Three Dimensions of SustainableTourism
1. Environmental
2. Economic
3. Social
Environmental Dimension
 Sustainability is ...
 Tourists can trample crops, light fires. Tourismcan eat up farmlands as
part of developments, employment in tourismcan t...
Economic Dimension
 Tourismis an economic phenomenon because:
o Itis a major industry and forex earner in developed and
d...
o Because usually socio-culturalimpacts occur over a period of time,
are invisible and intangible and are permanent in nat...
Sustainability canbe achievedmore in social dimensionas below:
o All stakeholders in tourismbeing given fair treatment
o E...
STRUCTURAL COMPONENTAND ELEMENTOF TOURISM INDUSTRY
Tourismwhich is seen as the act of traveling from one place to another ...
Elements of tourism
There are certain elements or ingredients of tourism and these are what
touristconsiders beforevisitin...
deserts, is strong forces attracting people to visit them. Thousands and
thousands of tourists are attracted by the northe...
large number of tourists visit a particular spot simply because there is a first
class hotel with excellent facilities. To...
Characteristics of the TourismIndustry
My thesis focuses on the tourismindustry – or more specific the tourism
industry in...
customer perception of the product (the perceived quality) as it is highly
affected by numerous uninfluenceable aspects su...
you cannot enjoy the alpine sleigh ride in your living room. Tourismproducts
can only be consumed at the supplier’s premis...
What is a Tourist?
• Is a person who travels away fromhome for leisure, business or other
purposes for longer than a day e...
harder, improves work relationships, and builds team spirit. A salesman
who receives a holiday packagefor achieving the mo...
 Sportand recreation tourist: participate in or watch sporting events.
Popular events include the Soccer World Cup, Winbl...
 and the length of the trip, and arrivaland departuredate.
 Travel agents preparetourist profiles of their clients and u...
•Amenities
 “The basic facilities provided in a tourist destination”.
 Types of Amenities
 Natural Amenities
 Beaches
...
 Activities are classified as :
 Tourismresources
 Receptive Facilities
 Entertainment and SportFacilities
 TourismRe...
PERSPECTIVES ONTHESTUDY OF TOURISM
1. Geographical Perspective - froma geographer’s perspectivethe main
concern of tourism...
planning, research,pricing,marketing, controletc. as vital to the operation of a
touristestablishment.
5. Economic Perspec...
Ponmoli
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Ponmoli

Published on: Mar 4, 2016
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Transcripts - Ponmoli

  • 1. Three Dimensions of SustainableTourism 1. Environmental 2. Economic 3. Social Environmental Dimension  Sustainability is about environment, both manmade and natural but fact needs to be recognized that ecosystems arean essential part of this environmentalong with mankind.  Five types of environmentare: o The Natural Environment: Mountains, seas ,rivers and lakes, beaches, forests, caves o The Farmed Environment : Agricultural Landscapes, manmade forests ,fish farms o The Built Environment : Individualbuildings and structures ,villages and townscapes, transportand infrastructure, dams and reservoirs o Natural Resources : Climate, water, air o Wildlife : Flora and fauna The Natural Environment  Some major potential impacts of tourismon the natural environment are in terms of flora and fauna species , pollution, erosion, affect on natural resources, bad visualimpact Students to give examples  Few natural areas left in the world and are affected by actions of mankind  The natural areas represent the core of tourismproduct The Farmed Environment  Includes diverseways of farming such as intensive crop rearing, traditional mixed farming such as growing of crops along with livestock rearing, nomadic livestock rearing, fish farming
  • 2.  Tourists can trample crops, light fires. Tourismcan eat up farmlands as part of developments, employment in tourismcan take people away fromfarming  On the positive side, tourismcan provide extra revenue to farming Wildlife  Includes big game reserves such as Kenya, bird life, marine life, fishing trips, zoos, aquariums, traditionalevents such as bull fighting  Tourismcan harmwildlife by destruction of habitats, affecting feeding habits, disrupting breeding patterns, forestfires etc  Tourismcan benefit wildlife by providing the economic value for its conservation The Built Environment  Includes individualbuildings and structures, smallscale settlements such as villages, large scale settlements eg: towns and cities  Some major potential impacts of tourismon the built environment include changes in character of urban areas, overload of infrastructure, visualimpact, restoration, erosion, pollution Points Towards a MoreSustainable Relationship Between Tourismand The Environment  Holistic thinking – in terms of the concept of ecosystems  Regulation of negative impacts  Encouraging good practice in terms of developments  Raising awareness amongsttourists and industry  Prices paid by industry and tourists should be high enough to cover the environmental costs of tourism  Maintaining a balance between conservation and development
  • 3. Economic Dimension  Tourismis an economic phenomenon because: o Itis a major industry and forex earner in developed and developing countries o Is a basis of growth of many transnationalcorporations o Is responsiblefor public sector infrastructureinvestment  Economic benefits of tourism o Job creation o Injection of income into economy through the multiplier effect o Helps keep local businesses going o Regeneration and restructuring of economies of towns and cities whereother industrial activities are in decline o Stimulates inwards investment  Economic Costs of Tourism o Many jobs are low paid or seasonal o Wastageof money by investment in expensive infrastructure o Over- dependence on tourism o Money invested in tourismcannot be used in any other purpose  Sustainability in Tourismcan be achieved more in economic terms by: o Developing forms of tourismwhich help in achieving economic benefits of tourism while minimizing economic costs o Ensuring benefits of tourism are spread widely amongsthost community o Making suretourists pay a fair price for their holiday experience o Protecting local businesses fromunfair competition fromlarger, externally owned enterprises o Reducing leakages fromlocal economy o Private and public sector should sharecosts fairly of attracting and meeting the needs of tourists The Social Dimension o Social dimension of tourism has been given less importancein sustainabletourismover environmentaldimension.
  • 4. o Because usually socio-culturalimpacts occur over a period of time, are invisible and intangible and are permanent in naturewith no chance of reversibility. Scope of social dimensionof sustainable tourismconsists of: o The Tourist: Who can afford or not afford a holiday, pay a fair price, exploit hostcommunity, attitude towards staff, need to feel safeand secure, o Foreign Tourist Operators: Relation with hostcommunity and local tourismindustry, exploiting low cost economies, images and expectation created by their promotional activities, lack of long term commitment to host communities o Destination Government: Restrictions on tourists fromparticular countries and cultures, Devoting resources to tourismthat could be allocated to other sectors in the country and vice versa, creating images for tourists through promotional activities, deciding on how tax revenues fromtourists will be used , attitudes to traditional cultures and people in the destination o Local TourismIndustry : Human resourceissues including pay and working condition, VFMoffered to tourists, representations of local cultures for tourists o HostCommunity : Attitudes towards and relations with tourists, Level of involvement and influence in decision making in relation to tourism, impact of tourismon society and culture, commitment towards conserving society and culture
  • 5. Sustainability canbe achievedmore in social dimensionas below: o All stakeholders in tourismbeing given fair treatment o Equal employment opportunities for all o Increasing opportunities for everyonein the world who wants to take a holiday o Local people and staff being treated equal o Managing tourismin a way that local people maintain their dignity and senseof pride of their communities o Development of concept of fair trade where tourists pay a fair price for the holiday they take o Benefits of tourismare widely distributed amongstthe host community
  • 6. STRUCTURAL COMPONENTAND ELEMENTOF TOURISM INDUSTRY Tourismwhich is seen as the act of traveling from one place to another for the purposeof pleasure, leisure, meeting, sport, health, religion, and sight seen. Tourismis of two elements: journey to destination and the stay including activities engaged in at the destination. There are three basic components of tourismwhich is known as the 3 A’s of tourism  Accessibility (Reach ability/Transportation): - Accessibility means reach ability to the place of destination through various means of transportation. Transportation should beregular, comfortable, economical and safe. Today there are various means of transportation like airlines, railways, surface(road transportation) and water transportation. The transportation should be there for all kinds of tourists and destinations.  Accommodation: - Itis a place wheretourists can find food and shelter provided he/she is in a fit position to pay for it. There are various types of accommodation froma seven star deluxe hotel to a normal budget class hotel.  Attraction (Local): - It is considered as the mostimportant basic component of tourism. Attraction means anything that creates a desire in any person to travel in a specific tourist destination or attraction. Local is another basic component of tourism. The locale may be used to include the holiday destination and whatit offers to the tourist. The holiday destination may offer naturalattractions. Itis considered as the most importantbasic component of tourism. Fashion is an important factor in the demand for various touristattractions and amenities. The touristwho visits a particular place for its natural beauty may decide to visit someother attractions due to a change in fashion.
  • 7. Elements of tourism There are certain elements or ingredients of tourism and these are what touristconsiders beforevisiting a destination area they are as follows: 1. Pleasing weather 2. Scenic attractions 3. Historicaland cultural factors 4. Accessibility 5. Amenities 6. Accommodation 7. Safety and security  Other factors a) Guide/ escort facilities b) Basic medical facilities c) Electricity d) Water e) Communication system Pleasing weather: - Fine weather with warmsun shineis one of the most important attractions of any touristplace. Particularly good weather plays an important role in making a holiday pleasant or an unpleasant experience. Touristfrom countries with extremes of weather Visit Sea beaches in search of fine weather and sunshine. Dueto this many spas and resorts along the sea coasts come into existence. In Europe, countries like Italy, Spain and Greece have developed beautiful beach resorts. Thereare many such resorts along the coasts of Mediterranean sea INDIA, SriLanka, Thailand Indonesia, Australia, Philippines and someother countries have beautiful sea beaches with fine weather are best examples whereweather has played a prominent in attracting tourists. In somecountries hill station resorts’ havebeen developed to cater for the needs of tourists. The best example for this is Shimla. Scenic attractions: - No doubtscenic attractions are very importantfactors in tourism. Scenery consisting of mountains, lakes, waterfalls, glaciers, forests,
  • 8. deserts, is strong forces attracting people to visit them. Thousands and thousands of tourists are attracted by the northern slopes of the Alps in Switzerland and Austria and the southern slopes at Italy and also Himalayan. Mountain slopes of India and Nepal. Historical and cultural factors: - Historical and cultural interest exercised tremendous influence over travelers. Large numbers of tourists are attracted every year by the great drawing power of Stratford on avon in England because of its association with Shakespeare, or the city of Agra in India because of its famous leaning tower. Large number of Americans and Canadians visit London because of its historical and cultural attractions. So also the world famous caves of Ajanta and Ellora in India are visited by tourists because of its architecture and painting Accessibility: - Accessibility is another important factor of tourism. There should be accessibility for each and every location of touristattractions. If their locations are inaccessibleby the normal means of transport, it would be of little importance. All kinds of transportfacilities are to be made available for such locations. The distance factor also plays an important role in determining a tourist’s choice of a destination. Longer distance costmuch than to short distances. Amenities: - Facilities are very essential for any touristcentre. They are considered necessary aid to the tourist centre. For a seaside resortfacilities like swimming, boating, yachting surf riding and such other facilities like deeming recreations and amusements is an important feature. There are two types of amenities viz. natural and man made. Beaches, sea-bathing, fishing, climbing, trekking, viewing etc. are come under the former category. Various types of entertainments and facilities which cater for the special needs of the tourists come under the latter category. Accommodation: - The need and necessity of accommodation cannot be ignored in touristdestination. Accommodation plays a vital role in this field. Many changes have taken place in accommodation recently. New types of accommodation, particularly, holiday villages, apartment houses camping and caravan sites and tourist cottage etc, havebecome very popular. Usually a
  • 9. large number of tourists visit a particular spot simply because there is a first class hotel with excellent facilities. Today Switzerland, Holland, Austria and the Netherlands havegained reputation for good cuisine, comfortand cleanliness. Safety and Security: Safety and security are vital to providing quality in tourism. More than any other economic activity, the success or failure of a tourismdestination depends on being able to providea safeand secure environmentfor visitors Other factors: - Besides the abovefactors, hospitality is one such factor among the variety of factors. Itis the duty of the hostcountry to be hospitable towards tourists. For this French and Indian governments havedone a lot. A series of shortfilms on various themes like “being courteous”, “cleanliness” and “welcoming” a visitor” were prepared and exhibited through a wide network cinema theatres all over the country. Slogans like “welcomea visitor- send back a friend” were displayed at various importantexists and entry points like railway stations, airports and seaports. Following the above methods, many other countries launched “Be nice” campaigns. Itmeans that the tourists must be treated as friends.
  • 10. Characteristics of the TourismIndustry My thesis focuses on the tourismindustry – or more specific the tourism industry in Tyrol, Austria. There are certain important characteristics about that industry which make it necessary and exciting for companies when planning a marketing/socialmedia strategy. Whatis so special abouttourism compared to the producing or trading industries?  Perishability Hotel Room Perishability is one of the mostimportant characteristics of the tourism industry. The products/services in the tourismand travel industry are consumed as they are produced. Hotel rooms and cable car seats cannot be warehoused for futures sales. When a hotel roomis not booked tonight, you cannot take ‘tonight’ and sell it tomorrow. Oncethe train left the station, unused capacity cannot be sold afterwards – provided that it was no time- traveling train. As an uncertainty in customer demand leverages this issue, hotels and travel agencies tend to overbook availablerooms and seats. Finding an alternative productfor the customer and living with the consequences of overbooking is statistically more economical.  Inconsistency Noise Products of the tourismindustry always differ. Even the same hotel roomin the sameweek with the same weather can be perceived differently due to the mood of the chef. Itis always aboutthe experience that the customer makes. Rational productattributes like price, nights of stay, and additional services can only be compared to a minor degree. Itis challenging to deal with the
  • 11. customer perception of the product (the perceived quality) as it is highly affected by numerous uninfluenceable aspects such as weather, construction sites, other customers etc. Hence, the product is very inconsistent and cannot be standardized.  Investmentand immobility Talking about hotels and other accommodations there is usually a big capital lockup in the assets. Hotels have furniture, restaurants, TV-sets, laundry- service, pools, saunas etc. – invested capital that has to pay off. And that’s not all – all those investments are attached to one locality which means that those tourismcompanies are to a huge extent dependent on the attractiveness of the region, the country, its surroundings and so forth.  People-oriented Staff The tourism industry builds entirely upon people. The interaction between the staff and the customer determines the perceived productquality. Unlike tangible products wherethe customer buys certain features, production quality, durability etc. the holiday quality results frompersonalinteractions starting with the information and booking process over the stay up to the journey home.  Inseparability Most travel products arefirstsold and the produced and consumed at the same time. This is an aspect which clearly sets tourismapart fromtangible products. When you buy a new computer it is produced and shipped before you see it on the websiteor at the retailer’s premise. The consumption of that computer – using it – takes place after purchaseat your home. You cannot take the hotel room home – only the small bottles of shampoo and toothpaste. And
  • 12. you cannot enjoy the alpine sleigh ride in your living room. Tourismproducts can only be consumed at the supplier’s premise.  Inflexibility Travel products arefairly inflexible in terms of fluctuation. Hotels cannot change their capacities quickly enough to react on spontaneous fluctuations in demand. Hence, such companies try to balance between high and low demands, so that it’s not too much of a pain for the company when restaurant tables remain empty and for customers when there are no more tables available.  Imitability Offers and products by tourismcompanies are generally easy to copy. When the neighbour hotel adds a masseur to its SPA offer you more or less only need somebody with a firmgrip and here you go. So how can hotels build a unique selling proposition? Originality, consistency, location etc. – but not by hoping that their services arenot imitable.
  • 13. What is a Tourist? • Is a person who travels away fromhome for leisure, business or other purposes for longer than a day e.g. 24 hours but less than a year. An excursionistis a person who arrives at the destination and departs on the same day. Tourists are classified, according totheir needs andtheir reasons for travelling, intofour broad categories:  business and professionaltourist  leisure and holiday tourists  tourists travelling to visit friends and relatives (VFR)  Youth tourists, including backpackers and gap year travellers.  The tourism industry tries to meet the needs of all types of tourists by providing suitable facilities and services for each category. Tourist travelling for business andprofessional reasons  Business tourist: travel is related to business and the world of work. MESE which stands for meetings, exhibitions and special events. These are all partof the business world. Allmajor cities haveconference centres that cater for the needs of business tourists. An example of a business touristwould be a salesman who travels to another city to attend a trade show and promote the products he sells.  Education tourists: travel to attend a place of learning in another town, city, or country, in order to study for or improve a qualification. They may also be people that attend workshops to learn new skills or improve existing ones. A clinic nursewho travels to another provinceto attend a workshop aboutinfectious diseases is an example of an educational tourist.  Incentivetourists: are people who are rewarded in the formof a company paid holiday for their hard work, or for achieving goals set by their company. This incentive to travel motivates employees to work
  • 14. harder, improves work relationships, and builds team spirit. A salesman who receives a holiday packagefor achieving the mostsales in the company is an example of an incentive tourist.  Health or medical tourist: travel because they wantto visita holiday spa, needs medical special treatment that is only available away fromhome, undergo procedures that are cheaper in another country, or are recovering froman illness in a healthier climate. Many tourist come from oversees countries to South Africato have plastic surgery. Tourist travelling for leisureandholiday reason  Adventuretourist: wantan unusualand exciting experience. They want to participate in activities that may be dangerous, such as rock climbing, river rafting, skydiving, shark cavediving and bungee jumping.  Cultural tourist: wantto experience different cultures, such as San rock art, or cultural related festivals such as the National ArtFestival in Grahams-town, or theInternationalJazz Festival in Cape Town. They would also want to experience the World Heritage Sites in the country.  Eco-tourists: travel to experience nature such as traveling to Bonita Gardens in Bloemfontein South Africa  Leisure tourist: want to rest and relax and have a break fromthe usual routine Examples of this type of tourism are a cruiseon a cruiseliner, a trip on a Blue train, attending a special music special music performance or relaxing on the beach.  Religious tourist: want to see and experience places of religious importance. There are many religious destinations in the world such as the Hajj in Mecca, Jerusalemin Israel, Varanasiin India, and the Vatican in Rome. During Easter the largestChristian pilgrimage to Zion City, Moria, Limpopo, takes place. More than a million pilgrims travel to Moria to every Easter.  Shopping tourist: travel to shopping malls, shopping centres, factory shops, crafts market, festivals, and touring shopping routes such as the Midlands in KwaZulu-Natal. Their main purposeis to buy items.  Special interest tourist(STI): haveparticular interest such as bird watching, food and wine, flowers, fishing during the Sardine Run, or attending the Cape Town Book Fair.
  • 15.  Sportand recreation tourist: participate in or watch sporting events. Popular events include the Soccer World Cup, Winblendon Tennis Championship, Comrades Marathon, and Fisher River Canoe Marathon. Surfing, mountain climbing, cricket, swimming, golf and tennis are popular sports. Tourist travelling tovisit friendsandrelatives (vfr).  Touristvisiting friends and relatives (VFR) wantto stay in contact with friends and relatives and travel away fromhome to visit them. These touristmay travel to attend a wedding, funeral, or birthday celebration of friends or relatives. Youth travel:backpackers andgap year travellers  Backpacking or youth tourist: generally have little luggage, are on a budget, wantto experience adventure and excitement, tend to travel independently, enjoy meeting other traveller, and have flexible travel schedules. A group of young tourists on a weekend walking tour in the mountains, or a studenttouring around the country by bus are examples of this group of tourist.  Gap year travellers: do not study further or enter job opportunity after school, instead they take break called a gap year. They travel, work and earn money, learn new skills or do volunteer work in another country. During this time they gain skills and life experience before starting tertiary education. These young people are also known as “gappers”. A basic tourist profile contains the following informationabout the tourist :  Name  nationality  age  contact details such as address and telephone number  occupation  need and preferences, for, example, adventure, sport, one education  specific requirement such as accommodation, transport, or food
  • 16.  and the length of the trip, and arrivaland departuredate.  Travel agents preparetourist profiles of their clients and use the information when arranging trips for them. This will ensurethat the specific needs of the touristare met. Components of tourism (FIVES A’S) •Accommodation  Itis very basic to touristdestinations.  The latest trend in accommodation is holiday villages.  Types of accommodation  Primary Accommodations  Hotels  Resorts  Complexes  Heritage Hotels  Secondary Accommodations  Motels  Youth Hostels  Holiday Centers  FarmHouses  Sleeper Trains  Caravans •Accessibility  “Accessibility is a means by which a tourist can reach the area where attractions are located”.  Accessibility also means the transportation. The important transportation modes are road,rail,air and water transport.  Accessibletourism is intended as the set of services and facilities capable of allowing persons with specific needs to enjoy a holiday and their leisure time with no particular barriers or problems.
  • 17. •Amenities  “The basic facilities provided in a tourist destination”.  Types of Amenities  Natural Amenities  Beaches  Sea Bathing  Possibilities of Fishing  Opportunities of trekking  Manmade Amenities  Various types of entertainment  Facilities which cater special needs. •Attractions  A tourist attraction is a place of interest where tourists visit, typically for its inherentor exhibited cultural value, historical significance, natural or built beauty, oramusementopportunities.  Types of Attraction  Natural Attractions  Climates  Landscapes  Mountains  Beaches  Manmade Attractions  Theme parks  Landscapes  Museum  Ancient Monuments  Cultural Centers •Activities  “The various elements of tourismservices available which offered to touristat the destinations”.
  • 18.  Activities are classified as :  Tourismresources  Receptive Facilities  Entertainment and SportFacilities  TourismReception Facilities
  • 19. PERSPECTIVES ONTHESTUDY OF TOURISM 1. Geographical Perspective - froma geographer’s perspectivethe main concern of tourismis to lookinto aspects like the geographical location of a place, the climate, the landscape, the environment, thephysicalplanning and the changes in these emerging fromprovisioning of tourismfacilities andamenities. A geographer feels that it is the climate, landscape or physical attributes which draw the touristto a destination, for example; if a person fromDelhi goes to Shimla in the summer he does sobecauseof the cooler climate which he cannot get in Delhi 2. Sociological Perspective - Froma sociologist’s perspectiveTourismis a social activity; it is aboutinteraction between different communities—hosts and guests—and encounter between differentcultures. This approach studies social classes, habits and customs of both hosts and guests in terms oftourism behaviour of individuals or groups of people and the impact of tourismon society 3. Historical Perspective - froman historian’s perspectivetourismis a study of the factors instrumentalin the initiation of tourismto a particular destination, the order of happenings leading to tourismdevelopment, the reasons for happening of the occurrences in that order, beneficiaries of the touristactivity and an untimely and prematureidentification of negative effects. For example we all know thata lot of tourists visit Taj Mahal in Agra but a historian would be interested in studying the factors thatbring the touristthere, e.g. the architecture, the story behind the monument, or something else that drawsthemthere. 4. Managerial Perspective - fromthe management perspectivetourismis an industry, and thereforeneeds managerial skills in order to be properly managed. As the industry grows weseecontinuous changes in various organizations and services linked with the industry, the tourismproductsand so on so this approach concentrates on management activities such as
  • 20. planning, research,pricing,marketing, controletc. as vital to the operation of a touristestablishment. 5. Economic Perspective– Froman economist’s perspectivetourismis a major sourceof foreignexchangeearnings, a generator of personaland corporate incomes, a creator of employment and acontributor to governmentearnings. It is a dominant global activity surpassing even tradein oil andmanufactured goods. Economists study the effects of tourismindustry on the economy. This is a twoway process.

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