Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Ponmoli
Three Dimensions of SustainableTourism
Sustainability is about environment, both manmade and natural but fact
needs to be recognized that ecosystems arean essential part of this
environmentalong with mankind.
Five types of environmentare:
o The Natural Environment: Mountains, seas ,rivers and lakes,
beaches, forests, caves
o The Farmed Environment : Agricultural Landscapes, manmade
forests ,fish farms
o The Built Environment : Individualbuildings and structures
,villages and townscapes, transportand infrastructure, dams and
o Natural Resources : Climate, water, air
o Wildlife : Flora and fauna
The Natural Environment
Some major potential impacts of tourismon the natural environment
are in terms of flora and fauna species , pollution, erosion, affect on
natural resources, bad visualimpact Students to give examples
Few natural areas left in the world and are affected by actions of
The natural areas represent the core of tourismproduct
The Farmed Environment
Includes diverseways of farming such as intensive crop rearing,
traditional mixed farming such as growing of crops along with livestock
rearing, nomadic livestock rearing, fish farming
Tourists can trample crops, light fires. Tourismcan eat up farmlands as
part of developments, employment in tourismcan take people away
On the positive side, tourismcan provide extra revenue to farming
Includes big game reserves such as Kenya, bird life, marine life, fishing
trips, zoos, aquariums, traditionalevents such as bull fighting
Tourismcan harmwildlife by destruction of habitats, affecting feeding
habits, disrupting breeding patterns, forestfires etc
Tourismcan benefit wildlife by providing the economic value for its
Includes individualbuildings and structures, smallscale settlements
such as villages, large scale settlements eg: towns and cities
Some major potential impacts of tourismon the built environment
include changes in character of urban areas, overload of infrastructure,
visualimpact, restoration, erosion, pollution
Points Towards a MoreSustainable Relationship Between Tourismand The
Holistic thinking – in terms of the concept of ecosystems
Regulation of negative impacts
Encouraging good practice in terms of developments
Raising awareness amongsttourists and industry
Prices paid by industry and tourists should be high enough to cover the
environmental costs of tourism
Maintaining a balance between conservation and development
Tourismis an economic phenomenon because:
o Itis a major industry and forex earner in developed and
o Is a basis of growth of many transnationalcorporations
o Is responsiblefor public sector infrastructureinvestment
Economic benefits of tourism
o Job creation
o Injection of income into economy through the multiplier effect
o Helps keep local businesses going
o Regeneration and restructuring of economies of towns and cities
whereother industrial activities are in decline
o Stimulates inwards investment
Economic Costs of Tourism
o Many jobs are low paid or seasonal
o Wastageof money by investment in expensive infrastructure
o Over- dependence on tourism
o Money invested in tourismcannot be used in any other purpose
Sustainability in Tourismcan be achieved more in economic terms by:
o Developing forms of tourismwhich help in achieving economic
benefits of tourism while minimizing economic costs
o Ensuring benefits of tourism are spread widely amongsthost
o Making suretourists pay a fair price for their holiday experience
o Protecting local businesses fromunfair competition fromlarger,
externally owned enterprises
o Reducing leakages fromlocal economy
o Private and public sector should sharecosts fairly of attracting
and meeting the needs of tourists
The Social Dimension
o Social dimension of tourism has been given less importancein
o Because usually socio-culturalimpacts occur over a period of time,
are invisible and intangible and are permanent in naturewith no
chance of reversibility.
Scope of social dimensionof sustainable tourismconsists of:
o The Tourist: Who can afford or not afford a holiday, pay a fair
price, exploit hostcommunity, attitude towards staff, need to feel
o Foreign Tourist Operators: Relation with hostcommunity and local
tourismindustry, exploiting low cost economies, images and
expectation created by their promotional activities, lack of long
term commitment to host communities
o Destination Government: Restrictions on tourists fromparticular
countries and cultures, Devoting resources to tourismthat could
be allocated to other sectors in the country and vice versa,
creating images for tourists through promotional activities,
deciding on how tax revenues fromtourists will be used , attitudes
to traditional cultures and people in the destination
o Local TourismIndustry : Human resourceissues including pay and
working condition, VFMoffered to tourists, representations of
local cultures for tourists
o HostCommunity : Attitudes towards and relations with tourists,
Level of involvement and influence in decision making in relation
to tourism, impact of tourismon society and culture, commitment
towards conserving society and culture
Sustainability canbe achievedmore in social dimensionas below:
o All stakeholders in tourismbeing given fair treatment
o Equal employment opportunities for all
o Increasing opportunities for everyonein the world who wants to
take a holiday
o Local people and staff being treated equal
o Managing tourismin a way that local people maintain their dignity
and senseof pride of their communities
o Development of concept of fair trade where tourists pay a fair
price for the holiday they take
o Benefits of tourismare widely distributed amongstthe host
STRUCTURAL COMPONENTAND ELEMENTOF TOURISM INDUSTRY
Tourismwhich is seen as the act of traveling from one place to another for the
purposeof pleasure, leisure, meeting, sport, health, religion, and sight seen.
Tourismis of two elements: journey to destination and the stay including
activities engaged in at the destination. There are three basic components of
tourismwhich is known as the 3 A’s of tourism
Accessibility (Reach ability/Transportation): - Accessibility means reach
ability to the place of destination through various means of
transportation. Transportation should beregular, comfortable,
economical and safe. Today there are various means of transportation
like airlines, railways, surface(road transportation) and water
transportation. The transportation should be there for all kinds of
tourists and destinations.
Accommodation: - Itis a place wheretourists can find food and shelter
provided he/she is in a fit position to pay for it. There are various types
of accommodation froma seven star deluxe hotel to a normal budget
Attraction (Local): - It is considered as the mostimportant basic
component of tourism. Attraction means anything that creates a desire
in any person to travel in a specific tourist destination or attraction.
Local is another basic component of tourism. The locale may be used to
include the holiday destination and whatit offers to the tourist. The
holiday destination may offer naturalattractions. Itis considered as the
most importantbasic component of tourism. Fashion is an important
factor in the demand for various touristattractions and amenities. The
touristwho visits a particular place for its natural beauty may decide to
visit someother attractions due to a change in fashion.
Elements of tourism
There are certain elements or ingredients of tourism and these are what
touristconsiders beforevisiting a destination area they are as follows:
1. Pleasing weather
2. Scenic attractions
3. Historicaland cultural factors
7. Safety and security
a) Guide/ escort facilities
b) Basic medical facilities
e) Communication system
Pleasing weather: - Fine weather with warmsun shineis one of the most
important attractions of any touristplace. Particularly good weather plays an
important role in making a holiday pleasant or an unpleasant experience.
Touristfrom countries with extremes of weather Visit Sea beaches in search of
fine weather and sunshine. Dueto this many spas and resorts along the sea
coasts come into existence. In Europe, countries like Italy, Spain and Greece
have developed beautiful beach resorts. Thereare many such resorts along the
coasts of Mediterranean sea INDIA, SriLanka, Thailand Indonesia, Australia,
Philippines and someother countries have beautiful sea beaches with fine
weather are best examples whereweather has played a prominent in
attracting tourists. In somecountries hill station resorts’ havebeen developed
to cater for the needs of tourists. The best example for this is Shimla.
Scenic attractions: - No doubtscenic attractions are very importantfactors in
tourism. Scenery consisting of mountains, lakes, waterfalls, glaciers, forests,
deserts, is strong forces attracting people to visit them. Thousands and
thousands of tourists are attracted by the northern slopes of the Alps in
Switzerland and Austria and the southern slopes at Italy and also Himalayan.
Mountain slopes of India and Nepal.
Historical and cultural factors: - Historical and cultural interest exercised
tremendous influence over travelers. Large numbers of tourists are attracted
every year by the great drawing power of Stratford on avon in England because
of its association with Shakespeare, or the city of Agra in India because of its
famous leaning tower. Large number of Americans and Canadians visit London
because of its historical and cultural attractions. So also the world famous
caves of Ajanta and Ellora in India are visited by tourists because of its
architecture and painting
Accessibility: - Accessibility is another important factor of tourism. There
should be accessibility for each and every location of touristattractions. If their
locations are inaccessibleby the normal means of transport, it would be of
little importance. All kinds of transportfacilities are to be made available for
such locations. The distance factor also plays an important role in determining
a tourist’s choice of a destination. Longer distance costmuch than to short
Amenities: - Facilities are very essential for any touristcentre. They are
considered necessary aid to the tourist centre. For a seaside resortfacilities
like swimming, boating, yachting surf riding and such other facilities like
deeming recreations and amusements is an important feature. There are two
types of amenities viz. natural and man made. Beaches, sea-bathing, fishing,
climbing, trekking, viewing etc. are come under the former category. Various
types of entertainments and facilities which cater for the special needs of the
tourists come under the latter category.
Accommodation: - The need and necessity of accommodation cannot be
ignored in touristdestination. Accommodation plays a vital role in this field.
Many changes have taken place in accommodation recently. New types of
accommodation, particularly, holiday villages, apartment houses camping and
caravan sites and tourist cottage etc, havebecome very popular. Usually a
large number of tourists visit a particular spot simply because there is a first
class hotel with excellent facilities. Today Switzerland, Holland, Austria and the
Netherlands havegained reputation for good cuisine, comfortand cleanliness.
Safety and Security: Safety and security are vital to providing quality in
tourism. More than any other economic activity, the success or failure of a
tourismdestination depends on being able to providea safeand secure
Other factors: - Besides the abovefactors, hospitality is one such factor among
the variety of factors. Itis the duty of the hostcountry to be hospitable
towards tourists. For this French and Indian governments havedone a lot. A
series of shortfilms on various themes like “being courteous”, “cleanliness”
and “welcoming” a visitor” were prepared and exhibited through a wide
network cinema theatres all over the country. Slogans like “welcomea visitor-
send back a friend” were displayed at various importantexists and entry points
like railway stations, airports and seaports. Following the above methods,
many other countries launched “Be nice” campaigns. Itmeans that the tourists
must be treated as friends.
Characteristics of the TourismIndustry
My thesis focuses on the tourismindustry – or more specific the tourism
industry in Tyrol, Austria. There are certain important characteristics about
that industry which make it necessary and exciting for companies when
planning a marketing/socialmedia strategy. Whatis so special abouttourism
compared to the producing or trading industries?
Perishability is one of the mostimportant characteristics of the tourism
industry. The products/services in the tourismand travel industry are
consumed as they are produced. Hotel rooms and cable car seats cannot be
warehoused for futures sales. When a hotel roomis not booked tonight, you
cannot take ‘tonight’ and sell it tomorrow. Oncethe train left the station,
unused capacity cannot be sold afterwards – provided that it was no time-
As an uncertainty in customer demand leverages this issue, hotels and travel
agencies tend to overbook availablerooms and seats. Finding an alternative
productfor the customer and living with the consequences of overbooking is
statistically more economical.
Products of the tourismindustry always differ. Even the same hotel roomin
the sameweek with the same weather can be perceived differently due to the
mood of the chef. Itis always aboutthe experience that the customer makes.
Rational productattributes like price, nights of stay, and additional services can
only be compared to a minor degree. Itis challenging to deal with the
customer perception of the product (the perceived quality) as it is highly
affected by numerous uninfluenceable aspects such as weather, construction
sites, other customers etc. Hence, the product is very inconsistent and cannot
Talking about hotels and other accommodations there is usually a big capital
lockup in the assets. Hotels have furniture, restaurants, TV-sets, laundry-
service, pools, saunas etc. – invested capital that has to pay off.
And that’s not all – all those investments are attached to one locality which
means that those tourismcompanies are to a huge extent dependent on the
attractiveness of the region, the country, its surroundings and so forth.
The tourism industry builds entirely upon people. The interaction between the
staff and the customer determines the perceived productquality. Unlike
tangible products wherethe customer buys certain features, production
quality, durability etc. the holiday quality results frompersonalinteractions
starting with the information and booking process over the stay up to the
Most travel products arefirstsold and the produced and consumed at the
same time. This is an aspect which clearly sets tourismapart fromtangible
products. When you buy a new computer it is produced and shipped before
you see it on the websiteor at the retailer’s premise. The consumption of that
computer – using it – takes place after purchaseat your home. You cannot take
the hotel room home – only the small bottles of shampoo and toothpaste. And
you cannot enjoy the alpine sleigh ride in your living room. Tourismproducts
can only be consumed at the supplier’s premise.
Travel products arefairly inflexible in terms of fluctuation. Hotels cannot
change their capacities quickly enough to react on spontaneous fluctuations in
demand. Hence, such companies try to balance between high and low
demands, so that it’s not too much of a pain for the company when restaurant
tables remain empty and for customers when there are no more tables
Offers and products by tourismcompanies are generally easy to copy. When
the neighbour hotel adds a masseur to its SPA offer you more or less only need
somebody with a firmgrip and here you go. So how can hotels build a unique
selling proposition? Originality, consistency, location etc. – but not by hoping
that their services arenot imitable.
What is a Tourist?
• Is a person who travels away fromhome for leisure, business or other
purposes for longer than a day e.g. 24 hours but less than a year. An
excursionistis a person who arrives at the destination and departs on the same
Tourists are classified, according totheir needs andtheir reasons for
travelling, intofour broad categories:
business and professionaltourist
leisure and holiday tourists
tourists travelling to visit friends and relatives (VFR)
Youth tourists, including backpackers and gap year travellers.
The tourism industry tries to meet the needs of all types of tourists by
providing suitable facilities and services for each category.
Tourist travelling for business andprofessional reasons
Business tourist: travel is related to business and the world of work.
MESE which stands for meetings, exhibitions and special events. These
are all partof the business world. Allmajor cities haveconference
centres that cater for the needs of business tourists. An example of a
business touristwould be a salesman who travels to another city to
attend a trade show and promote the products he sells.
Education tourists: travel to attend a place of learning in another town,
city, or country, in order to study for or improve a qualification. They
may also be people that attend workshops to learn new skills or improve
existing ones. A clinic nursewho travels to another provinceto attend a
workshop aboutinfectious diseases is an example of an educational
Incentivetourists: are people who are rewarded in the formof a
company paid holiday for their hard work, or for achieving goals set by
their company. This incentive to travel motivates employees to work
harder, improves work relationships, and builds team spirit. A salesman
who receives a holiday packagefor achieving the mostsales in the
company is an example of an incentive tourist.
Health or medical tourist: travel because they wantto visita holiday spa,
needs medical special treatment that is only available away fromhome,
undergo procedures that are cheaper in another country, or are
recovering froman illness in a healthier climate. Many tourist come from
oversees countries to South Africato have plastic surgery.
Tourist travelling for leisureandholiday reason
Adventuretourist: wantan unusualand exciting experience. They want
to participate in activities that may be dangerous, such as rock climbing,
river rafting, skydiving, shark cavediving and bungee jumping.
Cultural tourist: wantto experience different cultures, such as San rock
art, or cultural related festivals such as the National ArtFestival in
Grahams-town, or theInternationalJazz Festival in Cape Town. They
would also want to experience the World Heritage Sites in the country.
Eco-tourists: travel to experience nature such as traveling to Bonita
Gardens in Bloemfontein South Africa
Leisure tourist: want to rest and relax and have a break fromthe usual
routine Examples of this type of tourism are a cruiseon a cruiseliner, a
trip on a Blue train, attending a special music special music performance
or relaxing on the beach.
Religious tourist: want to see and experience places of religious
importance. There are many religious destinations in the world such as
the Hajj in Mecca, Jerusalemin Israel, Varanasiin India, and the Vatican
in Rome. During Easter the largestChristian pilgrimage to Zion City,
Moria, Limpopo, takes place. More than a million pilgrims travel to
Moria to every Easter.
Shopping tourist: travel to shopping malls, shopping centres, factory
shops, crafts market, festivals, and touring shopping routes such as the
Midlands in KwaZulu-Natal. Their main purposeis to buy items.
Special interest tourist(STI): haveparticular interest such as bird
watching, food and wine, flowers, fishing during the Sardine Run, or
attending the Cape Town Book Fair.
Sportand recreation tourist: participate in or watch sporting events.
Popular events include the Soccer World Cup, Winblendon Tennis
Championship, Comrades Marathon, and Fisher River Canoe Marathon.
Surfing, mountain climbing, cricket, swimming, golf and tennis are
Tourist travelling tovisit friendsandrelatives (vfr).
Touristvisiting friends and relatives (VFR) wantto stay in contact with
friends and relatives and travel away fromhome to visit them. These
touristmay travel to attend a wedding, funeral, or birthday
celebration of friends or relatives.
Youth travel:backpackers andgap year travellers
Backpacking or youth tourist: generally have little luggage, are on a
budget, wantto experience adventure and excitement, tend to travel
independently, enjoy meeting other traveller, and have flexible travel
schedules. A group of young tourists on a weekend walking tour in the
mountains, or a studenttouring around the country by bus are examples
of this group of tourist.
Gap year travellers: do not study further or enter job opportunity after
school, instead they take break called a gap year. They travel, work and
earn money, learn new skills or do volunteer work in another country.
During this time they gain skills and life experience before starting
tertiary education. These young people are also known as “gappers”.
A basic tourist profile contains the following informationabout the tourist :
contact details such as address and telephone number
need and preferences, for, example, adventure, sport, one education
specific requirement such as accommodation, transport, or food
and the length of the trip, and arrivaland departuredate.
Travel agents preparetourist profiles of their clients and use the
information when arranging trips for them. This will ensurethat the
specific needs of the touristare met.
Components of tourism (FIVES A’S)
Itis very basic to touristdestinations.
The latest trend in accommodation is holiday villages.
Types of accommodation
“Accessibility is a means by which a tourist can reach the area where
attractions are located”.
Accessibility also means the transportation. The important
transportation modes are road,rail,air and water transport.
Accessibletourism is intended as the set of services and facilities capable
of allowing persons with specific needs to enjoy a holiday and their
leisure time with no particular barriers or problems.
“The basic facilities provided in a tourist destination”.
Types of Amenities
Possibilities of Fishing
Opportunities of trekking
Various types of entertainment
Facilities which cater special needs.
A tourist attraction is a place of interest where tourists visit, typically for
its inherentor exhibited cultural value, historical significance, natural or
built beauty, oramusementopportunities.
Types of Attraction
“The various elements of tourismservices available which offered to
touristat the destinations”.
Activities are classified as :
Entertainment and SportFacilities
PERSPECTIVES ONTHESTUDY OF TOURISM
1. Geographical Perspective - froma geographer’s perspectivethe main
concern of tourismis to lookinto aspects like the geographical location of a
place, the climate, the landscape, the environment, thephysicalplanning and
the changes in these emerging fromprovisioning of tourismfacilities
andamenities. A geographer feels that it is the climate, landscape or physical
attributes which draw the touristto a destination, for example; if a person
fromDelhi goes to Shimla in the summer he does sobecauseof the cooler
climate which he cannot get in Delhi
2. Sociological Perspective - Froma sociologist’s perspectiveTourismis a social
activity; it is aboutinteraction between different communities—hosts and
guests—and encounter between differentcultures. This approach studies social
classes, habits and customs of both hosts and guests in terms oftourism
behaviour of individuals or groups of people and the impact of tourismon
3. Historical Perspective - froman historian’s perspectivetourismis a study of
the factors instrumentalin the initiation of tourismto a particular destination,
the order of happenings leading to tourismdevelopment, the reasons for
happening of the occurrences in that order, beneficiaries of the touristactivity
and an untimely and prematureidentification of negative effects. For example
we all know thata lot of tourists visit Taj Mahal in Agra but a historian would be
interested in studying the factors thatbring the touristthere, e.g. the
architecture, the story behind the monument, or something else that
4. Managerial Perspective - fromthe management perspectivetourismis an
industry, and thereforeneeds managerial skills in order to be properly
managed. As the industry grows weseecontinuous changes in various
organizations and services linked with the industry, the tourismproductsand
so on so this approach concentrates on management activities such as
planning, research,pricing,marketing, controletc. as vital to the operation of a
5. Economic Perspective– Froman economist’s perspectivetourismis a major
sourceof foreignexchangeearnings, a generator of personaland corporate
incomes, a creator of employment and acontributor to governmentearnings. It
is a dominant global activity surpassing even tradein oil andmanufactured
goods. Economists study the effects of tourismindustry on the economy. This
is a twoway process.