POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES TAGUIG CAMPUS POLITICS AND GOVERNANCE WITH PHILIPPINE CONSTITUTION
MEANING OF CONSTITUTION <ul><li>In its broad sense, the term constitution refers to “that body of rules and principles i...
KINDS OF CONSTITUTION
1) As to their origin and history : <ul><li>Conventional or enacted. – One which is enacted by a constituent assembly or...
2) As to their form : <ul><li>Written. – One which has been given definite written form at a particular time, usually by...
3) As to manner of amending them : <ul><li>Rigid or inelastic . – One regarded as a document of special sanctity which c...
THE 1987 CONSTITUTION <ul><li> Framing and Ratification . – The 1987 Constitution was drafted by a Constitutional Commis...
<ul><li>a) Pursuant to Proclamation No. 3, the President promulgated on April 23, 1986 Proclamation No. 3, the President ...
<ul><li>b) The Constitutional Commission, which marked the fourth exercise in the writing of a basic charter in Philippin...
<ul><li>d) The Constitutional Commission held its final session in the morning of October 15, 1986 to sign the 109-page d...
THE 1987 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
P R E A M B L E 
<ul><li>We, the sovereign Filipino people, imploring the aid of Almighty God, in order to build a just and humane society,...
ARTICLE I THE NATIONAL TERRITORY
  . <ul><li>The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago , with all the islands and waters embraced ther...
ARTICLE II DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES
<ul><li>PRINCIPLES </li></ul><ul><li>Section 1. The Philippines is a democratic and republican State. Sovereignty resides...
ARTICLE II DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES <ul><li>Section 3. Civilian authority is, at all times, supreme o...
ARTICLE II DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES <ul><li>Section 5. The maintenance of peace and order, the protec...
ARTICLE II DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES <ul><li>STATE POLICIES </li></ul><ul><li>Section 7. The State sha...
ARTICLE II DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES <ul><li>Section 9. The State shall promote a just and dynamic soc...
ARTICLE II DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES <ul><li>Section 11. The State values the dignity of every human p...
ARTICLE II DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES <ul><li>Section 13. The State recognizes the vital role of the yo...
ARTICLE II DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES <ul><li>Section 15. The State shall protect and promote the right...
ARTICLE II DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES <ul><li>Section 17. The State shall give priority to education, s...
ARTICLE II DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES <ul><li>Section 19. The State shall develop a self-reliant and in...
ARTICLE II DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES <ul><li>Section 22. The State recognizes and promotes the rights ...
ARTICLE II DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES <ul><li>Section 25. The State shall ensure the autonomy of local ...
ARTICLE II DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES <ul><li>Section 28. Subject to reasonable conditions prescribed b...
ARTICLE III BILL OF RIGHTS
ARTICLE III BILL OF RIGHTS <ul><li>Section 1. No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due proce...
ARTICLE III BILL OF RIGHTS <ul><li>Section 3. (1) The privacy of communication and correspondence shall be inviolable e...
ARTICLE III BILL OF RIGHTS <ul><li>Section 5. No law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibitin...
ARTICLE III BILL OF RIGHTS <ul><li>Section 7. The right of the people to information on matters of public concern shall b...
ARTICLE III BILL OF RIGHTS <ul><li>Section 9. Private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensatio...
ARTICLE III BILL OF RIGHTS <ul><li>Section 12. (1) Any person under investigation for the commission of an offense shal...
<ul><li>(2) No torture, force, violence, threat, intimidation, or any other means which vitiate the free will shall be us...
ARTICLE III BILL OF RIGHTS <ul><li>(4) The law shall provide for penal and civil sanctions for violations of this section...
ARTICLE III BILL OF RIGHTS <ul><li> (2) In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall be presumed innocent until the c...
ARTICLE III BILL OF RIGHTS <ul><li>Section 15. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended except...
ARTICLE III BILL OF RIGHTS <ul><li>Section 18. (1) No person shall be detained solely by reason of his political belief...
ARTICLE III BILL OF RIGHTS <ul><li>Section 19. (1) Excessive fines shall not be imposed, nor cruel, degrading or inhuma...
ARTICLE III BILL OF RIGHTS <ul><li> (2) The employment of physical, psychological, or degrading punishment against any p...
ARTICLE III BILL OF RIGHTS <ul><li>Section 21. No person shall be twice put in jeopardy of punishment for the same offens...
ARTICLE IV CITIZENSHIP
 ARTICLE IV CITIZENSHIP <ul><li>Section 1. The following are citizens of the Philippines: </li></ul><ul><li>[1] Those ...
ARTICLE IV CITIZENSHIP <ul><li>Section 2. Natural-born citizens are those who are citizens of the Philippines from birth ...
ARTICLE IV CITIZENSHIP <ul><li>Section 4. Citizens of the Philippines who marry aliens shall retain their citizenship, un...
ARTICLE V SUFFRAGE
ARTICLE V SUFFRAGE <ul><li>Section 1. Suffrage may be exercised by all citizens of the Philippines not otherwise disquali...
ARTICLE V SUFFRAGE <ul><li>The Congress shall also design a procedure for the disabled and the illiterates to vote without...
ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT
ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 1. The legislative power shall be vested in the Congress of the Phi...
ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 3. No person shall be a Senator unless he is a natural-born citiz...
ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 5. (1) The House of Representatives shall be composed of not more...
ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(2) The party-list representatives shall constitute twenty per centum of ...
ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(3) Each legislative district shall comprise, as far as practicable, contig...
ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 6. No person shall be a Member of the House of Representatives unle...
ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 7. The Members of the House of Representatives shall be elected for...
ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 8. Unless otherwise provided by law, the regular election of the Se...
ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 10. The salaries of Senators and Members of the House of Representa...
ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 12. All Members of the Senate and the House of Representatives shal...
ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 14. No Senator or Member of the House of Representatives may person...
ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 15 . The Congress shall convene once every year on the fourth Monda...
ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 16. (1). The Senate shall elect its President and the House of Re...
ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(4) Each House shall keep a Journal of its proceedings, and from time to ti...
ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 17. The Senate and the House of Representatives shall each have an ...
ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 18. There shall be a Commission on Appointments consisting of the P...
ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 19. The Electoral Tribunals and the Commission on Appointments shal...
ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 20. The records and books of accounts of the Congress shall be pres...
ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 22. The heads of departments may, upon their own initiative, with t...
ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 23. (1) The Congress, by a vote of two-thirds of both Houses in j...
ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 24. All appropriation, revenue or tariff bills, bills authorizing i...
ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(2) No provision or enactment shall be embraced in the general appropriatio...
ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(4) A special appropriations bill shall specify the purpose for which it is...
ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(6) Discretionary funds appropriated for particular officials shall be disb...
ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 26. (1) Every bill passed by the Congress shall embrace only one ...
ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Upon the last reading of a bill, no amendment thereto shall be allowed, and ...
ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 27. (1) Every bill passed by the Congress shall, before it become...
ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>The President shall communicate his veto of any bill to the House where it o...
ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 28. (1) The rule of taxation shall be uniform and equitable. The ...
ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(3) Charitable institutions, churches and personages or convents appurtenan...
ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 29. (1) No money shall be paid out of the Treasury except in purs...
ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(3) All money collected on any tax levied for a special purpose shall be tr...
ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 31. No law granting a title of royalty or nobility shall be enacted...
ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT
ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 1. The executive power shall be vested in the President of the Philippin...
ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 3. There shall be a Vice-President who shall have the same qualification...
ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 4. The President and the Vice-President shall be elected by direct vote ...
ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>No Vice-President shall serve for more than two successive terms. Voluntary renun...
ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Upon receipt of the certificates of canvass, the President of the Senate shall, n...
ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>The person having the highest number of votes shall be proclaimed elected, but in...
ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 5. Before they enter on the execution of their office, the President, th...
ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 6. The President shall have an official residence. The salaries of the P...
ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 7. The President-elect and the Vice President-elect shall assume office ...
ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Where no President and Vice-President shall have been chosen or shall have qualif...
ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 8. In case of death, permanent disability, removal from office, or resig...
ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>The Congress shall, by law, provide who shall serve as President in case of death...
ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 9. Whenever there is a vacancy in the Office of the Vice-President durin...
ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 10. The Congress shall, at ten o'clock in the morning of the third day a...
ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>The convening of the Congress cannot be suspended nor the special election postpo...
ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Whenever a majority of all the Members of the Cabinet transmit to the President o...
ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Meanwhile, should a majority of all the Members of the Cabinet transmit within fi...
ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>If the Congress, within ten days after receipt of the last written declaration, o...
ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 12. In case of serious illness of the President, the public shall be inf...
ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 13. The President, Vice-President, the Members of the Cabinet, and their...
ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>The spouse and relatives by consanguinity or affinity within the fourth civil deg...
ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 14. Appointments extended by an Acting President shall remain effective,...
ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 16. The President shall nominate and, with the consent of the Commission...
ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>The Congress may, by law, vest the appointment of other officers lower in rank in...
ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 17 . The President shall have control of all the executive departments, ...
ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Within forty-eight hours from the proclamation of martial law or the suspension o...
ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>The Congress, if not in session, shall, within twenty-four hours following such p...
ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>A state of martial law does not suspend the operation of the Constitution, nor su...
ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>During the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus , any person...
ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 20. The President may contract or guarantee foreign loans on behalf of t...
ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 21. No treaty or international agreement shall be valid and effective un...
ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 23. The President shall address the Congress at the opening of its regul...
ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT
ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 1. The judicial power shall be vested in one Supreme Court and in such l...
ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 2. The Congress shall have the power to define, prescribe, and apportion...
ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 3. The Judiciary shall enjoy fiscal autonomy. Appropriations for the Jud...
ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(2) All cases involving the constitutionality of a treaty, international or execu...
ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(3) Cases or matters heard by a division shall be decided or resolved with the c...
ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 5. The Supreme Court shall have the following powers: </li></ul><ul><li...
ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(a) All cases in which the constitutionality or validity of any treaty, internat...
ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(3) Assign temporarily judges of lower courts to other stations as public intere...
ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(5) Promulgate rules concerning the protection and enforcement of constitutional...
ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(6) Appoint all officials and employees of the Judiciary in accordance with the ...
ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(2) The Congress shall prescribe the qualifications of judges of lower courts, bu...
ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 8. (1) A Judicial and Bar Council is hereby created under the supervis...
ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(2) The regular members of the Council shall be appointed by the President for a...
ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(3) The Clerk of the Supreme Court shall be the Secretary ex officio of the Co...
ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(5) The Council shall have the principal function of recommending appointees to ...
ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>For the lower courts, the President shall issue the appointments within ninety da...
ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 11. The Members of the Supreme Court and judges of lower courts shall ho...
ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 12. The Members of the Supreme Court and of other courts established by ...
ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>A certification to this effect signed by the Chief Justice shall be issued and a ...
ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 14. No decision shall be rendered by any court without expressing therei...
ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 15. (1) All cases or matters filed after the effectivity of this Const...
ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(2) A case or matter shall be deemed submitted for decision or resolution upon t...
ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(4) Despite the expiration of the applicable mandatory period, the court, withou...
ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 16. The Supreme Court shall, within thirty days from the opening of each...
ARTICLE IX A. COMMON PROVISIONS B. THE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS D. THE COMMISSION ON AUDIT
ARTICLE IX A. COMMON PROVISIONS
ARTICLE IX A. COMMON PROVISIONS <ul><li>Section 1. The Constitutional Commissions, which shall be independent, are the C...
ARTICLE IX A. COMMON PROVISIONS <ul><li>Neither shall he engage in the practice of any profession or in the active manage...
ARTICLE IX A. COMMON PROVISIONS <ul><li>Section. 3. The salary of the Chairman and the Commissioners shall be fixed by l...
ARTICLE IX A. COMMON PROVISIONS <ul><li>Section 5. The Commission shall enjoy fiscal autonomy. Their approved annual app...
ARTICLE IX A. COMMON PROVISIONS <ul><li>Section 7. Each Commission shall decide by a majority vote of all its Members, a...
ARTICLE IX A. COMMON PROVISIONS <ul><li>Unless otherwise provided by this Constitution or by law, any decision, order, or...
ARTICLE IX B. THE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION
<ul><li>Section 1. (1) The civil service shall be administered by the Civil Service Commission composed of a Chairman a...
<ul><li>(2) The Chairman and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the President with the consent of the Commission on ...
<ul><li>Section 2. (1) The civil service embraces all branches, subdivisions, instrumentalities, and agencies of the Go...
ARTICLE IX B. THE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION <ul><li>(3) No officer or employee of the civil service shall be removed or sus...
ARTICLE IX B. THE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION <ul><li>Section 3. The Civil Service Commission, as the central personnel agen...
ARTICLE IX B. THE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION <ul><li>Section 4. All public officers and employees shall take an oath or aff...
ARTICLE IX B. THE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION <ul><li>Section 6. No candidate who has lost in any election shall, within one...
ARTICLE IX B. THE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION <ul><li>Unless otherwise allowed by law or by the primary functions of his posi...
ARTICLE IX B. THE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION <ul><li>Section 8. No elective or appointive public officer or employee shall ...
ARTICLE IX C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS
<ul><li>Section 1. (1) There shall be a Commission on Elections composed of a Chairman and six Commissioners who shall ...
ARTICLE IX C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS <ul><li>(2) The Chairman and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the Pres...
ARTICLE IX C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS <ul><li>Section 2. The Commission on Elections shall exercise the following p...
ARTICLE IX C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS <ul><li>(2) Exercise exclusive original jurisdiction over all contests relati...
ARTICLE IX C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS <ul><li>(3) Decide, except those involving the right to vote, all questions a...
ARTICLE IX C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS <ul><li>(5) Register, after sufficient publication, political parties, organi...
ARTICLE IX C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS <ul><li>Financial contributions from foreign governments and their agencies to...
ARTICLE IX C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS <ul><li>(7) Recommend to the Congress effective measures to minimize election...
ARTICLE IX C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS <ul><li>(9) Submit to the President and the Congress, a comprehensive report o...
ARTICLE IX C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS <ul><li>Section 3. The Commission on Elections may sit en banc or in two di...
ARTICLE IX C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS <ul><li>Section 4. The Commission may, during the election period, supervise ...
ARTICLE IX C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS <ul><li>Such supervision or regulation shall aim to ensure equal opportunity, ...
ARTICLE IX C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS <ul><li>Section 5. No pardon, amnesty, parole, or suspension of sentence for ...
ARTICLE IX C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS <ul><li>Section 7. No votes cast in favor of a political party, organization,...
ARTICLE IX C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS <ul><li>Section 9. Unless otherwise fixed by the Commission in special cases,...
ARTICLE IX C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS <ul><li>Section 11. Funds certified by the Commission as necessary to defray ...
ARTICLE IX D. THE COMMISSION ON AUDIT
ARTICLE IX D. THE COMMISSION ON AUDIT <ul><li>Section 1. (1) There shall be a Commission on Audit composed of a Chairma...
ARTICLE IX D. THE COMMISSION ON AUDIT15 <ul><li>(2) The Chairman and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the Presiden...
ARTICLE IX D. THE COMMISSION ON AUDIT <ul><li>Section 2. (1) The Commission on Audit shall have the power, authority, a...
ARTICLE IX D. THE COMMISSION ON AUDIT <ul><li>(b) autonomous state colleges and universities; </li></ul><ul><li>(c) oth...
ARTICLE IX D. THE COMMISSION ON AUDIT <ul><li>However, where the internal control system of the audited agencies is inadeq...
ARTICLE IX D. THE COMMISSION ON AUDIT <ul><li>(2) The Commission shall have exclusive authority, subject to the limitatio...
ARTICLE IX D. THE COMMISSION ON AUDIT <ul><li>Section 3. No law shall be passed exempting any entity of the Government or...
ARTICLE IX D. THE COMMISSION ON AUDIT <ul><li>including government-owned or controlled corporations, and non-governmental ...
ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT
ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT <ul><li>Section 1. The territorial and political subdivisions of the Republic of the Philippi...
ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT <ul><li>Section 3. The Congress shall enact a local government code which shall provide for a ...
ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT <ul><li>Section 4. The President of the Philippines shall exercise general supervision over lo...
ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT <ul><li>Section 5. Each local government unit shall have the power to create its own sources o...
ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT <ul><li>Section 6. Local government units shall have a just share, as determined by law, in th...
ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT <ul><li>Section 8. The term of office of elective local officials, except barangay officials, ...
ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT <ul><li>Section 9. Legislative bodies of local governments shall have sectoral representation ...
ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT <ul><li>Section 11. The Congress may, by law, create special metropolitan political subdivisio...
ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT <ul><li>Section 12. Cities that are highly urbanized, as determined by law, and component citi...
ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT <ul><li>Section 14. The President shall provide for regional development councils or other sim...
ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT <ul><li>AUTONOMOUS REGIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Section 15. There shall be created autonomous reg...
ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT <ul><li>Section 17. All powers, functions, and responsibilities not granted by this Constituti...
ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT <ul><li>The organic act shall define the basic structure of government for the region consistin...
ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT <ul><li>The creation of the autonomous region shall be effective when approved by majority of t...
ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT <ul><li>Section 20. Within its territorial jurisdiction and subject to the provisions of this ...
ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT <ul><li>(5) Regional urban and rural planning development; </li></ul><ul><li>(6) Economic, soci...
ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT <ul><li>Section 21. The preservation of peace and order within the regions shall be the respon...
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Politics And Governance With Phil. Constitution boa
Politics And Governance With Phil. Constitution boa
Politics And Governance With Phil. Constitution boa
Politics And Governance With Phil. Constitution boa
Politics And Governance With Phil. Constitution boa
Politics And Governance With Phil. Constitution boa
Politics And Governance With Phil. Constitution boa
Politics And Governance With Phil. Constitution boa
Politics And Governance With Phil. Constitution boa
Politics And Governance With Phil. Constitution boa
Politics And Governance With Phil. Constitution boa
Politics And Governance With Phil. Constitution boa
Politics And Governance With Phil. Constitution boa
Politics And Governance With Phil. Constitution boa
Politics And Governance With Phil. Constitution boa
Politics And Governance With Phil. Constitution boa
Politics And Governance With Phil. Constitution boa
Politics And Governance With Phil. Constitution boa
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Politics And Governance With Phil. Constitution boa

Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Education      
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Transcripts - Politics And Governance With Phil. Constitution boa

  • 1. POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES TAGUIG CAMPUS POLITICS AND GOVERNANCE WITH PHILIPPINE CONSTITUTION
  • 2. MEANING OF CONSTITUTION <ul><li>In its broad sense, the term constitution refers to “that body of rules and principles in accordance with which the powers of sovereignty are regularly exercised. As thus defined, it covers both written and unwritten constitutions. </li></ul><ul><li>With particular reference to the Constitution of the Philippines, it may be defined as that written instrument by which the fundamental powers of the government are established, limited, and defined and by which these powers are distributed among the several departments or branches for their safe and useful exercise for the benefit of the people. </li></ul>
  • 3. KINDS OF CONSTITUTION
  • 4. 1) As to their origin and history : <ul><li>Conventional or enacted. – One which is enacted by a constituent assembly or granted by a monarch to his subjects like the Constitution of Japan in 1889; and </li></ul><ul><li>Cumulative or evolved. – Like the English Constitution, one which is a product of growth or a long period of development originating in customs, traditions, judicial decisions, etc., rather than from a deliberate and formal enactment. </li></ul><ul><li>The above classification substantially coincides with that of written and unwritten constitutions. </li></ul>
  • 5. 2) As to their form : <ul><li>Written. – One which has been given definite written form at a particular time, usually by a specially constituted authority called a “constitutional convention”; and </li></ul><ul><li>Unwritten . – One which is entirely the product of political evolution, consisting largely of a mass of customs, usages and judicial decisions together with a smaller body of statutory enactments of a fundamental character, usually bearing different dates. The English Constitution is unwritten only in the sense that it is not codified in a single document. Part of it is written – the Acts of Parliament and judicial decisions. Indeed, there is no Constitution that is entirely written or unwritten. </li></ul>
  • 6. 3) As to manner of amending them : <ul><li>Rigid or inelastic . – One regarded as a document of special sanctity which cannot be amended or altered except by some special machinery more cumbrous than the ordinary legislative process; and </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible or elastic . – One which possesses no higher legal authority than ordinary laws and which may be altered in the same way as other laws. </li></ul><ul><li>The Philippine constitution may be classified as conventional or enacted, written, and rigid or inelastic. It was drafted by an appointive body called “Constitutional Commission.” (see E, infra.) </li></ul>
  • 7. THE 1987 CONSTITUTION <ul><li> Framing and Ratification . – The 1987 Constitution was drafted by a Constitutional Commission created under Article V of Proclamation No. 3 issued on March 25, 1986 which promulgated the Provisional Constitution or “Freedom Constitution” following the installation of a revolutionary government “through a direct exercise of the power of the Filipino people.” </li></ul>
  • 8. <ul><li>a) Pursuant to Proclamation No. 3, the President promulgated on April 23, 1986 Proclamation No. 3, the President promulgated on April 23, 1986 Proclamation No. 9, the “Law Governing the Constitutional Commission of 1986,” “to organize the Constitutional Commission, to provide for the details of its operation and establish the procedure for the ratification or rejection of the proposed new Constitution.” </li></ul><ul><li>Under the Proclamation, the Constitutional Commission “shall be composed of not more than fifty (50) national, regional, and sectoral representatives who shall be appointed by the President,” As constituted, the Commission was composed only of forty-eight (48) members --- forty-two (42) men and six (6) women, with a preponderance of lawyers --- because of the withdrawal of an opposition appointee and non-acceptance by the Iglesia ni Kristo of the President’s offer to submit a nominee. </li></ul>
  • 9. <ul><li>b) The Constitutional Commission, which marked the fourth exercise in the writing of a basic charter in Philippine History since the Malolos Constitution at the turn of the century, convened on June 2, 1986 at the Batasang Pambansa Building in Diliman, Quezon City. With the Malolos Constitution of 1986, the 1935 Constitution and the 1973 Constitution as “working drafts,” the Commission in addition to committee discussions, public hearings, and plenary sessions, conducted public consultations in different parts of the country. </li></ul><ul><li>c) The proposed new Constitution was approved by the Constitutional Commission on the night of Sunday, October 12, 1986, culminating 133 days of work, by a vote of 44-2. A Commissioner signed subsequently by affixing his thumbmark at his sickbed on October 14, 1986 so that he actually voted in favor of the draft. Another Commissioner had resigned earlier. The two Commissioners who dissented also signed “to express their dissent and to symbolize their four (4) months of participation in drawing up the new Constitution.” </li></ul>
  • 10. <ul><li>d) The Constitutional Commission held its final session in the morning of October 15, 1986 to sign the 109-page draft consisting of a preamble, 18 Articles, 321 Sections and about 2,000 words – after which, on the same day, it presented to the President the original copies in English and Filipino. It was ratified by the people in the plebiscite held on February 2, 1987. It superseded the Provisional Constitution which had abrogated the 1973 Charter. </li></ul>
  • 11. THE 1987 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
  • 12. P R E A M B L E
  • 13. <ul><li>We, the sovereign Filipino people, imploring the aid of Almighty God, in order to build a just and humane society, and establish a Government that shall embody our ideals and aspirations, promote the common good, conserve and develop our patrimony, and secure to ourselves and our posterity, the blessings of independence and democracy under the rule of law and a regime of truth, justice, freedom, love, equality, and peace, do ordain and promulgate this Constitution. </li></ul>
  • 14. ARTICLE I THE NATIONAL TERRITORY
  • 15.   . <ul><li>The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago , with all the islands and waters embraced therein, and all other territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction , consisting of its terrestrial, fluvial and aerial domains, including its territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil, the insular shelves, and other submarine areas. The waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the archipelago, regardless of their breadth and dimensions, form part of the internal waters of the Philippines. </li></ul>ARTICLE I THE NATIONAL TERRITORY
  • 16. ARTICLE II DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES
  • 17. <ul><li>PRINCIPLES </li></ul><ul><li>Section 1. The Philippines is a democratic and republican State. Sovereignty resides in the people and all government authority emanates from them. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 2. The Philippines renounces war as an instrument of national policy, adopts the generally accepted principles of international law as part of the law of the land and adheres to the policy of peace, equality, justice, freedom, cooperation, and amity with all nations. </li></ul>ARTICLE II DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES
  • 18. ARTICLE II DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES <ul><li>Section 3. Civilian authority is, at all times, supreme over the military. The Armed Forces of the Philippines is the protector of the people and the State. Its goal is to secure the sovereignty of the State and the integrity of the national territory. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 4. The prime duty of the Government is to serve and protect the people. The Government may call upon the people to defend the State and, in the fulfillment thereof, all citizens may be required, under conditions provided by law, to render personal, military or civil service. </li></ul>
  • 19. ARTICLE II DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES <ul><li>Section 5. The maintenance of peace and order, the protection of life, liberty, and property, and promotion of the general welfare are essential for the enjoyment by all the people of the blessings of democracy. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 6. The separation of Church and State shall be inviolable. </li></ul>
  • 20. ARTICLE II DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES <ul><li>STATE POLICIES </li></ul><ul><li>Section 7. The State shall pursue an independent foreign policy. In its relations with other states, the paramount consideration shall be national sovereignty, territorial integrity, national interest, and the right to self-determination. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 8. The Philippines, consistent with the national interest, adopts and pursues a policy of freedom from nuclear weapons in its territory. </li></ul>
  • 21. ARTICLE II DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES <ul><li>Section 9. The State shall promote a just and dynamic social order that will ensure the prosperity and independence of the nation and free the people from poverty through policies that provide adequate social services, promote full employment, a rising standard of living, and an improved quality of life for all. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 10. The State shall promote social justice in all phases of national development. </li></ul>
  • 22. ARTICLE II DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES <ul><li>Section 11. The State values the dignity of every human person and guarantees full respect for human rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 12. The State recognizes the sanctity of family life and shall protect and strengthen the family as a basic autonomous social institution. It shall equally protect the life of the mother and the life of the unborn from conception. The natural and primary right and duty of parents in the rearing of the youth for civic efficiency and the development of moral character shall receive the support of the Government. </li></ul>
  • 23. ARTICLE II DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES <ul><li>Section 13. The State recognizes the vital role of the youth in nation-building and shall promote and protect their physical, moral, spiritual, intellectual, and social well-being. It shall inculcate in the youth patriotism and nationalism, and encourage their involvement in public and civic affairs. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 14. The State recognizes the role of women in nation-building, and shall ensure the fundamental equality before the law of women and men. </li></ul>
  • 24. ARTICLE II DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES <ul><li>Section 15. The State shall protect and promote the right to health of the people and instill health consciousness among them. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 16. The State shall protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature. </li></ul>
  • 25. ARTICLE II DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES <ul><li>Section 17. The State shall give priority to education, science and technology, arts, culture, and sports to foster patriotism and nationalism, accelerate social progress, and promote total human liberation and development. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 18. The State affirms labor as a primary social economic force. It shall protect the rights of workers and promote their welfare. </li></ul>
  • 26. ARTICLE II DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES <ul><li>Section 19. The State shall develop a self-reliant and independent national economy effectively controlled by Filipinos. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 20. The State recognizes the indispensable role of the private sector, encourages private enterprise, and provides incentives to needed investments. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 21. The State shall promote comprehensive rural development and agrarian reform. </li></ul>
  • 27. ARTICLE II DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES <ul><li>Section 22. The State recognizes and promotes the rights of indigenous cultural communities within the framework of national unity and development. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 23. The State shall encourage non-governmental, community-based, or sectoral organizations that promote the welfare of the nation. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 24. The State recognizes the vital role of communication and information in nation-building. </li></ul>
  • 28. ARTICLE II DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES <ul><li>Section 25. The State shall ensure the autonomy of local governments. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 26. The State shall guarantee equal access to opportunities for public service and prohibit political dynasties as may be defined by law. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 27. The State shall maintain honesty and integrity in the public service and take positive and effective measures against graft and corruption. </li></ul>
  • 29. ARTICLE II DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES <ul><li>Section 28. Subject to reasonable conditions prescribed by law, the State adopts and implements a policy of full public disclosure of all its transactions involving public interest. </li></ul>
  • 30. ARTICLE III BILL OF RIGHTS
  • 31. ARTICLE III BILL OF RIGHTS <ul><li>Section 1. No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, nor shall any person be denied the equal protection of the laws. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 2. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures of whatever nature and for any purpose shall be inviolable, and no search warrant or warrant of arrest shall issue except upon probable cause to be determined personally by the judge after examination under oath or affirmation of the complainant and the witnesses he may produce, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized. </li></ul>
  • 32. ARTICLE III BILL OF RIGHTS <ul><li>Section 3. (1) The privacy of communication and correspondence shall be inviolable except upon lawful order of the court, or when public safety or order requires otherwise, as prescribed by law. </li></ul><ul><li> (2) Any evidence obtained in violation of this or the preceding section shall be inadmissible for any purpose in any proceeding. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 4. No law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech, of expression, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the government for redress of grievances. </li></ul>
  • 33. ARTICLE III BILL OF RIGHTS <ul><li>Section 5. No law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be allowed. No religious test shall be required for the exercise of civil or political rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 6. The liberty of abode and of changing the same within the limits prescribed by law shall not be impaired except upon lawful order of the court. Neither shall the right to travel be impaired except in the interest of national security, public safety, or public health, as may be provided by law. </li></ul>
  • 34. ARTICLE III BILL OF RIGHTS <ul><li>Section 7. The right of the people to information on matters of public concern shall be recognized. Access to official records, and to documents and papers pertaining to official acts, transactions, or decisions, as well as to government research data used as basis for policy development, shall be afforded the citizen, subject to such limitations as may be provided by law. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 8. The right of the people, including those employed in the public and private sectors, to form unions, associations, or societies for purposes not contrary to law shall not be abridged. </li></ul>
  • 35. ARTICLE III BILL OF RIGHTS <ul><li>Section 9. Private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 10. No law impairing the obligation of contracts shall be passed. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 11. Free access to the courts and quasi-judicial bodies and adequate legal assistance shall not be denied to any person by reason of poverty. </li></ul>
  • 36. ARTICLE III BILL OF RIGHTS <ul><li>Section 12. (1) Any person under investigation for the commission of an offense shall have the right to be informed of his right to remain silent and to have competent and independent counsel preferably of his own choice. If the person cannot afford the services of counsel, he must be provided with one. These rights cannot be waived except in writing and in the presence of counsel. </li></ul>
  • 37. <ul><li>(2) No torture, force, violence, threat, intimidation, or any other means which vitiate the free will shall be used against him. Secret detention places, solitary, incommunicado , or other similar forms of detention are prohibited. </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Any confession or admission obtained in violation of this or Section 17 hereof shall be inadmissible in evidence against him. </li></ul>ARTICLE III BILL OF RIGHTS
  • 38. ARTICLE III BILL OF RIGHTS <ul><li>(4) The law shall provide for penal and civil sanctions for violations of this section as well as compensation to the rehabilitation of victims of torture or similar practices, and their families. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 13. All persons, except those charged with offenses punishable by reclusion perpetua when evidence of guilt is strong, shall, before conviction, be bailable by sufficient sureties, or be released on recognizance as may be provided by law. The right to bail shall not be impaired even when the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus is suspended. Excessive bail shall not be required. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 14. (1) No person shall be held to answer for a criminal offense without due process of law. </li></ul>
  • 39. ARTICLE III BILL OF RIGHTS <ul><li> (2) In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall be presumed innocent until the contrary is proved, and shall enjoy the right to be heard by himself and counsel, to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation against him, to have a speedy, impartial, and public trial, to meet the witnesses face to face, and to have compulsory process to secure the attendance of witnesses and the production of evidence in his behalf. However, after arraignment, trial may proceed notwithstanding the absence of the accused: Provided , that he has been duly notified and his failure to appear is unjustifiable. </li></ul>
  • 40. ARTICLE III BILL OF RIGHTS <ul><li>Section 15. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended except in cases of invasion or rebellion, when the public safety requires it. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 16. All persons shall have the right to a speedy disposition of their cases before all judicial, quasi-judicial, or administrative bodies. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 17. No person shall be compelled to be a witness against himself. </li></ul>
  • 41. ARTICLE III BILL OF RIGHTS <ul><li>Section 18. (1) No person shall be detained solely by reason of his political beliefs and aspirations. </li></ul><ul><li> (2) No involuntary servitude in any form shall exist except as a punishment for a crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted. </li></ul>
  • 42. ARTICLE III BILL OF RIGHTS <ul><li>Section 19. (1) Excessive fines shall not be imposed, nor cruel, degrading or inhuman punishment inflicted. Neither shall death penalty be imposed, unless, for compelling reasons involving heinous crimes, the Congress hereafter provides for it. Any death penalty already imposed shall be reduced to reclusion perpetua . </li></ul>
  • 43. ARTICLE III BILL OF RIGHTS <ul><li> (2) The employment of physical, psychological, or degrading punishment against any prisoner or detainee or the use of substandard or inadequate penal facilities under subhuman conditions shall be dealt with by law. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 20. No person shall be imprisoned for debt or non-payment of a poll tax. </li></ul>
  • 44. ARTICLE III BILL OF RIGHTS <ul><li>Section 21. No person shall be twice put in jeopardy of punishment for the same offense. If an act is punished by a law and an ordinance, conviction or acquittal under either shall constitute a bar to another prosecution for the same act. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 22. No ex post facto law or bill of attainder shall be enacted. </li></ul>
  • 45. ARTICLE IV CITIZENSHIP
  • 46. ARTICLE IV CITIZENSHIP <ul><li>Section 1. The following are citizens of the Philippines: </li></ul><ul><li>[1] Those who are citizens of the Philippines at the time of the adoption of this Constitution; </li></ul><ul><li>[2] Those whose fathers or mothers are citizens of the Philippines; </li></ul><ul><li>[3] Those born before January 17, 1973, of Filipino mothers, who elect Philippine citizenship upon reaching the age of majority; and </li></ul><ul><li>[4] Those who are naturalized in accordance with law. </li></ul>
  • 47. ARTICLE IV CITIZENSHIP <ul><li>Section 2. Natural-born citizens are those who are citizens of the Philippines from birth without having to perform any act to acquire or perfect their Philippine citizenship. Those who elect Philippine citizenship in accordance with paragraph (3), Section 1 hereof shall be deemed natural-born citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 3. Philippine citizenship may be lost or reacquired in the manner provided by law. </li></ul>
  • 48. ARTICLE IV CITIZENSHIP <ul><li>Section 4. Citizens of the Philippines who marry aliens shall retain their citizenship, unless by their act or omission, they are deemed, under the law, to have renounced it. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 5. Dual allegiance of citizens is inimical to the national interest and shall be dealt with by law . </li></ul>
  • 49. ARTICLE V SUFFRAGE
  • 50. ARTICLE V SUFFRAGE <ul><li>Section 1. Suffrage may be exercised by all citizens of the Philippines not otherwise disqualified by law, who are at least eighteen years of age, and who shall have resided in the Philippines for at least one year, and in the place wherein they propose to vote, for at least six months immediately preceding the election. No literacy, property, or other substantive requirement shall be imposed on the exercise of suffrage. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 2. The Congress shall provide a system for securing the secrecy and sanctity of the ballot as well as a system for absentee voting by qualified Filipinos abroad. </li></ul>
  • 51. ARTICLE V SUFFRAGE <ul><li>The Congress shall also design a procedure for the disabled and the illiterates to vote without the assistance of other persons. Until then, they shall be allowed to vote under existing laws and such rules as the Commission on Elections may promulgate to protect the secrecy of the ballot. </li></ul>
  • 52. ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT
  • 53. ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 1. The legislative power shall be vested in the Congress of the Philippines which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives, except to the extent reserved to the people by the provision on initiative and referendum. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 2. The Senate shall be composed of twenty-four Senators who shall be elected at large by the qualified voters of the Philippines, as may be provided by law. </li></ul>
  • 54. ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 3. No person shall be a Senator unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines and, on the day of the election, is at least thirty-five years of age, able to read and write, a registered voter, and a resident of the Philippines for not less than two years immediately preceding the day of the election. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 4. The term of office of the Senators shall be six years and shall commence, unless otherwise provided by law, at noon on the thirtieth day of June next following their election. No Senator shall serve for more than two consecutive terms. Voluntary renunciation of the office for any length of time shall not be considered as an interruption in the continuity of his service for the full term of which he was elected. </li></ul>
  • 55. ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 5. (1) The House of Representatives shall be composed of not more than two hundred and fifty members, unless otherwise fixed by law, who shall be elected from legislative districts apportioned among the provinces, cities, and the Metropolitan Manila area in accordance with the number of their respective inhabitants, and on the basis of a uniform and progressive ratio, and those who, as provided by law, shall be elected through a party-list system of registered national, regional, and sectoral parties or organizations. </li></ul>
  • 56. ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(2) The party-list representatives shall constitute twenty per centum of the total number of representatives including those under the party list. For three consecutive terms after the ratification of this Constitution, one-half of the seats allocated to party-list representatives shall be filled, as provided by law, by selection or election from the labor, peasant, urban poor, indigenous cultural communities, women, youth, and such other sectors as may be provided by law, except the religious sector. </li></ul>
  • 57. ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(3) Each legislative district shall comprise, as far as practicable, contiguous, compact, and adjacent territory. Each city with a population of at least two hundred fifty thousand, or each province, shall have at least one representative. </li></ul><ul><li>(4) Within three years following the return of every census, the Congress shall make a reapportionment of legislative districts based on the standards provided in this section. </li></ul>
  • 58. ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 6. No person shall be a Member of the House of Representatives unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines and, on the day of the election, is at least twenty-five years of age, able to read and write, and, except the party-list representatives, a registered voter in the district in which he shall be elected, and a resident thereof for a period of not less than one year immediately preceding the day of the election. </li></ul>
  • 59. ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 7. The Members of the House of Representatives shall be elected for a term of three years which shall begin, unless otherwise provided by law, at noon on the thirtieth day of June next following their election.  No Member of the House of Representatives shall serve for more than three consecutive terms. Voluntary renunciation of the office for any length of time shall not be considered as an interruption in the continuity of his service for the full term for which he was elected. </li></ul>
  • 60. ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 8. Unless otherwise provided by law, the regular election of the Senators and the Members of the House of Representatives shall be held on the second Monday of May. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 9. In case of vacancy in the Senate or in the House of Representatives, a special election may be called to fill such vacancy in the manner prescribed by law, but the Senator or Member of the House of Representatives thus elected shall serve only for the unexpired term. </li></ul>
  • 61. ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 10. The salaries of Senators and Members of the House of Representatives shall be determined by law. No increase in said compensation shall take effect until after the expiration of the full term of all the Members of the Senate and the House of Representatives approving such increase. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 11. A Senator or Member of the House of Representatives shall, in all offenses punishable by not more than six years imprisonment, be privileged from arrest while the Congress is in session. No Member shall be questioned nor be held liable in any other place for any speech or debate in the Congress or in any committee thereof. </li></ul>
  • 62. ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 12. All Members of the Senate and the House of Representatives shall, upon assumption of office, make a full disclosure of their financial and business interests. They shall notify the House concerned of a potential conflict of interest that may arise from the filing of a proposed legislation of which they are authors. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 13. No Senator or Member of the House of Representatives may hold any other office or employment in the Government, or any subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries, during his term without forfeiting his seat. Neither shall he be appointed to any office which may have been created or the emoluments thereof increased during the term for which he was elected. </li></ul>
  • 63. ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 14. No Senator or Member of the House of Representatives may personally appear as counsel before any court of justice or before the Electoral Tribunals, or quasi-judicial and other administrative bodies. Neither shall he, directly or indirectly, be interested financially in any contract with, or in any franchise or special privilege granted by the Government, or any subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including any government-owned or controlled corporation, or its subsidiary, during his term of office. He shall not intervene in any matter before any office of the Government for his pecuniary benefit or where he may be called upon to act on account of his office. </li></ul>
  • 64. ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 15 . The Congress shall convene once every year on the fourth Monday of July for its regular session, unless a different date is fixed by law, and shall continue to be in session for such number of days as it may determine until thirty days before the opening of its next regular session, exclusive of Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays. The President may call a special session at any time. </li></ul>
  • 65. ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 16. (1). The Senate shall elect its President and the House of Representatives, its Speaker, by a majority vote of all its respective Members. Each House shall choose such other officers as it may deem necessary. </li></ul><ul><li> (2) A majority of each House shall constitute a quorum to do business, but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day and may compel the attendance of absent Members in such manner, and under such penalties, as such House may provide. </li></ul><ul><li> (3) Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds of all its Members, suspend or expel a Member. A penalty of suspension, when imposed, shall not exceed sixty days. </li></ul>
  • 66. ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(4) Each House shall keep a Journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may, in its judgment, affect national security; and the yeas and nays on any question shall, at the request of one-fifth of the Members present, be entered in the Journal.  Each House shall also keep a Record of its proceedings. </li></ul><ul><li>(5) Neither House during the sessions of the Congress shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting. </li></ul>
  • 67. ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 17. The Senate and the House of Representatives shall each have an Electoral Tribunal which shall be the sole judge of all contests relating to the election, returns, and qualifications of their respective Members. Each Electoral Tribunal shall be composed of nine Members, three of whom shall be Justices of the Supreme Court to be designated by the Chief Justice, and the remaining six shall be Members of the Senate or the House of Representatives, as the case may be, who shall be chosen on the basis of proportional representation from the political parties and the parties or organizations registered under the party-list system represented therein. The senior Justice in the Electoral Tribunal shall be its Chairman. </li></ul>
  • 68. ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 18. There shall be a Commission on Appointments consisting of the President of the Senate, as ex officio Chairman, twelve Senators, and twelve Members of the House of Representatives, elected by each House on the basis of proportional representation from the political parties and parties or organizations registered under the party-list system represented therein. The chairman of the Commission shall not vote, except in case of a tie. The Commission shall act on all appointments submitted to it within thirty session days of the Congress from their submission. The Commission shall rule by a majority vote of all the Members. </li></ul>
  • 69. ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 19. The Electoral Tribunals and the Commission on Appointments shall be constituted within thirty days after the Senate and the House of Representatives shall have been organized with the election of the President and the Speaker. The Commission on Appointments shall meet only while the Congress is in session, at the call of its Chairman or a majority of all its Members, to discharge such powers and functions as are herein conferred upon it. </li></ul>
  • 70. ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 20. The records and books of accounts of the Congress shall be preserved and be open to the public in accordance with law, and such books shall be audited by the Commission on Audit which shall publish annually an itemized list of amounts paid to and expenses incurred for each Member. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 21. The Senate or the House of Representatives or any of its respective committees may conduct inquiries in aid of legislation in accordance with its duly published rules of procedure. The rights of persons appearing in, or affected by, such inquiries shall be respected. </li></ul>
  • 71. ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 22. The heads of departments may, upon their own initiative, with the consent of the President, or upon the request of either House, as the rules of each House shall provide, appear before and be heard by such House on any matter pertaining to their departments. Written questions shall be submitted to the President of the Senate or the Speaker of the House of Representatives at least three days before their scheduled appearance. Interpellations shall not be limited to written questions, but may cover matters related thereto. When the security of the State or the public interest so requires and the President so states in writing, the appearance shall be conducted in executive session. </li></ul>
  • 72. ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 23. (1) The Congress, by a vote of two-thirds of both Houses in joint session assembled, voting separately, shall have the sole power to declare the existence of a state of war. </li></ul><ul><li> (2) In times of war or other national emergency, the Congress may, by law, authorize the President, for a limited period and subject to such restrictions as it may prescribe, to exercise powers necessary and proper to carry out a declared national policy. Unless sooner withdrawn by resolution of the Congress, such powers shall cease upon the next adjournment thereof. </li></ul>
  • 73. ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 24. All appropriation, revenue or tariff bills, bills authorizing increase of the public debt, bills of local application, and private bills, shall originate exclusively in the House of Representatives, but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 25. (1) The Congress may not increase the appropriations recommended by the President for the operation of the Government as specified in the budget. The form, content, and manner of preparation of the budget shall be prescribed by law. </li></ul>
  • 74. ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(2) No provision or enactment shall be embraced in the general appropriations bill unless it relates specifically to some particular appropriation therein. Any such provision or enactment shall be limited in its operation to the appropriation to which it relates. </li></ul><ul><li>(3) The procedure in approving appropriations for the Congress shall strictly follow the procedure for approving appropriations for other departments and agencies. </li></ul>
  • 75. ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(4) A special appropriations bill shall specify the purpose for which it is intended, and shall be supported by funds actually available as certified by the National Treasurer, or to be raised by a corresponding revenue proposal therein. </li></ul><ul><li>(5) No law shall be passed authorizing any transfer of appropriations; however, the President, the President of the Senate, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and the heads of Constitutional Commissions may, by law, be authorized to augment any item in the general appropriations law for their respective offices from savings in other items of their respective appropriations. </li></ul>
  • 76. ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(6) Discretionary funds appropriated for particular officials shall be disbursed only for public purposes to be supported by appropriate vouchers and subject to such guidelines as may be prescribed by law. </li></ul><ul><li>(7) If, by the end of any fiscal year, the Congress shall have failed to pass the general appropriations bill for the ensuing fiscal year, the general appropriations law for the preceding fiscal year shall be deemed re-enacted and shall remain in force and effect until the general appropriations bill is passed by the Congress. </li></ul>
  • 77. ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 26. (1) Every bill passed by the Congress shall embrace only one subject which shall be expressed in the title thereof. </li></ul><ul><li> (2) No bill passed by either House shall become a law unless it has passed three readings on separate days, and printed copies thereof in its final form have been distributed to its Members three days before its passage, except when the President certifies to the necessity of its immediate enactment to meet a public calamity or emergency. </li></ul>
  • 78. ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Upon the last reading of a bill, no amendment thereto shall be allowed, and the vote thereon shall be taken immediately thereafter, and the yeas and nays entered in the Journal. </li></ul>
  • 79. ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 27. (1) Every bill passed by the Congress shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the President. If he approves the same he shall sign it; otherwise, he shall veto it and return the same with his objections to the House where it originated, which shall enter the objections at large in its Journal and proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration, two-thirds of all the Members of such House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other House by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of all the Members of that House, it shall become a law. In all such cases, the votes of each House shall be determined by yeas or nays , and the names of the Members voting for or against shall be entered in its Journal. </li></ul>
  • 80. ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>The President shall communicate his veto of any bill to the House where it originated within thirty days after the date of receipt thereof; otherwise, it shall become a law as if he had signed it. </li></ul><ul><li>(2) The President shall have the power to veto any particular item or items in an appropriation, revenue, or tariff bill, but the veto shall not affect the item or items to which he does not object. </li></ul>
  • 81. ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 28. (1) The rule of taxation shall be uniform and equitable. The Congress shall evolve a progressive system of taxation. </li></ul><ul><li> (2) The Congress may, by law, authorize the President to fix within specified limits, and subject to such limitations and restrictions as it may impose, tariff rates, import and export quotas, tonnage and wharfage dues, and other duties or imposts within the framework of the national development program of the Government. </li></ul>
  • 82. ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(3) Charitable institutions, churches and personages or convents appurtenant thereto, mosques, non-profit cemeteries, and all lands, buildings, and improvements, actually, directly, and exclusively used for religious, charitable, or educational purposes shall be exempt from taxation. </li></ul><ul><li>(4) No law granting any tax exemption shall be passed without the concurrence of a majority of all the Members of the Congress. </li></ul>
  • 83. ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 29. (1) No money shall be paid out of the Treasury except in pursuance of an appropriation made by law. </li></ul><ul><li> (2) No public money or property shall be appropriated, applied, paid, or employed, directly or indirectly, for the use, benefit, or support of any sect, church, denomination, sectarian institution, or system of religion, or of any priest, preacher, minister, other religious teacher, or dignitary as such, except when such priest, preacher, minister, or dignitary is assigned to the armed forces, or to any penal institution, or government orphanage or leprosarium. </li></ul>
  • 84. ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(3) All money collected on any tax levied for a special purpose shall be treated as a special fund and paid out for such purpose only. If the purpose for which a special fund was created has been fulfilled or abandoned, the balance, if any, shall be transferred to the general funds of the Government. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 30 . No law shall be passed increasing the appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court as provided in this Constitution without its advice and concurrence. </li></ul>
  • 85. ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 31. No law granting a title of royalty or nobility shall be enacted. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 32. The Congress shall, as early as possible, provide for a system of initiative and referendum, and the exceptions therefrom, whereby the people can directly propose and enact laws or approve or reject any act or law or part thereof passed by the Congress or local legislative body after the registration of a petition therefor signed by at least ten per centum of the total number of registered voters, of which every legislative district must be represented by at least three per centum of the registered voters thereof. </li></ul>
  • 86. ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT
  • 87. ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 1. The executive power shall be vested in the President of the Philippines. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 2. No person may be elected President unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, a registered voter, able to read and write, at least forty years of age on the day of the election, and a resident of the Philippines for at least ten years immediately preceding such election. </li></ul>
  • 88. ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 3. There shall be a Vice-President who shall have the same qualifications and term of office and be elected with, and in the same manner, as the President. He may be removed from office in the same manner as the President. </li></ul><ul><li>The Vice-President may be appointed as a Member of the Cabinet. Such appointment requires no confirmation. </li></ul>
  • 89. ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 4. The President and the Vice-President shall be elected by direct vote of the people for a term of six years which shall begin at noon on the thirtieth day of June next following the day of the election and shall end at noon of the same date, six years thereafter. The President shall not be eligible for any re-election. No person who has succeeded as President and has served as such for more than four years shall be qualified for election to the same office at any time. </li></ul>
  • 90. ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>No Vice-President shall serve for more than two successive terms. Voluntary renunciation of the office for any length of time shall not be considered as an interruption in the continuity of the service for the full term for which he was elected. </li></ul><ul><li>Unless otherwise provided by law, the regular election for President and Vice-President shall be held on the second Monday of May. </li></ul><ul><li>The returns of every election for President and Vice-President, duly certified by the board of canvassers of each province or city, shall be transmitted to the Congress, directed to the President of the Senate. </li></ul>
  • 91. ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Upon receipt of the certificates of canvass, the President of the Senate shall, not later than thirty days after the day of the election, open all the certificates in the presence of the Senate and the House of Representatives in joint public session, and the Congress, upon determination of the authenticity and due execution thereof in the manner provided by law, canvass the votes. </li></ul>
  • 92. ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>The person having the highest number of votes shall be proclaimed elected, but in case two or more shall have an equal and highest number of votes, one of them shall forthwith be chosen by the vote of a majority of all the Members of both Houses of the Congress, voting separately. </li></ul><ul><li>The Congress shall promulgate its rules for the canvassing of the certificates. </li></ul><ul><li>The Supreme Court, sitting en banc , shall be the sole judge of all contests relating to the election, returns, and qualifications of the President or Vice-President, and may promulgate its rules for the purpose. </li></ul>
  • 93. ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 5. Before they enter on the execution of their office, the President, the Vice-President, or the Acting President shall take the following oath or affirmation: </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;I do solemnly swear [or affirm] that I will faithfully and conscientiously fulfill my duties as President [or Vice-President or Acting President] of the Philippines, preserve and defend its Constitution, execute its laws, do justice to every man, and consecrate myself to the service of the Nation. So help me God.&quot; [In case of affirmation, last sentence will be omitted]. </li></ul>
  • 94. ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 6. The President shall have an official residence. The salaries of the President and Vice-President shall be determined by law and shall not be decreased during their tenure. No increase in said compensation shall take effect until after the expiration of the term of the incumbent during which such increase was approved. They shall not receive during their tenure any other emolument from the Government or any other source. </li></ul>
  • 95. ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 7. The President-elect and the Vice President-elect shall assume office at the beginning of their terms. </li></ul><ul><li>If the President-elect fails to qualify, the Vice President-elect shall act as President until the President-elect shall have qualified. </li></ul><ul><li>If a President shall not have been chosen, the Vice President-elect shall act as President until a President shall have been chosen and qualified. </li></ul><ul><li>If at the beginning of the term of the President, the President-elect shall have died or shall have become permanently disabled, the Vice President-elect shall become President. </li></ul>
  • 96. ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Where no President and Vice-President shall have been chosen or shall have qualified, or where both shall have died or become permanently disabled, the President of the Senate or, in case of his inability, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, shall act as President until a President or a Vice-President shall have been chosen and qualified. </li></ul><ul><li>The Congress shall, by law, provide for the manner in which one who is to act as President shall be selected until a President or a Vice-President shall have qualified, in case of death, permanent disability, or inability of the officials mentioned in the next preceding paragraph. </li></ul>
  • 97. ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 8. In case of death, permanent disability, removal from office, or resignation of the President, the Vice-President shall become the President to serve the unexpired term. In case of death, permanent disability, removal from office, or resignation of both the President and Vice-President, the President of the Senate or, in case of his inability, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, shall then act as President until the President or Vice-President shall have been elected and qualified </li></ul>
  • 98. ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>The Congress shall, by law, provide who shall serve as President in case of death, permanent disability, or resignation of the Acting President. He shall serve until the President or the Vice-President shall have been elected and qualified, and be subject to the same restrictions of powers and disqualifications as the Acting President. </li></ul>
  • 99. ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 9. Whenever there is a vacancy in the Office of the Vice-President during the term for which he was elected, the President shall nominate a Vice-President from among the Members of the Senate and the House of Representatives who shall assume office upon confirmation by a majority vote of all the Members of both Houses of the Congress, voting separately. </li></ul>
  • 100. ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 10. The Congress shall, at ten o'clock in the morning of the third day after the vacancy in the offices of the President and Vice-President occurs, convene in accordance with its rules without need of a call and within seven days, enact a law calling for a special election to elect a President and a Vice-President to be held not earlier than forty-five days nor later than sixty days from the time of such call. The bill calling such special election shall be deemed certified under paragraph 2, Section 26, Article V1 of this Constitution and shall become law upon its approval on third reading by the Congress. Appropriations for the special election shall be charged against any current appropriations and shall be exempt from the requirements of paragraph 4, Section 25, Article V1 of this Constitution. </li></ul>
  • 101. ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>The convening of the Congress cannot be suspended nor the special election postponed. No special election shall be called if the vacancy occurs within eighteen months before the date of the next presidential election. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 11. Whenever the President transmits to the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice-President as Acting President. </li></ul>
  • 102. ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Whenever a majority of all the Members of the Cabinet transmit to the President of the Senate and to the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice-President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President. </li></ul><ul><li>Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President of the Senate and to the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall reassume the powers and duties of his office. </li></ul>
  • 103. ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Meanwhile, should a majority of all the Members of the Cabinet transmit within five days to the President of the Senate and to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Congress shall decide the issue. For that purpose, the Congress shall convene, if it is not in session, within forty-eight hours, in accordance with its rules and without need of call. </li></ul>
  • 104. ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>If the Congress, within ten days after receipt of the last written declaration, or, if not in session, within twelve days after it is required to assemble, determines by a two-thirds vote of both Houses, voting separately, that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice-President shall act as President; otherwise, the President shall continue exercising the powers and duties of his office. </li></ul>
  • 105. ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 12. In case of serious illness of the President, the public shall be informed of the state of his health. The members of the Cabinet in charge of national security and foreign relations and the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, shall not be denied access to the President during such illness. </li></ul>
  • 106. ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 13. The President, Vice-President, the Members of the Cabinet, and their deputies or assistants shall not, unless otherwise provided in this Constitution, hold any other office or employment during their tenure. They shall not, during said tenure, directly or indirectly, practice any other profession, participate in any business, or be financially interested in any contract with, or in any franchise, or special privilege granted by the Government or any subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries. They shall strictly avoid conflict of interest in the conduct of their office. </li></ul>
  • 107. ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>The spouse and relatives by consanguinity or affinity within the fourth civil degree of the President shall not, during his tenure, be appointed as Members of the Constitutional Commissions, or the Office of the Ombudsman, or as Secretaries, Undersecretaries, chairmen or heads of bureaus or offices, including government-owned or controlled corporations and their subsidiaries. </li></ul>
  • 108. ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 14. Appointments extended by an Acting President shall remain effective, unless revoked by the elected President, within ninety days from his assumption or reassumption of office. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 15. Two months immediately before the next presidential elections and up to the end of his term, a President or Acting President shall not make appointments, except temporary appointments to executive positions when continued vacancies therein will prejudice public service or endanger public safety. </li></ul>
  • 109. ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 16. The President shall nominate and, with the consent of the Commission on Appointments, appoint the heads of the executive departments, ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, or officers of the armed forces from the rank of colonel or naval captain, and other officers whose appointments are vested in him in this Constitution. He shall also appoint all other officers of the Government whose appointments are not otherwise provided for by law, and those whom he may be authorized by law to appoint. </li></ul>
  • 110. ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>The Congress may, by law, vest the appointment of other officers lower in rank in the President alone, in the courts, or in the heads of departments, agencies, commissions, or boards. </li></ul><ul><li>The President shall have the power to make appointments during the recess of the Congress, whether voluntary or compulsory, but such appointments shall be effective only until disapproved by the Commission on Appointments or until the next adjournment of the Cong </li></ul>
  • 111. ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 17 . The President shall have control of all the executive departments, bureaus, and offices. He shall ensure that the laws be faithfully executed. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 18. The President shall be the Commander-in-Chief of all armed forces of the Philippines and whenever it becomes necessary, he may call out such armed forces to prevent or suppress lawless violence, invasion or rebellion. In case of invasion or rebellion, when the public safety requires it, he may, for a period not exceeding sixty days, suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus or place the Philippines or any part thereof under martial law. </li></ul>
  • 112. ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Within forty-eight hours from the proclamation of martial law or the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus , the President shall submit a report in person or in writing to the Congress. The Congress, voting jointly, by a vote of at least a majority of all its Members in regular or special session, may revoke such proclamation or suspension, which revocation shall not be set aside by the President. Upon the initiative of the President, the Congress may, in the same manner, extend such proclamation or suspension for a period to be determined by the Congress, if the invasion or rebellion shall persist and public safety requires it. </li></ul>
  • 113. ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>The Congress, if not in session, shall, within twenty-four hours following such proclamation or suspension, convene in accordance with its rules without need of a call. </li></ul><ul><li>The Supreme Court may review, in an appropriate proceeding filed by any citizen, the sufficiency of the factual basis of the proclamation of martial law or the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus or the extension thereof, and must promulgate its decision thereon within thirty days from its filing. </li></ul>
  • 114. ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>A state of martial law does not suspend the operation of the Constitution, nor supplant the functioning of the civil courts or legislative assemblies, nor authorize the conferment of jurisdiction on military courts and agencies over civilians where civil courts are able to function, nor automatically suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus . </li></ul><ul><li>The suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall apply only to persons judicially charged for rebellion or offenses inherent in, or directly connected with, invasion. </li></ul>
  • 115. ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>During the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus , any person thus arrested or detained shall be judicially charged within three days, otherwise he shall be released. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 19. Except in cases of impeachment, or as otherwise provided in this Constitution, the President may grant reprieves, commutations, and pardons, and remit fines and forfeitures, after conviction by final judgment. </li></ul><ul><li>He shall also have the power to grant amnesty with the concurrence of a majority of all the Members of the Congress. </li></ul>
  • 116. ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 20. The President may contract or guarantee foreign loans on behalf of the Republic of the Philippines with the prior concurrence of the Monetary Board, and subject to such limitations as may be provided by law. The Monetary Board shall, within thirty days from the end of every quarter of the calendar year, submit to the Congress a complete report of its decision on applications for loans to be contracted or guaranteed by the Government or government-owned and controlled corporations which would have the effect of increasing the foreign debt, and containing other matters as may be provided by law. </li></ul>
  • 117. ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 21. No treaty or international agreement shall be valid and effective unless concurred in by at least two-thirds of all the Members of the Senate. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 22. The President shall submit to the Congress, within thirty days from the opening of every regular session as the basis of the general appropriations bill, a budget of expenditures and sources of financing, including receipts from existing and proposed revenue measures </li></ul>
  • 118. ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 23. The President shall address the Congress at the opening of its regular session. He may also appear before it at any other time. </li></ul>
  • 119. ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT
  • 120. ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 1. The judicial power shall be vested in one Supreme Court and in such lower courts as may be established by law. </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial power includes the duty of the courts of justice to settle actual controversies involving rights which are legally demandable and enforceable, and to determine whether or not there has been a grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction on the part of any branch or instrumentality of the Government. </li></ul>
  • 121. ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 2. The Congress shall have the power to define, prescribe, and apportion the jurisdiction of the various courts but may not deprive the Supreme Court of its jurisdiction over cases enumerated in Section 5 hereof. </li></ul><ul><li>No law shall be passed reorganizing the Judiciary when it undermines the security of tenure of its Members. </li></ul>
  • 122. ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 3. The Judiciary shall enjoy fiscal autonomy. Appropriations for the Judiciary may not be reduced by the legislature below the amount appropriated for the previous year and, after approval, shall be automatically and regularly released. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 4. (1) The Supreme Court shall be composed of a Chief Justice and fourteen Associate Justices. It may sit en banc or in its discretion, in division of three, five, or seven Members. Any vacancy shall be filled within ninety days from the occurrence thereof. </li></ul>
  • 123. ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(2) All cases involving the constitutionality of a treaty, international or executive agreement, or law, which shall be heard by the Supreme Court en banc , and all other cases which under the Rules of Court are required to be heard en banc , including those involving the constitutionality, application, or operation of presidential decrees, proclamations, orders, instructions, ordinances, and other regulations, shall be decided with the concurrence of a majority of the Members who actually took part in the deliberations on the issues in the case and voted thereon. </li></ul>
  • 124. ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(3) Cases or matters heard by a division shall be decided or resolved with the concurrence of a majority of the Members who actually took part in the deliberations on the issues in the case and voted thereon, and in no case without the concurrence of at least three of such Members. When the required number is not obtained, the case shall be decided en banc : Provided , that no doctrine or principle of law laid down by the court in a decision rendered en banc or in division may be modified or reversed except by the court sitting en banc. </li></ul>
  • 125. ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 5. The Supreme Court shall have the following powers: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Exercise original jurisdiction over cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and over petitions for certiorari , prohibition, mandamus, quo warranto , and habeas corpus. </li></ul><ul><li>  (2) Review, revise, reverse, modify, or affirm on appeal or certiorari , as the law or the Rules of Court may provide, final judgments and orders of lower courts in: </li></ul>
  • 126. ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(a) All cases in which the constitutionality or validity of any treaty, international or executive agreement, law, presidential decree, proclamation, order, instruction, ordinance, or regulation is in question. </li></ul><ul><li>(b) All cases involving the legality of any tax, impost, assessment, or toll, or any penalty imposed in relation thereto. </li></ul><ul><li>(c) All cases in which the jurisdiction of any lower court is in issue. </li></ul><ul><li>(d) All criminal cases in which the penalty imposed is reclusion perpetua or higher. </li></ul><ul><li>(e) All cases in which only an error or question of law is involved. </li></ul>
  • 127. ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(3) Assign temporarily judges of lower courts to other stations as public interest may require. Such temporary assignment shall not exceed six months without the consent of the judge concerned. </li></ul><ul><li>(4) Order a change of venue or place of trial to avoid a miscarriage of justice. </li></ul>
  • 128. ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(5) Promulgate rules concerning the protection and enforcement of constitutional rights, pleading, practice, and procedure in all courts, the admission to the practice of law, the integrated bar, and legal assistance to the under-privileged. Such rules shall provide a simplified and inexpensive procedure for the speedy disposition of cases, shall be uniform for all courts of the same grade, and shall not diminish, increase, or modify substantive rights. Rules of procedure of special courts and quasi-judicial bodies shall remain effective unless disapproved by the Supreme Court. </li></ul>
  • 129. ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(6) Appoint all officials and employees of the Judiciary in accordance with the Civil Service Law. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 6. The Supreme Court shall have administrative supervision over all courts and the personnel thereof. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 7. (1) No person shall be appointed Member of the Supreme Court or any lower collegiate court unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines. A Member of the Supreme Court must be at least forty years of age, and must have been for fifteen years or more, a judge of a lower court or engaged in the practice of law in the Philippines. </li></ul>
  • 130. ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(2) The Congress shall prescribe the qualifications of judges of lower courts, but no person may be appointed judge thereof unless he is a citizen of the Philippines and a member of the Philippine Bar. </li></ul><ul><li>(3) A Member of the Judiciary must be a person of proven competence, integrity, probity, and independence. </li></ul>
  • 131. ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 8. (1) A Judicial and Bar Council is hereby created under the supervision of the Supreme Court composed of the Chief Justice as ex officio Chairman, the Secretary of Justice, and a representative of the Congress as ex officio Members, a representative of the Integrated Bar, a professor of law, a retired Member of the Supreme Court, and a representative of the private sector. </li></ul>
  • 132. ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(2) The regular members of the Council shall be appointed by the President for a term of four years with the consent of the Commission on Appointments. Of the Members first appointed, the representative of the Integrated Bar shall serve for four years, the professor of law for three years, the retired Justice for two years, and the representative of the private sector for one year. </li></ul>
  • 133. ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(3) The Clerk of the Supreme Court shall be the Secretary ex officio of the Council and shall keep a record of its proceedings </li></ul><ul><li>(4) The regular Members of the Council shall receive such emoluments as may be determined by the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court shall provide in its annual budget the appropriations for the Council. </li></ul>
  • 134. ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(5) The Council shall have the principal function of recommending appointees to the Judiciary. It may exercise such other functions and duties as the Supreme Court may assign to it. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 9. The Members of the Supreme Court and judges of the lower courts shall be appointed by the President from a list of at least three nominees prepared by the Judicial and Bar Council for every vacancy. Such appointments need no confirmation. </li></ul>
  • 135. ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>For the lower courts, the President shall issue the appointments within ninety days from the submission of the list. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 10 . The salary of the Chief Justice and of the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court, and of judges of lower courts, shall be fixed by law. During their continuance in office, their salary shall not be decreased. </li></ul>
  • 136. ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 11. The Members of the Supreme Court and judges of lower courts shall hold office during good behavior until they reach the age of seventy years or become incapacitated to discharge the duties of their office. The Supreme Court en banc shall have the power to discipline judges of lower courts, or order their dismissal by a vote of a majority of the Members who actually took part in the deliberations on the issues in the case and voted thereon. </li></ul>
  • 137. ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 12. The Members of the Supreme Court and of other courts established by law shall not be designated to any agency performing quasi-judicial or administrative functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 13. The conclusions of the Supreme Court in any case submitted to it for decision en banc or in division shall be reached in consultation before the case is assigned to a Member for the writing of the opinion of the Court. </li></ul>
  • 138. ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>A certification to this effect signed by the Chief Justice shall be issued and a copy thereof attached to the record of the case and served upon the parties. Any Members who took no part, or dissented, or abstained from a decision or resolution, must state the reason therefor. The same requirements shall be observed by all lower collegiate courts. </li></ul>
  • 139. ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 14. No decision shall be rendered by any court without expressing therein clearly and distinctly the facts and the law on which it is based. </li></ul><ul><li>No petition for review or motion for reconsideration of a decision of the court shall be refused due course or denied without stating the legal basis therefor. </li></ul>
  • 140. ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 15. (1) All cases or matters filed after the effectivity of this Constitution must be decided or resolved within twenty-four months from date of submission for the Supreme Court, and, unless reduced by the Supreme Court, twelve months for all lower collegiate courts, and three months for all other lower courts. </li></ul>
  • 141. ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(2) A case or matter shall be deemed submitted for decision or resolution upon the filing of the last pleading, brief, or memorandum required by the Rules of Court or by the court itself. </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Upon the expiration of the corresponding period, a certification to this effect signed by the Chief Justice or the presiding judge shall forthwith be issued and a copy thereof attached to the record of the case or matter, and served upon the parties. The certification shall state why a decision or resolution has not been rendered or issued within said period. </li></ul>
  • 142. ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>(4) Despite the expiration of the applicable mandatory period, the court, without prejudice to such responsibility as may have been incurred in consequence thereof, shall decide or resolve the case or matter submitted thereto for determination, without further delay. </li></ul>
  • 143. ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Section 16. The Supreme Court shall, within thirty days from the opening of each regular session of the Congress, submit to the President and the Congress an annual report on the operations and activities of the Judiciary. </li></ul>
  • 144. ARTICLE IX A. COMMON PROVISIONS B. THE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS D. THE COMMISSION ON AUDIT
  • 145. ARTICLE IX A. COMMON PROVISIONS
  • 146. ARTICLE IX A. COMMON PROVISIONS <ul><li>Section 1. The Constitutional Commissions, which shall be independent, are the Civil Service Commission, the Commission on Elections, and the Commission on Audit. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 2. No member of a Constitutional Commission shall, during his tenure, hold any other office or employment. </li></ul>
  • 147. ARTICLE IX A. COMMON PROVISIONS <ul><li>Neither shall he engage in the practice of any profession or in the active management or control of any business which, in any way, may be affected by the functions of his office, nor shall he be financially interested, directly or indirectly, in any contract with, or in any franchise or privilege granted by the Government, any of its subdivisions, agencies, or instrumentalities, including government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries. </li></ul>
  • 148. ARTICLE IX A. COMMON PROVISIONS <ul><li>Section. 3. The salary of the Chairman and the Commissioners shall be fixed by law and shall not be decreased during their tenure. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 4. The Constitutional Commissions shall appoint their officials and employees in accordance with law. </li></ul>
  • 149. ARTICLE IX A. COMMON PROVISIONS <ul><li>Section 5. The Commission shall enjoy fiscal autonomy. Their approved annual appropriations shall be automatically and regularly released. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 6. Each Commission en banc may promulgate its own rules concerning pleadings and practice before it or before any of its offices. Such rules, however, shall not diminish, increase, or modify substantive rights. </li></ul>
  • 150. ARTICLE IX A. COMMON PROVISIONS <ul><li>Section 7. Each Commission shall decide by a majority vote of all its Members, any case or matter brought before it within sixty days from the date of its submission for decision or resolution. A case or matter is deemed submitted for decision or resolution upon the filing of the last pleading, brief, or memorandum required by the rules of the Commission or by the Commission itself. </li></ul>
  • 151. ARTICLE IX A. COMMON PROVISIONS <ul><li>Unless otherwise provided by this Constitution or by law, any decision, order, or ruling of each Commission may be brought to the Supreme Court on certiorari by the aggrieved party within thirty days from receipt of a copy thereof. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 8. Each Commission shall perform such other functions as may be provided by law. </li></ul>
  • 152. ARTICLE IX B. THE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION
  • 153. <ul><li>Section 1. (1) The civil service shall be administered by the Civil Service Commission composed of a Chairman and two Commissioners who shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and, at the time of their appointment, at least thirty-five years of age, with proven capacity for public administration, and must not have been candidates for any elective position in the elections immediately preceding their appointment. </li></ul>ARTICLE IX B. THE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION
  • 154. <ul><li>(2) The Chairman and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the President with the consent of the Commission on Appointments for a term of seven years without reappointment. Of those first appointed, the Chairman shall hold office for seven years, a Commissioner for five years, and another Commissioner for three years, without reappointment. Appointment to any vacancy shall be only for the unexpired term of the predecessor. In no case shall any Member be appointed or designated in a temporary or acting capacity. </li></ul>ARTICLE IX B. THE CIVIL SERVICECOMMISSION
  • 155. <ul><li>Section 2. (1) The civil service embraces all branches, subdivisions, instrumentalities, and agencies of the Government, including government-owned or controlled corporations with original charters. </li></ul><ul><li> (2) Appointments in the civil service shall be made only according to merit and fitness to be determined, as far as practicable, and, except to positions which are policy-determining, primarily confidential, or highly technical, by competitive examination. </li></ul>ARTICLE IX B. THE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION
  • 156. ARTICLE IX B. THE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION <ul><li>(3) No officer or employee of the civil service shall be removed or suspended except for cause provided by law. </li></ul><ul><li>(4) No officer or employee in the civil service shall engage, directly or indirectly, in any electioneering or partisan political campaign. </li></ul><ul><li>(5) The right to self-organization shall not be denied to government employees. </li></ul><ul><li>(6) Temporary employees of the Government shall be given such protection as may be provided by law. </li></ul>
  • 157. ARTICLE IX B. THE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION <ul><li>Section 3. The Civil Service Commission, as the central personnel agency of the Government, shall establish a career service and adopt measures to promote morale, efficiency, integrity, responsiveness, progressiveness, and courtesy in the civil service. It shall strengthen the merit and rewards system, integrate all human resources development programs for all levels and ranks, and institutionalize a management climate conducive to public accountability. It shall submit to the President and the Congress an annual report on its personnel programs. </li></ul>
  • 158. ARTICLE IX B. THE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION <ul><li>Section 4. All public officers and employees shall take an oath or affirmation to uphold and defend this Constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 5. The Congress shall provide for the standardization of compensation of government officials and employees, including those in government-owned or controlled corporations with original charters, taking into account the nature of the responsibilities pertaining to, and the qualifications required for, their positions. </li></ul>
  • 159. ARTICLE IX B. THE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION <ul><li>Section 6. No candidate who has lost in any election shall, within one year after such election, be appointed to any office in the Government or any Government-owned or controlled corporations or in any of their subsidiaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 7. No elective official shall be eligible for appointment or designation in any capacity to any public office or position during his tenure. </li></ul>
  • 160. ARTICLE IX B. THE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION <ul><li>Unless otherwise allowed by law or by the primary functions of his position, no appointive official shall hold any other office or employment in the Government or any subdivision, agency or instrumentality thereof, including Government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries. </li></ul>
  • 161. ARTICLE IX B. THE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION <ul><li>Section 8. No elective or appointive public officer or employee shall receive additional, double, or indirect compensation, unless specifically authorized by law, nor accept without the consent of the Congress, any present, emolument, office, or title of any kind from any foreign government. </li></ul><ul><li>Pensions or gratuities shall not be considered as additional, double, or indirect compensation. </li></ul>
  • 162. ARTICLE IX C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS
  • 163. <ul><li>Section 1. (1) There shall be a Commission on Elections composed of a Chairman and six Commissioners who shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and, at the time of their appointment, at least thirty-five years of age, holders of a college degree, and must not have been candidates for any elective positions in the immediately preceding elections. However, a majority thereof, including the Chairman, shall be members of the Philippine Bar who have been engaged in the practice of law for at least ten years. </li></ul>ARTICLE IX C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS
  • 164. ARTICLE IX C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS <ul><li>(2) The Chairman and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the President with the consent of the Commission on Appointments for a term of seven years without reappointment. Of those first appointed, three Members shall hold office for seven years, two Members for five years, and the last Members for three years, without reappointment. Appointment to any vacancy shall be only for the unexpired term of the predecessor. In no case shall any Member be appointed or designated in a temporary or acting capacity. </li></ul>
  • 165. ARTICLE IX C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS <ul><li>Section 2. The Commission on Elections shall exercise the following powers and functions: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Enforce and administer all laws and regulations relative to the conduct of an election, plebiscite, initiative, referendum, and recall. </li></ul>
  • 166. ARTICLE IX C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS <ul><li>(2) Exercise exclusive original jurisdiction over all contests relating to the elections, returns, and qualifications of all elective regional, provincial, and city officials, and appellate jurisdiction over all contests involving elective municipal officials decided by trial courts of general jurisdiction, or involving elective barangay officials decided by trial courts of limited jurisdiction. </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions, final orders, or rulings of the Commission on election contests involving elective municipal and barangay offices shall be final, executory, and not appealable. </li></ul>
  • 167. ARTICLE IX C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS <ul><li>(3) Decide, except those involving the right to vote, all questions affecting elections, including determination of the number and location of polling places, appointment of election officials and inspectors, and registration of voters. </li></ul><ul><li>(4) Deputize, with the concurrence of the President, law enforcement agencies and instrumentalities of the Government, including the Armed Forces of the Philippines, for the exclusive purpose of ensuring free, orderly, honest, peaceful, and credible elections. </li></ul>
  • 168. ARTICLE IX C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS <ul><li>(5) Register, after sufficient publication, political parties, organizations, or coalitions which, in addition to other requirements, must present their platform or program of government; and accredit citizens' arms of the Commission on Elections. Religious denominations and sects shall not be registered. Those which seek to achieve their goals through violence or unlawful means, or refuse to uphold and adhere to this Constitution, or which are supported by any foreign government shall likewise be refused registration. </li></ul>
  • 169. ARTICLE IX C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS <ul><li>Financial contributions from foreign governments and their agencies to political parties, organizations, coalitions, or candidates related to elections, constitute interference in national affairs, and, when accepted, shall be an additional ground for the cancellation of their registration with the Commission, in addition to other penalties that may be prescribed by law. </li></ul><ul><li>(6) File, upon a verified complaint, or on its own initiative, petitions in court for inclusion or exclusion of voters; investigate and, where appropriate, prosecute cases of violations of election laws, including acts or omissions constituting election frauds, offenses, and malpractices. </li></ul>
  • 170. ARTICLE IX C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS <ul><li>(7) Recommend to the Congress effective measures to minimize election spending, including limitation of places where propaganda materials shall be posted, and to prevent and penalize all forms of election frauds, offenses, malpractices, and nuisance candidacies. </li></ul><ul><li>(8) Recommend to the President the removal of any officer or employee it has deputized, or the imposition of any other disciplinary action, for violation or disregard of, or disobedience to, its directive, order, or decision. </li></ul>
  • 171. ARTICLE IX C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS <ul><li>(9) Submit to the President and the Congress, a comprehensive report on the conduct of each election, plebiscite, initiative, referendum, or recall. </li></ul>
  • 172. ARTICLE IX C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS <ul><li>Section 3. The Commission on Elections may sit en banc or in two divisions, and shall promulgate its rules of procedure in order to expedite disposition of election cases, including pre- proclamation controversies. All such election cases shall be heard and decided in division, provided that motions for reconsideration of decisions shall be decided by the Commission en banc. </li></ul>
  • 173. ARTICLE IX C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS <ul><li>Section 4. The Commission may, during the election period, supervise or regulate the enjoyment or utilization of all franchises or permits for the operation of transportation and other public utilities, media of communication or information, all grants, special privileges, or concessions granted by the Government or any subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including any government-owned or controlled corporation or its subsidiary. </li></ul>
  • 174. ARTICLE IX C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS <ul><li>Such supervision or regulation shall aim to ensure equal opportunity, and equal rates therefor, for public information campaigns and forums among candidates in connection with the objective of holding free, orderly, honest, peaceful, and credible elections. </li></ul>
  • 175. ARTICLE IX C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS <ul><li>Section 5. No pardon, amnesty, parole, or suspension of sentence for violation of election laws, rules, and regulations shall be granted by the President without the favorable recommendation of the Commission. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 6. A free and open party system shall be allowed to evolve according to the free choice of the people, subject to the provisions of this Article. </li></ul>
  • 176. ARTICLE IX C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS <ul><li>Section 7. No votes cast in favor of a political party, organization, or coalition shall be valid, except for those registered under the party-list system as provided in this Constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 8. Political parties, or organizations or coalitions registered under the party-list system, shall not be represented in the voters' registration boards, boards of election inspectors, boards of canvassers, or other similar bodies. However, they shall be entitled to appoint poll watchers in accordance with law. </li></ul>
  • 177. ARTICLE IX C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS <ul><li>Section 9. Unless otherwise fixed by the Commission in special cases, the election period shall commence ninety days before the day of election and shall end thirty days thereafter. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 10. Bona fide candidates for any public office shall be free from any form of harassment and discrimination. </li></ul>
  • 178. ARTICLE IX C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS <ul><li>Section 11. Funds certified by the Commission as necessary to defray the expenses for holding regular and special elections, plebiscites, initiatives, referenda, and recalls, shall be provided in the regular or special appropriations and, once approved, shall be released automatically upon certification by the Chairman of the Commission. </li></ul>
  • 179. ARTICLE IX D. THE COMMISSION ON AUDIT
  • 180. ARTICLE IX D. THE COMMISSION ON AUDIT <ul><li>Section 1. (1) There shall be a Commission on Audit composed of a Chairman and two Commissioners, who shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and, at the time of their appointment, at least thirty-five years of age, Certified Public Accountants with not less than ten years of auditing experience, or members of the Philippine Bar who have been engaged in the practice of law for at least ten years, and must not have been candidates for any elective position in the elections immediately preceding their appointment. At no time shall all Members of the Commission belong to the same profession. </li></ul>
  • 181. ARTICLE IX D. THE COMMISSION ON AUDIT15 <ul><li>(2) The Chairman and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the President with the consent of the Commission on Appointments for a term of seven years without reappointment. Of those first appointed, the Chairman shall hold office for seven years, one Commissioner for five years, and the other Commissioner for three years, without reappointment. Appointment to any vacancy shall be only for the unexpired portion of the term of the predecessor. In no case shall any Member be appointed or designated in a temporary or acting capacity. </li></ul>
  • 182. ARTICLE IX D. THE COMMISSION ON AUDIT <ul><li>Section 2. (1) The Commission on Audit shall have the power, authority, and duty to examine, audit, and settle all accounts pertaining to the revenue and receipts of, and expenditures or uses of funds and property, owned or held in trust by, or pertaining to, the Government, or any of its subdivisions, agencies, or instrumentalities, including government-owned or controlled corporations with original charters, and on a post- audit basis: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) constitutional bodies, commissions and offices that have been granted fiscal autonomy under this Constitution; </li></ul>
  • 183. ARTICLE IX D. THE COMMISSION ON AUDIT <ul><li>(b) autonomous state colleges and universities; </li></ul><ul><li>(c) other government- owned or controlled corporations and their subsidiaries; and (d) such non-governmental entities receiving subsidy or equity, directly or indirectly, from or through the Government, which are required by law or the granting institution to submit to such audit as a condition of subsidy or equity. </li></ul>
  • 184. ARTICLE IX D. THE COMMISSION ON AUDIT <ul><li>However, where the internal control system of the audited agencies is inadequate, the Commission may adopt such measures, including temporary or special pre-audit, as are necessary and appropriate to correct the deficiencies. It shall keep the general accounts of the Government and, for such period as may be provided by law, preserve the vouchers and other supporting papers pertaining thereto. </li></ul>
  • 185. ARTICLE IX D. THE COMMISSION ON AUDIT <ul><li>(2) The Commission shall have exclusive authority, subject to the limitations in this Article, to define the scope of its audit and examination, establish the techniques and methods required therefor, and promulgate accounting and auditing rules and regulations, including those for the prevention and disallowance of irregular, unnecessary, excessive, extravagant, or unconscionable expenditures or uses of government funds and properties. </li></ul>
  • 186. ARTICLE IX D. THE COMMISSION ON AUDIT <ul><li>Section 3. No law shall be passed exempting any entity of the Government or its subsidiaries in any guise whatever, or any investment of public funds, from the jurisdiction of the Commission on Audit. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 4. The Commission shall submit to the President and the Congress, within the time fixed by law, an annual report covering the financial condition and operation of the Government, its subdivisions, agencies, and instrumentalities </li></ul>
  • 187. ARTICLE IX D. THE COMMISSION ON AUDIT <ul><li>including government-owned or controlled corporations, and non-governmental entities subject to its audit, and recommend measures necessary to improve their effectiveness and efficiency. It shall submit such other reports as may be required by law. </li></ul>
  • 188. ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT
  • 189. ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT <ul><li>Section 1. The territorial and political subdivisions of the Republic of the Philippines are the provinces, cities, municipalities and barangays. There shall be autonomous regions in Muslim Mindanao and the Cordilleras as hereinafter provided. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 2. The territorial and political subdivisions shall enjoy local autonomy. </li></ul>
  • 190. ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT <ul><li>Section 3. The Congress shall enact a local government code which shall provide for a more responsive and accountable local government structure instituted through a system of decentralization with effective mechanisms of recall, initiative, and referendum, allocate among the different local government units their powers, responsibilities, and resources, and provide for the qualifications, election, appointment and removal, term, salaries, powers and function and duties of local officials, and all other matters relating to the organization and operation of the local units. </li></ul>
  • 191. ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT <ul><li>Section 4. The President of the Philippines shall exercise general supervision over local governments. Provinces with respect to component cities and municipalities, and cities and municipalities with respect to component barangays, shall ensure that the acts of their component units are within the scope of their prescribed powers and functions. </li></ul>
  • 192. ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT <ul><li>Section 5. Each local government unit shall have the power to create its own sources of revenues and to levy taxes, fees and charges subject to such guidelines and limitations as the Congress may provide, consistent with the basic policy of local autonomy. Such taxes, fees, and charges shall accrue exclusively to the local governments. </li></ul>
  • 193. ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT <ul><li>Section 6. Local government units shall have a just share, as determined by law, in the national taxes which shall be automatically released to them. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 7. Local governments shall be entitled to an equitable share in the proceeds of the utilization and development of the national wealth within their respective areas, in the manner provided by law, including sharing the same with the inhabitants by way of direct benefits. </li></ul>
  • 194. ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT <ul><li>Section 8. The term of office of elective local officials, except barangay officials, which shall be determined by law, shall be three years and no such official shall serve for more than three consecutive terms. Voluntary renunciation of the office for any length of time shall not be considered as an interruption in the continuity of his service for the full term for which he was elected. </li></ul>
  • 195. ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT <ul><li>Section 9. Legislative bodies of local governments shall have sectoral representation as may be prescribed by law. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 10. No province, city, municipality, or barangay may be created, divided, merged, abolished, or its boundary substantially altered, except in accordance with the criteria established in the local government code and subject to approval by a majority of the votes cast in a plebiscite in the political units directly affected. </li></ul>
  • 196. ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT <ul><li>Section 11. The Congress may, by law, create special metropolitan political subdivisions, subject to a plebiscite as set forth in Section 10 hereof. The component cities and municipalities shall retain their basic autonomy and shall be entitled to their own local executive and legislative assemblies. The jurisdiction of the metropolitan authority that will thereby be created shall be limited to basic services requiring coordination. </li></ul>
  • 197. ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT <ul><li>Section 12. Cities that are highly urbanized, as determined by law, and component cities whose charters prohibit their voters from voting for provincial elective officials, shall be independent of the province. The voters of component cities within a province, whose charters contain no such prohibition, shall not be deprived of their right to vote for elective provincial officials. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 13. Local government units may group themselves, consolidate or coordinate their efforts, services, and resources for purposes commonly beneficial to them in accordance with law. </li></ul>
  • 198. ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT <ul><li>Section 14. The President shall provide for regional development councils or other similar bodies composed of local government officials, regional heads of departments and other government offices, and representatives from non-governmental organizations within the regions for purposes of administrative decentralization to strengthen the autonomy of the units therein and to accelerate the economic and social growth and development of the units in the region. </li></ul>
  • 199. ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT <ul><li>AUTONOMOUS REGIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Section 15. There shall be created autonomous regions in Muslim Mindanao and in the Cordilleras consisting of provinces, cities, municipalities, and geographical areas sharing common and distinctive historical and cultural heritage, economic and social structures, and other relevant characteristics within the framework of this Constitution and the national sovereignty as well as territorial integrity of the Republic of the Philippines. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 16. The President shall exercise general supervision over autonomous regions to ensure that laws are faithfully executed. </li></ul>
  • 200. ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT <ul><li>Section 17. All powers, functions, and responsibilities not granted by this Constitution or by law to the autonomous regions shall be vested in the National Government. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 18. The Congress shall enact an organic act for each autonomous region with the assistance and participation of the regional consultative commission composed of representatives appointed by the President from a list of nominees from multi-sectoral bodies. </li></ul>
  • 201. ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT <ul><li>The organic act shall define the basic structure of government for the region consisting of the executive department and legislative assembly, both of which shall be elective and representative of the constituent political units. The organic acts shall likewise provide for special courts with personal, family, and property law jurisdiction consistent with the provisions of this Constitution and national laws. </li></ul>
  • 202. ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT <ul><li>The creation of the autonomous region shall be effective when approved by majority of the votes cast by the constituent units in a plebiscite called for the purpose, provided that only provinces, cities, and geographic areas voting favorably in such plebiscite shall be included in the autonomous region. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 19. The first Congress elected under this Constitution shall, within eighteen months from the time of organization of both Houses, pass the organic acts for the autonomous regions in Muslim Mindanao and the Cordilleras. </li></ul>
  • 203. ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT <ul><li>Section 20. Within its territorial jurisdiction and subject to the provisions of this Constitution and national laws, the organic act of autonomous regions shall provide for legislative powers over: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Administrative organization; </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Creation of sources of revenues; </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Ancestral domain and natural resources; </li></ul><ul><li>(4) Personal, family, and property relations; </li></ul>
  • 204. ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT <ul><li>(5) Regional urban and rural planning development; </li></ul><ul><li>(6) Economic, social, and tourism development; </li></ul><ul><li>(7) Educational policies; </li></ul><ul><li>(8) Preservation and development of the cultural heritage; and </li></ul><ul><li>(9) Such other matters as may be authorized by law for the promotion of the general welfare of the people of the region. </li></ul>
  • 205. ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT <ul><li>Section 21. The preservation of peace and order within the regions shall be the responsibility of the local police agencies which shall be organized, maintained, supe