pollution prevention, treatment and remediation. • It has improved detection and sensing, removal of finest contamination from air, water and soil. • It helps in creation of new industrial process that reduces waste products, act as ‘green’ (eco-friendly). • Air-borne nanorobots programmed to rebuild the thinning of ozone layer. • Bottom-up approach provides less pollution than conventional manufacturing process. • Our future depend on non-renewable resources would be diminished by the nanotechnology. • Many resources were constructed by nanomachines like cutting down trees, mining coal, or drilling of oil, may not need long necessary. • Considering our global industrialization, development of nanotechnology would clean the air to breathe.7/11/2013 18
  • 19. ONTHE FIELD OF COSMETOLOGY:  In the field of cosmetology, nanotechnology will go to be act as milestone in future.  Nanorobots could slow or ‘reverse’ the aging process.  Nanotechnology can even change once physical appearance.  HOW?  The nanorobots were programmed to perform the cosmetic surgery. This will rearrange our atoms of ear/nose shape, eye colour etc. GROWING REPLACEMENT OF BLOODVESSSELS:  This was presented in BIOMEMS & BIOMEDICAL nanotechnology world conference at the place OHIO.  Today researchers have taken steps to grow replacement of blood vessels from lab to bodies of heart attack victims.  This was presented by Ohio state university investigator ‘Nicanor maldovon’.  Resulting cultivars are given to the heart, by heart via microscopic machine called ‘angio-chips’.  The role of these angio-chips was to repair the damage caused by heart attack.  These angio-chips couldn’t bring the tissue back to original form, but they try to revascularize & make the rhythm of heartbeat.7/11/2013 19
  • 20. • It can produce computer hardware like molecular gates, wires etc. even the lithographic method couldn’t achieve. • Inexpensively, we can make strong and less weighted materials of our convenience. • Its over 50 times lighter than steel, of same strength. • There are precision instruments that operate on cells even molecules, from which we are made. • “Bottom-up” approach requires less material and causes less pollution. • Its inexpensive, as the molecular manufacture causes less pent, by little cost, capital, land & Labour. Guiding motion of molecules using mechanical system imposes, less energy cost. ADVANTAGES: 7/11/2013 20
  • 21. • Nanotechnology, with all its challenges and opportunities, is an unavoidable part of our future. The possibility of nanotechnology was immense and numerous. • The researchers were filled with optimism, and products based on this technology are beginning to make their mark. • The extent to which nanotechnology will impact on our lives only depends on the limits of human ingeninity. • It can rightly be said that nanotechnology is slowly but steadily ushering in the next “industrial revolution”. • With a few exceptions, nanotechnology still resides in university, laboratories and corporate and research faculties. • As such, nanotechnology is a technology in which most of the work is to be done in the future and till now. Conclusion : 7/11/2013 21
  • 22. 7/11/2013 22  1. ARTICLE – “How Nanotechnology Could Help (Miniaturized?) Human Beings ELECTRONICS FOR YOU  2. J. BR. Interplanet , Nanotechnology: Evolution of the concept  3. Internet Link – http://science.howstuffworks.com  4. Internet Link – http://www.nano.org.uk  5. Wikipedia.com REFERENCE: