Nasopharyngeal Ca = Guangdong
Tumour
• INTRODUCTION
• EPIDEMIOLOGY
• AETIOLOGY
• IMMUNOLOGY IN NASOPHARYNGEAL CARCINOMA
• ...
5. Religious practices: like incense and joss stick smoke
6. Occupation: Exposure to industrial fumes / chemicals, metal s...
CLINICAL PRESENTATION
The marked invasive and metastatic properties are responsible for its symptomatology.
50 % present w...
The lymphocytes that infiltrate the tumour sites are reactive in nature. Analysis shows that these
are predominantly T-Lym...
PET scanning is useful in diagnosis recurrent / residual lesions following RT
Biopsy of the lesion is the definitive confi...
Nx - Regional nodes cannot be assessed
No - No nodal metastasis
N1 - Unilateral metastasis in lymph nodes 6cms or less in ...
SURGERY
All patients should be restaged beforehand with full metastatic work up to exclude lung,
bone and liver metastases...
The average five-year survival achieved by conventional radiotherapy alone is excellent for
early disease: approximately 8...
of 8

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma / Guandong tumour

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Published on: Mar 3, 2016
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Transcripts - Nasopharyngeal carcinoma / Guandong tumour

  • 1. Nasopharyngeal Ca = Guangdong Tumour • INTRODUCTION • EPIDEMIOLOGY • AETIOLOGY • IMMUNOLOGY IN NASOPHARYNGEAL CARCINOMA • MARKERS • SITE OF ORIGIN • CLINICAL PRESENTATION • CLINICAL EXAMINATION OF NASOPHARYNX • HISTOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF NASOPHARYNGEAL CARCINOMA • ROLE OF IMAGING IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF NASOPHARYNGEAL CARCINOMA • TUMOUR STAGING (MODIFIED HO'S CLASSIFICATION, AJCC CLASSIFICATION) • TREATMENT INTRODUCTION : Common in Chinese. asso with EBV. Histologically undifferentiated / non keratinizing carcinoma types are common. EPIDEMIOLOGY : South China has 20% of worlds cases of Nasopharyngeal Ca. (guandong ca) India its 1 in 1,00,000 Men : Women 3:1 This Tumour occurs at a much younger age than other cancers Its incidence starts to rise after the second decade of life and slowly reaches a plateau, for both sexes, after the fifth decade then very gradually drops with increasing age Bimodal 15 to 20 yrs and 40 to 50 yrs It has been suggested that individuals with a certain HLA haplotype may not be able to mount specific cell-mediated immunity to infection caused by EBV. Consistent deletion on the short arm of chromosomes 3 and 9 have been found on NPC biopsies, supporting the hypothesis of an NPC tumour suppressor gene locus at these sites. EBV genome was found in NPC cells. The discovery of EBV receptors on human pharyngeal epithelia. AETIOLOGY 1. EBV 2. Exposure to chemical agents i.e. tobacco, drugs, and plant products. 3. Dietary factors: Ingestion of salted fish (volatile nitrosamines), preserved vegetables, fermented food stuff containing Nitrosamines and nitro precursors 4. Cooking habits: Household smoke and fumes
  • 2. 5. Religious practices: like incense and joss stick smoke 6. Occupation: Exposure to industrial fumes / chemicals, metal smelting, Formaldehyde, wood dust 7. Other causes: Socioeconomic status, Nutritional deficiencies, weaning habits 8. HLA-A, B and DR locus situated on the short arm of chromosome 6 9. If Infection is delayed until adolescence, the clinical syndrome of infectious mononucleosis may result. IMMUNOLOGY IN NASOPHARYNGEAL CARCINOMA Cell mediated immunity : is impaired in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma This can be demonstrated by Mantoux test (in vivo), and Phytohaemagglutinin response of lymphocytes (in vitro) It is possible that this defective specific cell mediated immunity to EB virus allows the virus to be reactivated in the salivary glands. Increased EB virus loads causes increased anti EB virus IgA antibodies EB virus was found in abundance in the lymphoepithelium of the nasopharynx (mainly B Lymphocytes) Primary infection of this virus takes place in childhood and is always accompanied by seroconversion. EB virus is present in dormant state in small numbers of circulating B cells or in saliva. This virus may be reactivated during immunocompromised states Demonstrable humoral immune response in patients with NPC against EB virus determined antigens (VCA viral capsid antigens, Early antigen EA, and nuclear antigen EBNA). MARKERS Associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma include : a. IgA and IgG to Viral Capsid Antigen (☺ useful IgA/VCA, IgG/VCA) b. IgA and IgG to Early Antigen (☺ useful ie IgA/EA, IgG/EA) c. Antibody to Nuclear Antigen d. Antigen dependent cellular cytotoxicity antibodies Normal values of these titres are: Anti EB virus VCA / IgG = up to 1 : 160 Anti EB virus EA / IgG = up to 1 : 160 Anti EBV VCA / IgA = below 1 : 5 Anti EBV EA / IgA = below 1: 5 The titres of IgA / VCA and IgA / EA are useful clinical indices for follow up of patients after treatment. The IgA anti-VCA appears to be more sensitive but less specific than IgA anti-EA. Titres may decline to a low level or remain static after successful treatment. The period between detection of raised IgA / VCA and clinical onset of stage I nasopharyngeal carcinoma ranged from 8 - 30 months PROGNOSTIC SEROLOGICAL MARKERS Inversely proportional to mean titres of VCA & EA antibodies Good prognosis is indicated by high Antigen Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Antibodies
  • 3. CLINICAL PRESENTATION The marked invasive and metastatic properties are responsible for its symptomatology. 50 % present with upper neck swelling 30 % present with nasal symptoms blood stained nasal discharge, nasal obstruction, post-nasal drip or even frank epistaxis 20 % with deafness, tinnitus, Otalgia. 20 % Headache OME and retracted tympanic membrane due to mechanical effects of tumour. 75 % present with palpable cervical lymphadenopathy Cranial nerves 5 and 6 are the most commonly involved Cranial nerves 3-6, when affected together, are indicative of Cavernous Sinus Involvement Trismus, before radiotherapy, is rare and occurs only with direct infiltration of the pterygoid muscles Systemic metastasis at presentation is rare although eventually most NPC patients die of distant failure. The bones and lungs are the most common sites for secondary deposits followed by the liver. The tumour arising from nasopharynx may spread in the following directions: 1. Anteriorly to nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, Pterygopalatine fossa and orbital apex. 2. Posteriorly to the retropharyngeal space and node of Rouviere, destruction of lateral mass of atlas 3. Laterally into the Parapharyngeal space a. Prestyloid compartment with involvement of mandibular nerve, pterygoid muscles and infiltration of deep lobe of parotid gland. b. Poststyloid compartment causing vascular compression of carotid sheath, invasion of last four cranial nerves (9,10,11,12) and cervical sympathetic nerves 4. Superiorly through the body of sphenoid and sinus involving the parasellar structures and optic nerve, petrous apex and foramen lacerum o Cavernous sinus may be involved along with III, IV, V, and VI. o The brain may also be affected by direct spread and not by haematogenous spread 5. Inferiorly into the oral cavity and retrotonsillar regions 6. Painless cervical lymphadenopathy because of its tendency for early lymphatic spread. Lateral group of retropharyngeal node of Rouviere is the first echelon node. The first node to become palpable is the jugulodigastric node / apical node under the sternomastoid muscle. These are second echelon nodes. Ipsilateral and bilateral nodal involvement are common 7. Epistaxis : only seen as blood tinged mucous secretion. 8. Audiological symptoms like tinnitus, otalgia and deafness. Caused by blockage to the nasopharyngeal end of eustachian tube by the Tumour mass 9. Neurological symptoms like headache, cranial nerve palsy (any cranial nerve can be involved), and Horner's syndrome 10. Distant metastasis to bone lungs and liver HISTOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF NASOPHARYNGEAL CARCINOMA Earlier believed to be malignant Lymphoepithelioma Now the tumour cells are confirmed to be epithelial in origin, since they stain positive for Cytokeratin.
  • 4. The lymphocytes that infiltrate the tumour sites are reactive in nature. Analysis shows that these are predominantly T-Lymphocytes and most of these are CD8 + WHO classification : EARLIER 3 subtypes 1. Type I squamous cell carcinoma (keratinizing): - well differentiated - moderately differentiated - poorly differentiated 2. . Type II Nonkeratinizing carcinoma 3. . Type III Undifferentiated carcinoma Mc Guire and Suen told type two and three of WHO classification are in continuum Coincidentally, the WHO (1978) classification was revised in the same year into two grades: Grade 1 – Keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma and Grade 2 – Nonkeratinizing squamous cell or undifferentiated carcinoma. Mostly Endemic areas In General – Grade 1 tumours are less aggressive than grade 2 tumours, however, they are also less radiosensitive. Overall, the prognosis for patients with grade 1 tumours is less favourable when compared stage to stage with patients having grade 2 tumours. DIAGNOSIS History, Clinical Examination Nasal Endoscopy Biopsy Serology (IgA anti-VCA titre is high although lacking in specificity, especially at low levels. The IgA anti-EA titre, on the other hand, is less sensitive but its specificity is extremely high. These tests, especially in combination, are useful) FNAC Immunochemical staining : Stained for Epstein-Barr virus-associated nuclear antigen (EBNA) by specific monoclonal antibodies DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS Sinonasal undifferentiated Ca Amelanotic melanoma ROLE OF IMAGING CT scan – preferred, to identify the site for biopsy of the submucosal lesion, help in the staging of the disease MRI scanning is useful and the most accurate method of evaluating primary Tumour
  • 5. PET scanning is useful in diagnosis recurrent / residual lesions following RT Biopsy of the lesion is the definitive confirmatory investigation TUMOUR STAGING: Modified Ho's classification: Primary Tumour (T) T1 – Nasopharynx involvement only T2n – Involvment of nasal cavity in addition T2o – Involvement of oropharynx in addition T2p – Involvement of parapharyngeal region T3a – Bony involvement below the skull base including the floor of sphenoid T3b – Involvement of skull base T3c - Cranial nerves involvement T3d - Orbit, laryngopharynx, infratemporal fossa T3p - Parapharyngeal region Regional nodes (N) N0 - No nodes N1 - Nodes above skin crease at laryngeal cartilage N2 - Nodes below the skin crease but above the supraclavicular fossa N3 - Supraclavicular nodes Metastasis (M) Mo - No distant metastasis M1 - Distant metastasis STAGING I (T1, T2n,T2o) No Mo IIa (T2, T2n, T2o) N1, N2 Mo IIb (T2p,T3, T3p) No Mo IIIa (T2p, T3, T3p) N1, N2 Mo IIIb (T1, T2n, T2o) N3 Mo IVa (T2p, T3, T3p) N3Mo IVb M1 (any T, any N) AJCC classification Tx - Primary Tumour cannot be assessed To - No evidence of primary Tumour Tis - Carcinoma in situ T1 - Tumour confined to the nasopharynx T2 - Tumour extends to soft tissues T2a - Tumour extends to the oropharynx / nasal cavity without Parapharyngeal extension T2b - Tumour with Parapharyngeal extension T3 - Tumour involves bony structures / paranasal sinuses T4 - Tumour with intracranial extension / involvement of cranial nerves, infratemporal fossa, hypopharynx, orbit, or masticator space Regional node (N)
  • 6. Nx - Regional nodes cannot be assessed No - No nodal metastasis N1 - Unilateral metastasis in lymph nodes 6cms or less in the greatest dimension above the supraclavicular fossa N2 - Bilateral nodal metastasis 6 cms or less in the greatest dimension above the supraclavicular fossa N3 - Metastasis in nodes greater than 6 cms N3a - Extension to supraclavicular fossa Staging: Stage 0 - Tis No Mo Stage I - T1 No Mo Stage IIa - T2a No Mo Stage IIb - T1 -2a N1 Mo Stage III - T1 - 2b N0-2 Mo Stage IVa - T4 No -2 Mo Stage IVb - Any T N3 Mo Stage IVc - Any T Any N M1 TREATMENT Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a highly radiosensitive Tumour hence irradiation is the preferred modality of treatment for primary, local and regional disease. For advanced disease chemotherapy is added. Surgery only for local and regional failures. For early disease (stage I-II), conventional radiotherapy alone is adequate Megavoltage external radiotherapy is the treatment modality of choice. This is given through two lateral opposing and one anterior fold. Treatment should be delivered without interruption in 5 days per week for 6 weeks delivering a total dose of 60-65 Gy. Chemotherapy (CISPLATIN) is believed to act as a radiosensitizer and helps to reduce the chance of distant metastases. After primary treatment, patients should be seen at least two-monthly for the first year and three monthly for the second and third year, six-monthly thereafter. The response of local disease is best followed up by repeated nasoendoscopy. Annual chest radiographs in the first few years after treatment may pick up lung metastases Persistent local disease confined to the nasopharynx can be treated with further radiotherapy or by nasopharyngectomy. Stereotactic radiotherapy, instead of brachytherapy, should be used when the tumour is either too bulky or situated close to critical structures, such as the optic nerve Any neck disease that remains, whether persistent or recurrent, thereafter should best be treated by surgical resection Role of surgery: is limited to biopsy of the lesion and confirming the diagnosis. If there is nodal metastasis then block neck dissection should be resorted to. The majority of relapses occur in the first three year
  • 7. SURGERY All patients should be restaged beforehand with full metastatic work up to exclude lung, bone and liver metastases. For systemic metastases, PET and whole-body scan is probably the most sensitive single test. Involvement of the skull base, cranial nerves, vertebral bodies and carotid sheath and its contents are absolute contraindications. ANTERIOR APPROACHES 1. Lateral rhinotomy 2. Transnasal transmaxillary (A medial or subtotal maxillectomy can be performed to give the exposure needed. The nasopharynx, the ipsilateral sphenoethmoidal complex, Pterygopalatine fossa and the medial end of the infratemporal fossa are all within reach) 3. Midfacial degloving (This is essentially a bilateral transnasal, transmaxillary approach. The procedure is carried out through a sub labial incision leaving no visible scar. With both infra-orbital nerves safeguarded, the midface is degloved subperiosteally up to the root of the nose. Sufficient access to the nasopharynx is obtained with bilateral medial maxillectomy. The Pterygopalatine fossa and the medial end of the infratemporal fossa on either side can be reached by extending the extent of the maxillectomy) 4. Le Fort I osteotomy 5. Maxillary swing - MC used Through a Weber-Fergusson-Longmire incision, the entire maxilla is separated from its bony foundations and swung laterally intact with the masseter muscle and the cheek flap. Access to the opposite side is enhanced by removing the posterior part of the nasal septum. After tumour resection has been completed, the maxilla is swung back and fixed to the facial skeleton INFERIOR APPROACH 1. Transpalatal (Access to the nasopharynx is gained by raising a palatal mucoperiosteal flap off the hard palate so that the soft palate is separated from its bony portion. The posterior edge (nearly half) of the bony palate is then removed as necessary. The greater palatine neurovascular pedicle needs to be mobilized bilaterally from its bony canal so that all soft tissues of the palate can be retracted downward during the tumour resection.) 2. Mandibular swing (This is essentially a trans cervical, transmandibular, trans palatal approach via a Frazier incision) LATERAL APPROACH Access to the nasopharynx and the adjacent areas is made through the infratemporal fossa. This approach is limited by many critical structures including the facial nerve and the carotid sheath. It is used mainly when the tumour extends laterally to the para pharyngeal space. If a neck node persists in the absence of distant metastases, radical neck dissection should be performed, as the potential benefit is greater than harm Poor prognostic factors Old age, male gender, cranial nerve palsy, level and fixity of lymph nodes
  • 8. The average five-year survival achieved by conventional radiotherapy alone is excellent for early disease: approximately 80-90 percent for stage I and 70-80 percent for stage II OTHER TREATMENT MODALITIES 1. Photodynamic therapy 2. Immunotherapy