NARRATIVE
STRUCTURES
NARRATIVE STRUCTURE
⦿Narrative can be describe as layers of codes,
conventions, signs and symbols built together
in a text...
ROLAND BARTHES
⦿ Each text has a unlimited and wide range of signifiers that are
made to be interpreted in different ways....
ROLAND BARTHES
⦿ The Hermeneutic Code
⦿ The code is a build up of questions that the audience
create when they are reading...
ROLAND BARTHES
⦿The Semantic Code
⦿ This is the connotations the audience create
whilst watching the immediate denotation....
ROLAND BARTHES
⦿The Symbolic Code
⦿This code adds another depth of meaning to
the Semantic Code.
⦿By using antithesis, two...
ROLAND BARTHES
⦿The Cultural Code
⦿This code focuses on the audiences already
established cultural knowledge, ideologies
a...
CLAUDE LEVI STRAUSSE
⦿ Binary Oppositions Theory
⦿ He believed that the human mind works in the
justification of complete ...
BINARY OPPOSITES
⦿Jacques Derrida developed this theory by
saying that some binary oppositions can
never be equal. An exam...
VLADIMIR PROPP
⦿ Propp studied Russian folk stories and found that there was a consistent structure
within them.
⦿ It foll...
VLADIMIR PROPP
⦿He also identified the 8 Spheres of Action (or
the 8 key characters).
⦿Examples of these can be seen in Sh...
TZVETAN TODOROV
⦿Todorov also observed narrative structures
and found that every narrative consisted of 5
key points.
⦿Equ...
SYD FIELD
⦿ Paradigm
⦿ Set up – The first third of a film, used to capture
the audience’s attention and establish setting,...
SYD FIELD
⦿Criticisms
⦿Based on the Theatre when the curtain falls.
⦿Only allows for three major plot points,
where as suc...
REFERENCES
⦿http://changingminds.org/disciplines/storyte
lling/articles/barthes_five_codes.htm
⦿http://www.slideshare.net/...
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Narrative structure ..

Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Technology      Entertainment & Humor      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Narrative structure ..

  • 1. NARRATIVE STRUCTURES
  • 2. NARRATIVE STRUCTURE ⦿Narrative can be describe as layers of codes, conventions, signs and symbols built together in a text. ⦿It shows how the story progress and any developments in the plot or with the characters. ⦿Different audiences read into the narrative in different ways and gain different interpretations. ⦿The producer of the text has built these layers purposely in order for the audience to interpret it in a certain way.
  • 3. ROLAND BARTHES ⦿ Each text has a unlimited and wide range of signifiers that are made to be interpreted in different ways. ⦿ A text is built up of several closed meaning, that are obvious, and open meanings that can suggest several things to the audience. ⦿ Narrative Codes ⦿ The Proairetic Code ⦿ This allows the audience to interpret what is coming in the media text. ⦿ Anyone who watches a series of the same media text will be able to recognise the action code. ⦿ Like in the Harry Potter series, when the three main characters are on the Hogwarts Express, the audience they know there will be a new adventure in the new school year. ⦿ However, this action code could easily be lost on a audience who has never watches any of the series and does not understand the connotations.
  • 4. ROLAND BARTHES ⦿ The Hermeneutic Code ⦿ The code is a build up of questions that the audience create when they are reading into the text. ⦿ The text producer has done this purposely with the Proairetic Code to create tension for the audience and keep the interest in the text. It also keeps the narrative moving forward. ⦿ If these questions are not addressed by the end of the narrative, this can leave the audience frustrated, desiring a sequel or left to create their own ideas. ⦿ This can be clearly seen in an mystery thriller such the 2009 film Sherlock Holmes. Sherlock’s conclusion leave the audience desperately wanting to how he found that out. However at the end of the film, Sherlock explains and the audience leave satisfied.
  • 5. ROLAND BARTHES ⦿The Semantic Code ⦿ This is the connotations the audience create whilst watching the immediate denotation. Whilst one scene is structured to have an immediate singular meaning, including an extended meaning, it can develop the message of a very limited text. ⦿This a singular level of meaning is called a seme, and has a function in the media text to create a meaning.
  • 6. ROLAND BARTHES ⦿The Symbolic Code ⦿This code adds another depth of meaning to the Semantic Code. ⦿By using antithesis, two conflicting ideas that help create a new meaning, the code is created. ⦿Like in the 2010 film Alice in Wonderland, the White Queen and Red Queen are two conflicting characters symbolsing the contrast evil harshness or gentle kindness of the characters.
  • 7. ROLAND BARTHES ⦿The Cultural Code ⦿This code focuses on the audiences already established cultural knowledge, ideologies and morality that has been built up by past experiences and what others have taught them. The audience then use this to create a connotation from the text.
  • 8. CLAUDE LEVI STRAUSSE ⦿ Binary Oppositions Theory ⦿ He believed that the human mind works in the justification of complete opposites. The contrast of these opposites makes the action within media texts more exciting. ⦿ Opposites include: ⦿ Man vs Machine – Transformers ⦿ Male vs Female – Mr & Mrs Smith ⦿ Good vs Evil – Disney Films ⦿ Humanity vs Technology – Iron Man Trilogy ⦿ Nature vs Industrialisation – Over the Hedge ⦿ East vs West – East is East ⦿ Dark vs Light – Lord of the Rings Trilogy ⦿ Dirt vs Clean – Hancock
  • 9. BINARY OPPOSITES ⦿Jacques Derrida developed this theory by saying that some binary oppositions can never be equal. An example of this is ‘Good vs Evil’. The “evil” character must either be destroyed, defeat the “good” character or become a “good” character himself. It would be impossible for both character to exist equally as this would disrupted cultural ideology. Depending on what character wins, generally defines the film genre. If the good character wins it is more than likely to be action, if the evil character wins, it could be a thriller/horror.
  • 10. VLADIMIR PROPP ⦿ Propp studied Russian folk stories and found that there was a consistent structure within them. ⦿ It followed these 31 functions
  • 11. VLADIMIR PROPP ⦿He also identified the 8 Spheres of Action (or the 8 key characters). ⦿Examples of these can be seen in Shrek. ⦿The Villain – Fairy Godmother ⦿The Hero – Shrek ⦿The Donor – Puss in Boots ⦿The Helper – Donkey ⦿The Princess – Princess Fiona ⦿Her Father – King Harold ⦿The Dispatcher – Queen Lillian ⦿The False Hero – Prince Charming
  • 12. TZVETAN TODOROV ⦿Todorov also observed narrative structures and found that every narrative consisted of 5 key points. ⦿Equilibrium – the normality ⦿Disequilibrium – Where an event disrupts the peace. ⦿Recognition – where the main character realise the disruption. ⦿Repair – When the characters attempt to restore peace or find a new peace. ⦿Resolution – the disruption is overcome and a new peace is made.
  • 13. SYD FIELD ⦿ Paradigm ⦿ Set up – The first third of a film, used to capture the audience’s attention and establish setting, characters and genre. Within the first 10 minutes there should be a major plot event. ⦿ Confrontation – Where most of the action takes place as the hero struggles to overcome certain problems. Two thirds within the confrontation should be where the climax of the film is. ⦿ Resolution – This is where questions are answered and peace is restored. It must be a strong ending so the audience remember the film.
  • 14. SYD FIELD ⦿Criticisms ⦿Based on the Theatre when the curtain falls. ⦿Only allows for three major plot points, where as successful films like Star Wars has up to 15. ⦿It is very rigid and doesn’t allow for complex narratives.
  • 15. REFERENCES ⦿http://changingminds.org/disciplines/storyte lling/articles/barthes_five_codes.htm ⦿http://www.slideshare.net/alexdabriel/bart hes-codes-theory ⦿http://www.slideshare.net/MickeyStorey/ba rthes-5-narrative-codes- 28842892?from_search=7 ⦿http://mediaknowall.com/as_alevel/alevkey concepts/alevelkeycon.php?pageID=propp

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