Dr. Rajesh Karyakarte MD Professor and Head,Department of Microbiology,Government Medical College, Akola
 Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions between approximately 1 and 100 nanometers, wher...
The physicist Richard Feynman first developed the conceptnanotechnology (but he did not specifically use this term) in a t...
Professor Norio Taniguchi ofthe Tokyo Science University,introduced the term“nanotechnology”, in a 1974paper. He described...
In the 1980s, Dr. K. Eric Drexler, promoted nanoscalephenomena through books:• Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nano...
Feynman Taniguchi Drexler
 Nanotechnology developed in early 1980s with two major developments; the birth of cluster science and the invention of t...
 Cluster science: purpose of this research was to study the gradual development of collective phenomena which character...
 Scanning tunneling microscope (STM): is an instrument for imaging surfaces at the atomic level. Its development in 19...
 The field of nanotechnology matured with the discovery of fullerenes in 1985 and carbon nanotubes a few years later. ...
 The Atomic Force Microscope was invented in 1986. It allowed for unprecedented control over nanomaterial design and char...
 A nanometer is one-billionth of a meter. A single gold atom is about 1/3 of a nanometer in diameter. A DNA double...
 Tracing Single Molecule with the help of NT  Lene Oddershede and colleagues: the lateral mobility of the λ-recep...
 Pushing and Pulling Nano-objects to study forces acting on individual molecule  Optical tweezer-studies by Michael ...
 Steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations  Stretching the E. coli adhesion protein FimH, which is at the o...
 Studying Molecular Cooperation with the help of NT  Michele Wang and her collaborators studied isolated RNA polymer...
 Use of Nanoscope to study Living Bacteria Nanoscope Shows the fluorescent membrane of ...
 Bacteria are inspiring nanoscale engineers  Archaea stabilize their membranes against thermal agitation by integrat...
 Hiroyuki Noji and colleagues , using single molecule spectroscopy, demonstrated that the central shaft of F1-ATPase ro...
 Nanoscience and nanotechnology are now well established scientific and engineering disciplines. Nanomedicine is emergin...
 European Science Foundation (ESF) has defined nanomedicine as ‘the science and technology of diagnosing, treating and pr...
 US NIH has a similar definition ‘Nanomedicine … refers to highly specific medical intervention at the molecular scale fo...
 The ESF nanomedicine report identified 5 main sub-disciplines in nanomedicine:  Analytical tools  Nanoimaging  Nan...
 This ‘sandwich assay’ uses 2 different particles that bind Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) :  A gold nanoparticle prob...
 The intracellular target in this study was ATP.
 Near-infrared emitting fluorophore-doped calcium phosphate nanoparticles for in vivo imaging .
 SWCNTs: Single-walled carbon nanotubes can kill bacteria, such as E. coli, by severely damaging their cell walls. SWCNTs...
 DermaVir (Genetic Immunity) is the first topically administered nanomedicine therapeutic vaccine for HIV/AIDS It cont...
 Noninvasive technology developed by Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Professor Jin Zhang at the university of Wes...
 The study in hamsters with acute hemorrhage with nanoparticle-based nitric oxide therapy demonstrated preservation of ca...
 Gold nanoshells are utilized to deliver a small amount of heat to breast cancer cells that have been previously treated ...
 The first proof in humans that a targeted nanoparticles can traffic into human tumors and turn off a vital cancer gene v...
Nanotechnology- based products incorporate nanoscale: Liposomes: Caelyx®, Doxil® and Myocet™ Lipid micelles: Estrasorb®...
 SAFENANO is a website that provides information relating to nanotechnology health and safety. It is managed by Institu...
 Tata Swach uses nanotechnology  The Swach filter system, consisting of nanoparticle-sized silver particles bonded o...
Nanotechnology vamm cme_20110612
Nanotechnology vamm cme_20110612
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Nanotechnology vamm cme_20110612

My presentation
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Health & Medicine      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Nanotechnology vamm cme_20110612

  • 1. Dr. Rajesh Karyakarte MD Professor and Head,Department of Microbiology,Government Medical College, Akola
  • 2.  Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions between approximately 1 and 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. Encompassing nanoscale science, engineering, and technology, nanotechnology Atomically precise involves imaging, measuring, positioning of carbon modeling, and manipulating monoxide molecules matter at this length scale. on a copper surface enables data storage The National Nanotechnology Initiative, US. with bits smaller than atoms
  • 3. The physicist Richard Feynman first developed the conceptnanotechnology (but he did not specifically use this term) in a talk“Theres Plenty of Room at the Bottom,” given at an American PhysicalSociety meeting at Caltech on December 29, 1959.
  • 4. Professor Norio Taniguchi ofthe Tokyo Science University,introduced the term“nanotechnology”, in a 1974paper. He describednanotechnology as theprocessing of, separation,consolidation, and deformationof materials by one atom or byone molecule."
  • 5. In the 1980s, Dr. K. Eric Drexler, promoted nanoscalephenomena through books:• Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology• Nanosystems: Molecular Machinery, Manufacturing, and ComputationHe was ultimately responsible for the term nanotechnology toacquire its current sense.
  • 6. Feynman Taniguchi Drexler
  • 7.  Nanotechnology developed in early 1980s with two major developments; the birth of cluster science and the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM).
  • 8.  Cluster science: purpose of this research was to study the gradual development of collective phenomena which characterize a bulk solid. Collective phenomena (color, electrical conductivity, and magnetic properties) break down for very small cluster sizes.
  • 9.  Scanning tunneling microscope (STM): is an instrument for imaging surfaces at the atomic level. Its development in 1981 earned its inventors, Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer (at IBM Zürich), the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986
  • 10.  The field of nanotechnology matured with the discovery of fullerenes in 1985 and carbon nanotubes a few years later. Buckminsterfullerene C60 Carbon Nanotube
  • 11.  The Atomic Force Microscope was invented in 1986. It allowed for unprecedented control over nanomaterial design and characterization
  • 12.  A nanometer is one-billionth of a meter. A single gold atom is about 1/3 of a nanometer in diameter. A DNA double helix has a diameter of about 2 nm. Picornavirus is around 20 nm. Mycoplasma is around 200 nm in. A sheet of paper is about 100,000 nanometers thick. Fascinatingly, the beard of a man grows by a nanometer in the time he takes to bring the razor to his face for a shave
  • 13.  Tracing Single Molecule with the help of NT  Lene Oddershede and colleagues: the lateral mobility of the λ-receptor within the outer membrane of a living Escherichia coli bacterium is restricted. This restriction is because the periplasmic domain of λ- receptor is interacting with the underlying peptidoglycan layer.
  • 14.  Pushing and Pulling Nano-objects to study forces acting on individual molecule  Optical tweezer-studies by Michael Sheetz and colleagues show that type IV pilus is responsible for twitching motility.
  • 15.  Steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations  Stretching the E. coli adhesion protein FimH, which is at the outer tip of type I fimbriae causes a conformational change in structure that increases the affinity of FimH for its target mannose.
  • 16.  Studying Molecular Cooperation with the help of NT  Michele Wang and her collaborators studied isolated RNA polymerase molecules with optical tweezer experiments.  Stephen Halford and others showed that the super- coiling of DNA actually accelerate the rate at which regulatory proteins that interact with specific target DNA sequences.
  • 17.  Use of Nanoscope to study Living Bacteria Nanoscope Shows the fluorescent membrane of Bacillus megaterium.
  • 18.  Bacteria are inspiring nanoscale engineers  Archaea stabilize their membranes against thermal agitation by integrating lipids that span across the two lipid leaflets, acting as molecular “staples.” Useful in drug delivery.  The S-layer proteins allow for selected nutrient transport across Archaea and bacteria membranes. Uwe Sleytr and colleagues have assembled these proteins ex vivo into two-dimensional protein arrays to function as ultra-filtration membranes with defined sieving properties.
  • 19.  Hiroyuki Noji and colleagues , using single molecule spectroscopy, demonstrated that the central shaft of F1-ATPase rotates with respect to the surrounding barrel when ATP is present. Subsequently, these F1-ATPases were assembled on micro-fabricated posts to function as a nanoscale motor.
  • 20.  Nanoscience and nanotechnology are now well established scientific and engineering disciplines. Nanomedicine is emerging as one of the most important sub-disciplines under the nanotechnology umbrella.
  • 21.  European Science Foundation (ESF) has defined nanomedicine as ‘the science and technology of diagnosing, treating and preventing disease and trumatic injuries, of relieving pain, and improving human health, using molecular tools and molecular knowledge of human body
  • 22.  US NIH has a similar definition ‘Nanomedicine … refers to highly specific medical intervention at the molecular scale for curing diseases or repairing damaged tissues, such as bone, muscle, or nerve.
  • 23.  The ESF nanomedicine report identified 5 main sub-disciplines in nanomedicine:  Analytical tools  Nanoimaging  Nanomaterials and nanodevices  Novel therapeutics and drug delivery systems  Clinical, regulatory and toxicological issues
  • 24.  This ‘sandwich assay’ uses 2 different particles that bind Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) :  A gold nanoparticle probe (30 nm diameter)  A magnetic microparticle The test is 300-times more sensitive than traditional tests. The test detects PSA in concentrations below 0.1 ng/ml in blood. i.e., below the detection limit of traditional assays
  • 25.  The intracellular target in this study was ATP.
  • 26.  Near-infrared emitting fluorophore-doped calcium phosphate nanoparticles for in vivo imaging .
  • 27.  SWCNTs: Single-walled carbon nanotubes can kill bacteria, such as E. coli, by severely damaging their cell walls. SWCNTs can be used to create antimicrobial materials and surface coating to improve hygiene. (This will be after toxicity studies).
  • 28.  DermaVir (Genetic Immunity) is the first topically administered nanomedicine therapeutic vaccine for HIV/AIDS It contains a plasmid DNA complexed with a polyethyleneimine that is mannobiosylated to enable the nanomedicine to target antigen-presenting cells DermaVir entered the Phase II/III human trial
  • 29.  Noninvasive technology developed by Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Professor Jin Zhang at the university of Western Ontario. Nanoparticles are embedded into hydrogel lenses. The nanoparticles react with glucose in tears, causing a chemical reaction that changes their color.
  • 30.  The study in hamsters with acute hemorrhage with nanoparticle-based nitric oxide therapy demonstrated preservation of cardiac function and improve survival.
  • 31.  Gold nanoshells are utilized to deliver a small amount of heat to breast cancer cells that have been previously treated with radiation. Gold nanoshells are heated with near-infrared laser.
  • 32.  The first proof in humans that a targeted nanoparticles can traffic into human tumors and turn off a vital cancer gene via RNA interference has been provided by researchers and clinicians at the California Institute of Technology.
  • 33. Nanotechnology- based products incorporate nanoscale: Liposomes: Caelyx®, Doxil® and Myocet™ Lipid micelles: Estrasorb® Virosomes: Epaxal Berna® Pegylated proteins: Neulasta®, Pegesys®, PegIntron®, Macugen® and Somavert® CALAA-01 with proprietary siRNA-polymer delivery system Synthetic amino acid polymer in Copaxone® Protein conjugates: Abraxane® Microemulsions of cyclosporine Nanocrystalline suspensions: Rapamune®, Emend® and Megace ES
  • 34.  SAFENANO is a website that provides information relating to nanotechnology health and safety. It is managed by Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) (Edinburgh, UK). http://www.safenano.org
  • 35.  Tata Swach uses nanotechnology  The Swach filter system, consisting of nanoparticle-sized silver particles bonded on to the fibrous rice husk ash support, is designed to destroy bacteria in drinking water with a high kill rate.

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