LEM 211
ENGLISH DISCOURSE
Name Matric No. Email
Khairunnadiah binti Mohd Samuddin 117456 nadiaqhairun@gmail.com
Mohammad Q...
1.0 Analysis and discussion
1.1 Semantic Macro structure
The point of macrostructures is that texts; not only have local o...
the context of the text. Some of the characteristics; it can generally be associated with a
specific lexical item or gramm...
The inference represented by (a) is implied when she asked the author to call her
daughter immediately. She repeatedly ask...
 Ellipsis
In paragraph 3, the writer leaves out a complete clause rather than repeating it. This
is possible because it i...
1.3.2 Coherence
The text is coherent in a way; readers can easily move from one sentence to the
next and read the text as ...
The same thing goes to (c) and (d), the statements are related to each other by sense.
They are invented out of logical, r...
In (a), the verb ‘waved’ is represented as a transitive verb. It carries the action of the
actor which is the author herse...
Tense Examples
Simple Past a) The day was bright
b) I waved at him and pointed my finger to his hat
Past Continuous a) She...
2.0 Appendix
2.1 The invented essay
The day was bright. I can see adults having conversations with smiles on their faces w...
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Discourse Analysis - Analysis of a short story

A document on an analysis of a short story written by me, hope it helps, especially to those who are doing this kind of assignment. Good luck!
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Education      Technology      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Discourse Analysis - Analysis of a short story

  • 1. LEM 211 ENGLISH DISCOURSE Name Matric No. Email Khairunnadiah binti Mohd Samuddin 117456 nadiaqhairun@gmail.com Mohammad Qadafi bin Durrani Tan 117458 mohammad_qadafi@yahoo.com Due Date: December 2, 2013 (Monday)
  • 2. 1.0 Analysis and discussion 1.1 Semantic Macro structure The point of macrostructures is that texts; not only have local or micro structural relations between subsequent sentences, but they also have overall structures that define their global coherence and organization. Based on the text, one proposition will be derived from each paragraph which will then help in determining the semantic macrostructure. Semantic macrostructure can be derived from the process of generalisation and construction which we need to extract the abstract from the object, the properties and the relations. Macroproposition Higher Level Macroproposition 1 The author wanted to know the details about the driver’s cowboy hat; where did he get it, but he thought she was flirting with him The author’s curiosity of the bus driver’s cowboy hat 2 The bus driver was distracted because of the author and accidentally hit an old lady when she was crossing the road An accident happened because of the author’s curiosity of the cowboy hat 3 The injured old lady asked the author to call her daughter as her last wish before she passed away A tragic death caused by the author’s curiosity of the cowboy hat Deriving macropropositions from each paragraph undergoes generalisation process; that they are constructed to be a more general proposition from the respective paragraph – sort of a summary that best explains the storyline. 1.2 Semantic analysis 1.2.1 Presupposition Presupposition is a background belief relating to utterance in the text that can be known or assumed by the author and the addressee; that can be considered acceptable in Higher Level Macroproposition Semantic Macro-structure Macro rule's application 1) The author’s curiosity of the bus driver’s cowboy hat 2) An accident happened because of the author’s curiosity of the cowboy hat 3) A tragic death caused by the author’s curiosity of the cowboy hat My stupid curiosity of a bus driver’s cowboy hat has taken away someone’s life in the most tragic way The semantic macro- structure has been constructed via deletion of unnecessary description and generalisation to reach the gist that best describes the whole story
  • 3. the context of the text. Some of the characteristics; it can generally be associated with a specific lexical item or grammatical feature (presupposition trigger) in the utterance. Based on the text, these are the presuppositions derived: a) The bus stopped at the zebra crossing when the red light is turned on. b) The bus driver cannot hear what the author is trying to say. c) The incident occurred in the morning. d) The author was walking alongside the pedestrian walkway. e) The author was in shock and lost for words when the accident occurred. In (a), the presupposition is derived from the event where the author keenly asked the bus driver about the cowboy hat. So it can be concluded that the bus was stopping at the zebra crossing when the traffic light turned red, as the author shouted and pointing her finger at the cowboy hat outside of the bus. The presupposition in (b) is derived from the line “He waved at me and just smiled”. The author shouted and pointed her finger at the cowboy hat because she was really curious about - where did the bus driver get it, but he only waved and smiled at her, signifies that he cannot hear and grasp the message of the author. In (c), the presupposition suggests that the incident occurred in the morning. It is safe to say so, based on the very first sentence in the essay; “The day was bright” and it is further reinforced by the description of the people she saw in town. The shopkeepers, barbers and florists’ actions strongly support the presupposition. In (d), it is derived from the first paragraph when the author describes the people she saw in town; kids playing in the park, the florist putting flowers for display, barbers sweeping the floor and getting ready to start their business hour of the day. In (e), it is derived from the second paragraph when the author describes her expression regarding the accident. The author tells that she was in shock, lost for words and found it hard to believe what she has just witnessed. 1.2.2 Inferences Inferences are derived beyond the lines within a text. These are the inferences that can be drawn from the essay; only typical examples are provided due to space constraint: a) The old lady knew her time had come (passed away) b) Someone who grabbed the back of the author was a pedestrian c) The bus driver was distracted by the author behaviours
  • 4. The inference represented by (a) is implied when she asked the author to call her daughter immediately. She repeatedly asked the author to call her daughter even though the state of her mind is unstable at the moment. We can also infer that the old lady has only one child and she is really important to her, it is a common sense to believe so as the daughter was the first person who came across her mind in the tragic event. In (b), we can infer that someone who grabbed the back of the author was a pedestrian too. This is because the accident occurred at the zebra crossing making it logic to believe that a random pedestrian attempted to console the author. The last inference we can make is the bus driver was distracted by the author’s behaviours particularly towards him; she was shouting and pointing at the cowboy hat. He misjudged the author’s behaviours that he believed she was hitting on him. Consequently, he was not focused and has accidentally hit an old lady when the green man light is still on allowing the pedestrians to cross on the zebra crossing. 1.3 Syntactic structures 1.3.1 Cohesion Due to space constraint, only typical examples are provided here.  Referential relationships To avoid repetition, the writer uses pronouns for the second and subsequent mentions of the same entity. Examples of personal reference include: Their ‘… while watching over their kids …’ The third personal pronoun ‘their’ is used as the object of the verb. It is the reference for the adults that has been mentioned earlier I ‘ … I was about to walk …’ The first personal pronoun ‘I’ is used to refer to the main character (actor) as the subject in the sentence Him, my and his ‘I waved at him and pointed my finger to his hat.’ The object pronoun ‘him’ is used to refer to the bus driver. The possessive pronoun ‘my’ is used to refer to the main character; the author of the text The possessive pronoun ‘his’ is used to refer to the bus driver clarifying that the hat belongs to him
  • 5.  Ellipsis In paragraph 3, the writer leaves out a complete clause rather than repeating it. This is possible because it is understood in the context. Example 1 “What’s happening? Am I dead?” she asked. “No.” It is understood that the main character’s message to the old lady is denying that she is dead. Saying ‘no’ is enough to deliver the message. Example 2 “Can you please call my daughter?” she said … “Yes. What’s her name?” The main character agreed to call her daughter and proceeded with asking for the name and number to complete the action.  Conjunctive ties In this narrative text, they are mostly additives, reflecting the General – Specific patterns. There are also adversative and causal conjunctions in the text. Additives Adversative Causal ‘ … smiles on their faces while watching …’ ‘ … barbers sweeping the floor and shopkeepers …’ ‘Not the driver but the cowboy hat …’ ‘However, the fact that an …’ ‘… disbelief but no voice was recorded.’ ‘ … what I was trying to say so I shouted …” Additives conjunctions as stated in the table above are used to simply add more information explaining the whole thing to make a clear comprehension for the reader.  Reiteration Some of the essential words of the narrative text are repeated several times directly or through synonyms. Example 1 Example 2 ‘ … I can’t help but to notice the driver. Not the driver, but …’ ‘ … the bus hitting an old lady ... The bus driver was not focused while driving and accidentally hit the lady because …’ To conclude, the text has cohesive ties and linking devices that hold the text together and give it meaning.
  • 6. 1.3.2 Coherence The text is coherent in a way; readers can easily move from one sentence to the next and read the text as an integrated whole unit rather than a series of separated sentences. It does not have a specific type of audience; it is a suitable reading material for all social groups. The text has accessible and relevant concept and relations as explained below: a) The day was bright. I can see adults having conversations with smiles on their faces while watching over their kids playing in the park. I can see florists putting bouquets of flowers in vases for display, barbers sweeping the floor and shopkeepers putting up the ‘open’ sign on the door. b) Not the driver, but the cowboy hat on his head to be particular. I waved at him and pointed my finger to his hat. c) I saw the bus hitting an old lady who was innocently crossing the road as the traffic light turned red and the green man light turned on. The bus driver was not focused while driving and accidentally hit the lady because of my stupid curiosity of the cowboy hat. d) She repeatedly asked me to call her daughter and stared me with hope in her eyes but she no longer grabbed me closely to her. I sensed no movement and that was when somebody grabbed my back and said “She’s gone”. The order of statements in (a) is related to one another by sense; the author starts off describing the day as bright and further elaborates it by illustrating the people she saw while walking in town. She elucidates the adults with the expression on their faces – they were smiling; this actually gives the readers an idea of how fine the day was. ‘The day was bright’ can also be inferred that it was early in the morning; it is reinforced with the elucidation of florists, barbers and shopkeepers – what they were doing clearly informs the readers of the situation in the text. The organization of statements in (b) is relevant and logic in a way; the author first emphasized on the bus driver’s cowboy hat telling the readers that it is a significant entity in this context. The subsequent sentence aids in supporting the significance of the cowboy hat by describing the act of the author towards it – waving the bus driver and pointing to the hat intentionally wishing to get some information about it out of the driver.
  • 7. The same thing goes to (c) and (d), the statements are related to each other by sense. They are invented out of logical, relevant and accessible concept and relation as required by the context. In conclusion, the text is cohesive for there are cohesive devices tying the sentences and utterances and at the same time abiding by the rules of grammar and coherent as the statements are relatively relevant and accessible by sense. 1.3.3 Active Voice Based on the text, most of the sentences are active voice. This is to signify the subject; the subject performs the action denoted by the action verb. Due to space constraint, only typical examples are provided: Agent Action Affected Entity a) I saw the bus hitting an old lady who was innocently crossing the road b) She was literally shaking - Both (a) and (b) have the same syntactic structures; they are active sentences. Such structure is used to signify the prominence of the agent rather than focusing on the affected entity. In (a), the writer wants the readers to focus on her presence and actions. She is the one who saw the bus hitting an old lady who was innocently crossing the road. The active voice helps readers to dig more on how the scene affects the agent. In (b), the writer uses active voice to highlight the old lady presence and action. There is no patient; direct object involved in the sentence. The action is affecting the agent - that further focuses on the agent’s presence. 1.3.4 Transitivity Based on the text, transitivity can be elucidated further in terms of agent, action, affected entity and how certain arrangements of these three elements give contradicting meanings and representations of reality. Due to space constraint, only typical examples are provided: Agent Action Affected Entity Adjuncts a) I waved at him b) The sound of the brakes being hit forcefully irritated my hearing - c) My eyes were literally bawled out - - d) I screamed out of shock and disbelief
  • 8. In (a), the verb ‘waved’ is represented as a transitive verb. It carries the action of the actor which is the author herself and applies it to the affected entity which is the bus driver. It tells the reader what the agent does to the bus driver; waving at him. In (b), ‘irritated’ is also represented as a transitive verb as it needs object to complete the sentence and gives a complete meaning in the context. An agent is not necessarily a human being, in the sentence, the sound of the brakes plays the agent function. The verb carries the action of the agent and applies it to the affected entity; which is the hearing of the author. It informs us what the agent does to the patient. On the other hand, in (c), the verb used shows action too but it will only affect the agent. The verb ‘bawled out’ is an intransitive verb; it does not need an object to give a complete meaning to the sentence. The action is affecting the author. The same explanation can be applied in (d) as well. The action ‘screamed’ affects the agent only. 1.3.5 Simple, compound and complex sentences Based on the text, it is fairly structured in a complex way with excruciating details elucidated and it is very seldom to find a simple clause structure. However, simple, and compound sentences are included as well even though there is not much. Due to space constraint, only typical examples are represented: Simple a) [The day was bright] b) [She was literally shaking] Compound a) [My eyes were literally bawled out] [and] [I screamed out of shock and disbelief] b) [I sensed no movement] [and] [that was when somebody grabbed my back] Complex a) I saw the bus hitting an old lady who was innocently crossing the road as the traffic light turned red and the green man light turned on (yellow) – the agent/ (green) – the verb or process/ (red) – subordinate There are a lot of complex sentences in the text as it is a narrative essay that needs very excruciating details to be put as description of the characters and situations as well. 1.3.6 Tense Based on the text, in general, past tense is used to describe the storyline. Not only the verbs used signify that the story had happened in the past, the adjunct of time and time expression are also included to specify the particular time in the past. Due to space constraint, only typical examples are provided:
  • 9. Tense Examples Simple Past a) The day was bright b) I waved at him and pointed my finger to his hat Past Continuous a) She was literally shaking The simple past is used to inform that the event occurred in the past. In (a), the author starts off describing the day as bright. The day the event occurred happens in the past referring to the verb used. It is necessary to infer that the event occurred in the past looking at the verb used without any particular time expression. The same explanation applies to (b) as well. Past continuous is used to refer to repeated actions which occurred in the past. In (a), the action of shaking by the old lady is described as a continuous action which occurs in the past; right after the accident happened. 1.4 Lexical structures 1.4.1 Register Based on the text, the event occurs in informal setting whose main characters are the author herself, the bus driver and the old lady. Conversations recorded are casual, there are colloquial languages detected. Therefore, to conclude; the text is a casual register. Colloquial language “The cowboy hat you’re wearing! Where did you get it?” “Yes. What’s her name? Give me her number” b) The author uses such language to make friendly overtures to the bus driver and breaking down the social barrier c) The author simplifies her language to make it easier to understand while talking to the injured old lady
  • 10. 2.0 Appendix 2.1 The invented essay The day was bright. I can see adults having conversations with smiles on their faces while watching over their kids playing in the park. I can see the florists putting bouquets of flowers in vases for display, barbers sweeping the floor and shopkeepers putting up the ‘open’ sign on the door. A bus passed by me and I can’t help but to notice the driver. Not the driver, but the cowboy hat on his head to be particular. I waved at him and pointed my finger to his hat. He did not seem to get what I was trying to say so I shouted and at the same time still pointing. “The cowboy hat you’re wearing! Where did you get it?”. He waved at me and just smiled. I was pretty sure he thought I was hitting on him and that assurance of feeling became stronger when he winked his eye at me. As I was about to walk away, my eyes suddenly caught a tragically unavoidable accident. My eyes were literally bawled out and I screamed out of shock and disbelief but no voice was recorded. I saw the bus hitting an old lady who was innocently crossing the road as the traffic light turned red and the green man light turned on. The bus driver was not focused while driving and accidentally hit the lady because of my stupid curiosity of the cowboy hat. I distracted him. The sound of the brakes being hit forcefully irritated my hearing. However, the fact that an accident happened because of me and possibly had affected someone’s life scared me most. I ran towards the lady and had her head on my lap. “Stay with me, you’ll be alright. Somebody call the ambulance, please!” I cried out loud. “What’s happening? Am I dead?” she asked. “No. You’ve been in an accident but you’ll be fine. Just stay with me, okay?”. The situation could not get more chaotic, everyone was in a panic attack. “Can you please call my daughter?” she said while grabbing my hands. She was literally shaking. “Yes. What’s her name? Give me her number”. She repeatedly asked me to call her daughter and stared me with hope in her eyes but she no longer grabbed me closely to her. I sensed no movement and that was when somebody grabbed my back and said “She’s gone”. Empty.