Pollination of Crops by Bees R. C. Sihag Department of Zoology & Aquaculture CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar
Structure of a Typical Flower
Selfing vs. Out Crossing
POLLINATION TWO COMPONENTS POLLINATOR PLANT POLLINATOR LEVEL PLANT LEVEL ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Dynamic component (Ac...
POLLINATING AGENTS Abiotic Biotic Gravity Water Air Insects Birds Mammals(Bats) ( Geophily) (Hydrophily) (Anemophi...
EFFECTIVITY OF WATER MOVEMENT & GRAVITY Very Low and Limited
EFFECTIVITY OF ANEMOPHILY P e = m x a s / a f where P e = Pollen effectivity m = total pollen mass a s = stigmatic s...
Effectivity of Zoophily Very high But Depends upon several factors
REPRODUCTIVE BARRIERS IN PLANTS <ul><li>1. Self-incompatibility </li></ul><ul><li>2 Protandry/protogyny </li></ul><ul><l...
SP NO 1. Self-incompatibility CP YES SEED SET
Brassica rapa
Brassica campestris
No seeds 2. PROTARDRY / PROTOGYNY MATURE NOT MATURE /NOT RECEPTIVE NOT MATURE RECEPTIVE No seeds SP SP ♀ ♂ ♂ ♀
Onion
Unisexuality i) FLOWERES ARE UNISEXUAL e.g. CUCURBITS ii) PLANTS ARE UNISEXUAL e.g. PAPAYA
Cucurbit crops
OILSEED CROPS <ul><li>1. Toria SI , CP </li></ul><ul><li>2. Brown Sarson SI, CP </li></ul><ul><li>3. Taramira SI, CP <...
VEGETABLE CROPS 1. Radish SI, CP 2. Turnip SI, CP 3. Cauliflower SI, CP 4. Carrot PT, CP 5. Cucurbits US, CP 6....
HORTICULTURAL CROPS <ul><li>1. APPLE SI, CP </li></ul><ul><li>2. PEACH SI, CP </li></ul><ul><li>3. PEAR SI, CP </...
CONDIMENTS/SPICES ETC. 1. CORIANDER PT,CP 2. CARDAMOM SC, RP 3. CUMIN PT, CP 4. FENNEL PT, CP 5. TEA SI, CP 6....
FIBER CROPS <ul><li>1. COTTON SC, CP </li></ul><ul><li>2. HEMP SC, CP </li></ul>
FORAGE CROPS <ul><li>1. ALFALFA SC, CP </li></ul><ul><li>2. BERSEEM SI, CP </li></ul>
PULSES <ul><li>All are SELF- POLLINATED </li></ul><ul><li>* CROSS - POLLINATION </li></ul><ul><li> INCREASES SEED YIELD...
STATUS SI = > 50 % PT/PG = > 15 % US = 5 % HS = FEW
Bees as Pollinators (Melittophily) 1. Dependence of bees on flowers for their brood food (nectar and pollen) 2. Morph...
BEES, THEIR FEEDING AND NESTING HABITS <ul><li>Social Bees </li></ul><ul><li>Honeybees </li></ul><ul><li>Stingless bees </...
S.No Name of Feeding Nesting bee Habits Habits <ul><li>1. True Honeybees </li></ul><ul><li>i) Apis melli...
S.No Name of Feeding Nesting bee Habits Habits <ul><li>Other Non- Apis bees </li></ul><ul><li>i ) Nomia mel...
Honeybee pollination
Honey bees as Pollinators of crops <ul><li>Honeybees as Indispensable </li></ul><ul><li>pollinators of crops due to </li>...
Foraging Behaviour An important component of pollination Bees’ Complements Plants’ Advantage Advantage Floral rewar...
Foraging is influenced by Blooming period Bloom density Bloom attractiveness Blossom structure Competing bloom presenting ...
Foraging Range General Tendency of the Foragers Forage at the nearest distance on a particular plant species Results in s...
<ul><li>General Foraging Range </li></ul><ul><li>Foraging on one crop when others present </li></ul><ul><li>50% of the ho...
<ul><li>Foragers Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Homogenous : If Plots are large with least land marks </li></ul><ul><li>...
How to induce short foraging range ? Depends upon the Competition among apiaries Distribution pattern of apiaries Establi...
<ul><li>Colony strength and foraging Distance </li></ul><ul><li>No correlation found </li></ul><ul><li>ii. Only number of ...
<ul><li>Isolation Distance </li></ul><ul><li>400 m effective if </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivars are same </li></ul><ul><li>Sow...
<ul><li>CROP COMPETITION </li></ul><ul><li>Medicago sativa vs Parkinsonia aculeata </li></ul><ul><li>Eruca sativa vs B...
How to utilize Honeybees as Pollinators Two ways Placement of the Distribution of the colonies colonies East facin...
<ul><li>Utilization of Honeybees as Pollinators of crops </li></ul><ul><li>Three things </li></ul><ul><li>When to place th...
Pattern of Distribution of colonies Crop area
Pattern of Distribution of colonies Crop area
<ul><li>Kinds of colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Grade A colonies- 10 frames </li></ul><ul><li>Grade B colonies- 8 frames </li...
<ul><li>Characterization of the colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Grade - A field colonies </li></ul><ul><li>( i) Total comb area...
<ul><li>Grade B Colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Field colonies </li></ul><ul><li>i) Total comb area = 2025 sq inches </li></ul...
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Pollination of crops slides

Published on: Mar 4, 2016
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Transcripts - Pollination of crops slides

  • 1. Pollination of Crops by Bees R. C. Sihag Department of Zoology & Aquaculture CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar
  • 2. Structure of a Typical Flower
  • 3. Selfing vs. Out Crossing
  • 4. POLLINATION TWO COMPONENTS POLLINATOR PLANT POLLINATOR LEVEL PLANT LEVEL ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Dynamic component (Actor) Stationary Component (Stage)
  • 5. POLLINATING AGENTS Abiotic Biotic Gravity Water Air Insects Birds Mammals(Bats) ( Geophily) (Hydrophily) (Anemophily) (Entomophily) (Ornithophily) (Chiropterophily)
  • 6. EFFECTIVITY OF WATER MOVEMENT & GRAVITY Very Low and Limited
  • 7. EFFECTIVITY OF ANEMOPHILY P e = m x a s / a f where P e = Pollen effectivity m = total pollen mass a s = stigmatic surface area a f = total filtration area For 1 sq mm of stigmatic surface area = 1 million pollen grains in 1 sq meter area required
  • 8. Effectivity of Zoophily Very high But Depends upon several factors
  • 9. REPRODUCTIVE BARRIERS IN PLANTS <ul><li>1. Self-incompatibility </li></ul><ul><li>2 Protandry/protogyny </li></ul><ul><li>3. Unisexuality </li></ul><ul><li>4. Heterostyly </li></ul>
  • 10. SP NO 1. Self-incompatibility CP YES SEED SET
  • 11. Brassica rapa
  • 12. Brassica campestris
  • 13. No seeds 2. PROTARDRY / PROTOGYNY MATURE NOT MATURE /NOT RECEPTIVE NOT MATURE RECEPTIVE No seeds SP SP ♀ ♂ ♂ ♀
  • 14. Onion
  • 15. Unisexuality i) FLOWERES ARE UNISEXUAL e.g. CUCURBITS ii) PLANTS ARE UNISEXUAL e.g. PAPAYA
  • 16. Cucurbit crops
  • 17. OILSEED CROPS <ul><li>1. Toria SI , CP </li></ul><ul><li>2. Brown Sarson SI, CP </li></ul><ul><li>3. Taramira SI, CP </li></ul><ul><li>4. Sunflower SI, CP </li></ul><ul><li>5. Safflower SC, CP </li></ul><ul><li>6. Castor SC, CP </li></ul>
  • 18. VEGETABLE CROPS 1. Radish SI, CP 2. Turnip SI, CP 3. Cauliflower SI, CP 4. Carrot PT, CP 5. Cucurbits US, CP 6. Tomato SC, CP 7. Brinjal SC, CP 8. Bhindi SC, CP
  • 19. HORTICULTURAL CROPS <ul><li>1. APPLE SI, CP </li></ul><ul><li>2. PEACH SI, CP </li></ul><ul><li>3. PEAR SI, CP </li></ul><ul><li>4. PLUM SI, CP </li></ul><ul><li>5. GAUVA Partial SI, CP </li></ul><ul><li>6. GRAPES Partial SI, PT, CP </li></ul><ul><li>7. CITRUS SI,SC,CP </li></ul><ul><li>8. JUJUBE PT, CP </li></ul>
  • 20. CONDIMENTS/SPICES ETC. 1. CORIANDER PT,CP 2. CARDAMOM SC, RP 3. CUMIN PT, CP 4. FENNEL PT, CP 5. TEA SI, CP 6. COFFE SI, CP
  • 21. FIBER CROPS <ul><li>1. COTTON SC, CP </li></ul><ul><li>2. HEMP SC, CP </li></ul>
  • 22. FORAGE CROPS <ul><li>1. ALFALFA SC, CP </li></ul><ul><li>2. BERSEEM SI, CP </li></ul>
  • 23. PULSES <ul><li>All are SELF- POLLINATED </li></ul><ul><li>* CROSS - POLLINATION </li></ul><ul><li> INCREASES SEED YIELD </li></ul>
  • 24. STATUS SI = > 50 % PT/PG = > 15 % US = 5 % HS = FEW
  • 25. Bees as Pollinators (Melittophily) 1. Dependence of bees on flowers for their brood food (nectar and pollen) 2. Morphological and Anatomical adaptations
  • 26. BEES, THEIR FEEDING AND NESTING HABITS <ul><li>Social Bees </li></ul><ul><li>Honeybees </li></ul><ul><li>Stingless bees </li></ul><ul><li>Bumble bees </li></ul><ul><li>2. Solitary bees </li></ul>
  • 27. S.No Name of Feeding Nesting bee Habits Habits <ul><li>1. True Honeybees </li></ul><ul><li>i) Apis mellifera Polylectic Cavity dweller </li></ul><ul><li>ii) A. cerana Polylectic Cavity dweller </li></ul><ul><li>iii) A. dorsata Polylectic Open </li></ul><ul><li>iv) A. florea Polylectic Semi-dark </li></ul><ul><li>2 . Stingless Honeybees Polylectic Cavity dweller </li></ul><ul><li>3. Bumble bees Polylectic Deserted nests of voles/rats </li></ul>
  • 28. S.No Name of Feeding Nesting bee Habits Habits <ul><li>Other Non- Apis bees </li></ul><ul><li>i ) Nomia melanderi Alfalfa/Oligolectic Alkaline soil </li></ul><ul><li>Megachile rotundata Alfalfa/Oligolectic Leaf cutter </li></ul><ul><li>iii) M. nana Alfalfa/Oligolectic Leaf cutter </li></ul><ul><li>iv) Chalicodoma rubripes Alfalfa/Oligolectic Wet mud </li></ul><ul><li>C. lanata Pigeonpea/ Oligolectic Wet mud </li></ul><ul><li>M. bicolor Pigeonpea/ Oligolectic Leaf cutter </li></ul><ul><li>vii) Eumegachile pugnata Sunflower/ Oligolectic Leaf cutter </li></ul><ul><li>viii) C. mucorea Alfalfa/Oligolectic Leaf cutter </li></ul><ul><li>ix) Osmia lignaria propinqua Apple/ Oligolectic Wood </li></ul><ul><li>x) O. cornuta Almond Oligolectic Wood </li></ul><ul><li>xi) O. cornifrons Almond Oligolectic Wood </li></ul><ul><li>xii) O. coerulescens Red clove/r Oligolectic Wood </li></ul><ul><li>xiii) Xylocopa spp . Many/Polylectic Wood/Hollow pithy stem </li></ul>
  • 29. Honeybee pollination
  • 30. Honey bees as Pollinators of crops <ul><li>Honeybees as Indispensable </li></ul><ul><li>pollinators of crops due to </li></ul><ul><li>Polylectic feeding habit </li></ul><ul><li>2. Floral constancy very high </li></ul><ul><li>3. Mobile colonies </li></ul>
  • 31. Foraging Behaviour An important component of pollination Bees’ Complements Plants’ Advantage Advantage Floral reward Plant reproductive harvest success
  • 32. Foraging is influenced by Blooming period Bloom density Bloom attractiveness Blossom structure Competing bloom presenting floral rewards Weather factors
  • 33. Foraging Range General Tendency of the Foragers Forage at the nearest distance on a particular plant species Results in short foraging range of that species Therefore Colonies are placed Near or within the crop
  • 34. <ul><li>General Foraging Range </li></ul><ul><li>Foraging on one crop when others present </li></ul><ul><li>50% of the honey bees tend to forage within 300 m from the hive if blooms are available </li></ul><ul><li>Foraging on one crop when no other crop present </li></ul><ul><li>General --- 3-5 km </li></ul><ul><li> Foraging distance great --- 7 km </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme distance --- 14 km </li></ul>
  • 35. <ul><li>Foragers Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Homogenous : If Plots are large with least land marks </li></ul><ul><li>Patchy : If plots are small/patchy resources </li></ul>
  • 36. How to induce short foraging range ? Depends upon the Competition among apiaries Distribution pattern of apiaries Establishment of foraging Restricts foraging Territory distance of foragers of competing apiaries Help
  • 37. <ul><li>Colony strength and foraging Distance </li></ul><ul><li>No correlation found </li></ul><ul><li>ii. Only number of foragers increases with increase in colony strength </li></ul>
  • 38. <ul><li>Isolation Distance </li></ul><ul><li>400 m effective if </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivars are same </li></ul><ul><li>Sown at the same time & identical agronomic practices </li></ul><ul><li>Colonies placed simultaneously </li></ul><ul><li>Colonies are of equal strength and number in the apiaries </li></ul><ul><li>If deviations from these, no isolation possible </li></ul><ul><li>Only true for honeybees </li></ul>
  • 39. <ul><li>CROP COMPETITION </li></ul><ul><li>Medicago sativa vs Parkinsonia aculeata </li></ul><ul><li>Eruca sativa vs Brassica campestris </li></ul><ul><li>Eruca sativa vs Brassica chinensis </li></ul><ul><li>Helianthus annuus vs Brassica campestris </li></ul><ul><li>Cajanus cajan vs Brassica campestris </li></ul><ul><li>Raphanus sativus vs Brassica rapa </li></ul><ul><li>Brassica oleracea vs Brassica rapa </li></ul><ul><li>Daucus carota vs Allium cepa </li></ul><ul><li>Brassica sp.. vs Eucalyptus </li></ul>
  • 40. How to utilize Honeybees as Pollinators Two ways Placement of the Distribution of the colonies colonies East facing Variable Early risers Late risers
  • 41. <ul><li>Utilization of Honeybees as Pollinators of crops </li></ul><ul><li>Three things </li></ul><ul><li>When to place the colonies ? </li></ul><ul><li>At 5-10% flowering </li></ul><ul><li>Where to place the colonies? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Near the crop (within 100 m) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to place the colonies? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clumped or scattered </li></ul></ul>
  • 42. Pattern of Distribution of colonies Crop area
  • 43. Pattern of Distribution of colonies Crop area
  • 44. <ul><li>Kinds of colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Grade A colonies- 10 frames </li></ul><ul><li>Grade B colonies- 8 frames </li></ul><ul><li>Unsealed brood- 2 frames </li></ul><ul><li>Sealed brood - 1 frame </li></ul><ul><li>Pollen - 1 frame </li></ul><ul><li> Honey - 1 frame </li></ul>
  • 45. <ul><li>Characterization of the colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Grade - A field colonies </li></ul><ul><li>( i) Total comb area = 2700 sq inches </li></ul><ul><li>Total brood area = 1000 sq inches </li></ul><ul><li>Total adult bees = 28000 </li></ul><ul><li>1 brood comb = 270 sq inches </li></ul><ul><li>Grade - A orchard colonies </li></ul><ul><li>( i) Total comb area = 1620 sq inches </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) Total brood area = 600 sq inches </li></ul><ul><li>(iii) Total adult bees = 22400 </li></ul>
  • 46. <ul><li>Grade B Colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Field colonies </li></ul><ul><li>i) Total comb area = 2025 sq inches </li></ul><ul><li>ii) Total brood area = 750 sq inches </li></ul><ul><li>Total adult bees = 22500 </li></ul><ul><li>Orchards colonies </li></ul><ul><li>i ) Total comb area = 1215 sq inches </li></ul><ul><li>ii) Total broom area = 450 sq inches </li></ul><ul><li>iii) Total adult bees = 16800 </li></ul>

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