Aida G.
Michelle S.
Nicole P.
This presentation was done by Mr.
Haskvitz’s middle school social
studies classes in Walnut,
California. SOME RIGHTS
RESER...
Indians Along the
Oregon Trail
Indians During the Westward Expansion
Objective: Through this unit of study, students are to gain an understanding and
kno...
Outline Of What Is To Be Accomplished
Through this unit of study, students are to learn about the Native Americans
that we...
Webquest 1
Go here-Take notes on the Plains, Southwest, and Californian Indians. To take
notes, click on the map, so for P...
Webquest 2
Wiki Site- Go to the Wikipedia page and click the first link, Daily Life and
Culture before Westward Movement. ...
Webquest 3
Wiki Site- Go to the Wikipedia page and go to the Relationships with Roaming
Colonists link. Take good notes an...
Webquest 4
Go here- Click on the link that says Lasting Impact of the English on the Native
Americans and take notes, do n...
Webquest 5
Click here Take notes on the whole page, all three massacres and the first
section. Make sure know the causes a...
The Shoshone Indians
 Area they lived in: Near valleys, mountains, and rivers in present-day Montana,
Idaho, Utah, Arizon...
The Apache Indians
 Area they lived in: Present day Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona
 Beliefs: Changing Women, Water, and ...
The Dakota Indians
 Area they lived in: Present day South Dakota, Minnesota, and Nebraska.
 Beliefs: The world was once ...
The Cheyenne Indians
 ~Area they lived in: Spread over the Great Plains: from Colorado to South
Dakota.
 ~Beliefs: The W...
The Mandan Indians
 Area they lived in: North Dakota, Missouri River.
 Beliefs: The Old Woman Who Never Dies, creation, ...
The Pawnee Indians
 Area they lived in: Nebraska
 Beliefs: Cosmic forces and the heavenly bodies.
 Food: Game, maize, p...
The Sioux Indians
 Area they lived in: Throughout the northern plains of North America.
 Beliefs:The Great Spirit, the S...
The Cherokee Indians
 Area they lived in: Georgia, Tennessee, and North Carolina.
 Beliefs: Green Corn Ceremony
 Food: ...
Effects of the Indians
 Sacagawea of the Shoshone Indians helped guide
Lewis and Clark during the Westward Expansion.
 M...
Effects on the Indians
 Indians, such as the Mandan and the Pawnee, were
hit by many diseases like smallpox that the whit...
Questions on the Indians
– What is similar about the beliefs of the Plains Indians?
– What is the most common food source ...
Matching
Match each Indian tribe with a letter representing their geography, beliefs, food,
shelter, clothing, transportat...
Answer Sheet for the Matching Test
Number 1 is matched with letter c.
Number 2 is matched with letter a.
Number 3 is match...
Answers For the Questions
1. Both the Sioux and the Pawnee Indians, both of which are Plains Indians,
believed in external...
Answers for the Handout
For the handouts:
There are no specific answers. Answers may vary.
Grading Rubric
For the matching test:
Each question is worth one point.
For the ten questions:
Each question is worth ten ...
Handout 1
Directions:
Complete the table
Colonists’ Views Native Americans’
Views
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
...
Handout 2: Venn Diagram
Directions: Compare and contrast the Forest Indians, Desert Indians, and Plains
Indians
Map of the Indian Tribes
Effect Indians Made on the Travelers
 Travelers saw how Indians hunted buffalo to use as
food and supplies.
 Indians sho...
Effects Travelers had on the Indians
 Travelers spread diseases to the Indians, such as the
decrease of population in the...
Diary Entries of William H. Ashley
Sunday 4th :
having found yesterday some grass we moved our camp to day about one
mile ...
Diary Entry of Patrick Breen
Sunday 28th
:
Froze hard last night; today has fair weather with
sunshine and wind S.E. 1 sol...
Diary Entries of Richard Blinn
April, Wednesday 8, 1868:
Big Timber creek. Left Hays this morning at 7 oclock drove 16
mil...
Diary Entries of Daniel Boone
March 20, 1775:
We proceeded with all possible expedition until we came within fifteen miles...
Diary Entries of Daniel Boone (Continued)
July 4, 1776:
On the fourth day of July following, a party of about two hundred ...
Diary Entries of John Bradbury
March 31, 1810:
After we had formed our camp, the interpreter went into the village, where
...
Diary Entries of An Unknown Traveler
Friday 15th.:
This morning when the company got up their teams, the four horses which...
More Facts on Indians
 Missionaries wanted to convert American Indians to Christianity.
 The trip could be confusing bec...
More Facts on Indians (Con’t)
 Along the journey, pioneers had a constant fear of being attacked by Indians.
However, mos...
Literature Search
1. http://www.isu.edu/~trinich/00.n.dairies.html
2. http://www.endoftheoregontrail.org/maplibrary/northw...
Literature Search (Cont’d)
24. http://www.books-about-
california.com/Pages/Academy_Pacific_Coast_History/Diary_of_Patrick...
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Native Americans Along Oregon Trail

A content rich presentation for students studying this time period. Impressive list of resources and concise summary of the various cultures.
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Native Americans Along Oregon Trail

  • 1. Aida G. Michelle S. Nicole P.
  • 2. This presentation was done by Mr. Haskvitz’s middle school social studies classes in Walnut, California. SOME RIGHTS RESERVED. Contact information at reacheverychild.com.
  • 3. Indians Along the Oregon Trail
  • 4. Indians During the Westward Expansion Objective: Through this unit of study, students are to gain an understanding and knowledge of most of the Indian tribes met during the westward movement by white settlers. Students are to familiarize themselves with the Indians’ traditions, beliefs, cultures, and encounters with the white people. By doing this Webquest, students will learn about how the western trails were impacted by the Indians and how the Indians were impacted by the surge toward the West.
  • 5. Outline Of What Is To Be Accomplished Through this unit of study, students are to learn about the Native Americans that were met by white settlers along their way to Western America. Pupils must familiarize themselves with the Indian tribes’ traditions, cultures, beliefs, and encounters with the white settlers. After completing the activities, students should be able to distinguish the different tribes from one another and know the importance of each tribe. To learn these concepts well, students are to first take a look at, read, take notes, and answer all the questions on the websites listed. Afterwards, pupils should also read and complete the questions on the PowerPoint presentation.
  • 6. Webquest 1 Go here-Take notes on the Plains, Southwest, and Californian Indians. To take notes, click on the map, so for Plains Natives notes, click Plains on the map. Draw out the entire map to know where the Indians were located. Also, draw out the Oregon and Californian Trails. For Californian Trail maps: Californian Trail For Oregon Trail maps: Good site. This website has basic information on the lifestyles and location of the major Native American groups. Students should familiarize themselves with this rudimentary data. Drawing and labeling the map should show where the settlers went through and what types of Indians they encountered. This kind of information gets students a good view of what happened during the Westward Movement. The links to the maps should be self-explanatory; students learn where the Oregon and Californian Trails went.
  • 7. Webquest 2 Wiki Site- Go to the Wikipedia page and click the first link, Daily Life and Culture before Westward Movement. Take notes on the entire page and know all of it. Use the three transfers of information such as taking notes and reading the page, teaching the information or explaining it to something else, and making a test about it. Basically, transfer the knowledge three times to help you remember the information. This website has some good information about Native Americans and how they lived.
  • 8. Webquest 3 Wiki Site- Go to the Wikipedia page and go to the Relationships with Roaming Colonists link. Take good notes and remember the key things like the stereotypes. Use three transfers to help you remember everything, but do not memorize anything. This page has useful information and how the Native Americans started interacting with pioneers. Try to make a test or even use four transfers since this is one of the more important webquests. Make sure you see the site as informative, not a literal masterpiece, so do not waste time with the choppy sentences.
  • 9. Webquest 4 Go here- Click on the link that says Lasting Impact of the English on the Native Americans and take notes, do not spend too much time on this, as this is not as important as the next one. Now, go to the Cause and Effect of the Native Americans on the Oregon Trail link and take precise notes on the key points of the page. Those two sections of the wiki pages site are less detailed but provide an adequate amount of information on Indians. The intended audience for this site is probably for students of grades four through six or people that are interested in Native Americans. It’s easy to understand and concise.
  • 10. Webquest 5 Click here Take notes on the whole page, all three massacres and the first section. Make sure know the causes and effects about this, if not, you can try to look it up on Google. Type in the massacre name look around. This is not mandatory, so you do not have to do it if you do not want to. This site has good information about the Oregon Trail that is quite interesting. There is not a great deal of depth in some articles, but it is still very informative. The intended audience for this is sixth to eight grade students learning about the Oregon Trail.
  • 11. The Shoshone Indians  Area they lived in: Near valleys, mountains, and rivers in present-day Montana, Idaho, Utah, Arizona, Nevada, and the Great Basin.  Beliefs: Belief in dreams, visions, and a Creator. Fostered individual self- reliance, courage, and the wisdom to meet life’s problems in a difficult situation.  Food: Bison (buffalo); also other game and many kinds of berries and plants.  Things they lived in: Tee-pees.  Clothing: Summer: Males- breechcloth. Females- double apron. Winter: garments made out of rabbit skin and other furs.  Transportation: Horses or on foot.  Encounters with the settlers: Sacagawea, a young Shoshone woman, helped guide Lewis and Clark on their expedition; mainly friendly encounters.  Wars with the settlers: None
  • 12. The Apache Indians  Area they lived in: Present day Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona  Beliefs: Changing Women, Water, and Nature  Food: Buffalo, maize, watermelon, beans, and pumpkins  Things they lived in: Tents made out of buffalo hide  Clothing: Buffalo skins and moccasins  Transportation: Horses  Encounters with the settlers: Constant clashes with the settlers forced the federal government to confine the Apache Indians to reservations  Wars with the settlers: Constant raids on Mexico; Cushing Massacre in Pinals (June 5, 1870)
  • 13. The Dakota Indians  Area they lived in: Present day South Dakota, Minnesota, and Nebraska.  Beliefs: The world was once a vast sea; the Great Spirit, and that their ancestors came from the Arctic north.  Food: Bison, berries and plants  Things they lived in: Tee-pees  Clothing: Dress moccasins with porcupine quills, ribbons, and beads; buffalo skins.  Transportation: Horses  Encounters with the settlers: August 17, 1862: A few Dakota warriors attacked a white farmer.  Wars with the settlers: Further attacks on white settlements along the Minnesota River, resulting in the hanging of 38 Dakota men on Dec. 29, 1862.
  • 14. The Cheyenne Indians  ~Area they lived in: Spread over the Great Plains: from Colorado to South Dakota.  ~Beliefs: The Wise One Above and the God Below; Sundance.  ~Food: Buffalo; also food from farming.  ~Things they lived in: Tee-pees  ~Clothing: Women: long deerskin dresses. Men: breechcloths with leather pant legs  ~Transportation: Horses  ~Encounters with the settlers: Small encounters.  ~Wars with the settlers: Victims of the Sand Creek Massacre; the Indian Wars and the Battle of Little Bighorn.
  • 15. The Mandan Indians  Area they lived in: North Dakota, Missouri River.  Beliefs: The Old Woman Who Never Dies, creation, renewal, and survival.  Food: Corn, beans, squash, tobacco.  Things they lived in: Circular, four-post earth lodges surrounding a central plaza.  Clothing: Clothing made from hides of buffalo, deer, and sheep.  Transportation: Dog travois  Encounters with the settlers: Encounters with the white settlers gave them smallpox, which reduced their population immensely.  Wars with the settlers: None
  • 16. The Pawnee Indians  Area they lived in: Nebraska  Beliefs: Cosmic forces and the heavenly bodies.  Food: Game, maize, pumpkins, and beans.  Things they lived in: Dome shaped huts and tee-pees.  Clothing: Loin clothes and clothing made from buffalo hides.  Transportation: Horses  Encounters with the settlers: Friendly encounters, though the smallpox brought upon them reduced their population.  Wars with the settlers: None
  • 17. The Sioux Indians  Area they lived in: Throughout the northern plains of North America.  Beliefs:The Great Spirit, the Sundance, the Medicine Man.  Food: Buffalo  Things they lived in: Tee-pees  Clothing: Clothing made from buffalo hides.  Transportation: Horses  Encounters with the settlers: During the 1800’s, white settlers overran Sioux hunting ground. Resisted the white settlers.  Wars with the settlers: None.
  • 18. The Cherokee Indians  Area they lived in: Georgia, Tennessee, and North Carolina.  Beliefs: Green Corn Ceremony  Food: Fish, corn, squash, beans, potatoes, game.  Things they lived in: Log houses  Clothing: Clothing made out of animal skins.  Transportation: Canoe  Encounters with the settlers: None.  Wars with the settlers: The Trail of Tears.
  • 19. Effects of the Indians  Sacagawea of the Shoshone Indians helped guide Lewis and Clark during the Westward Expansion.  Many wars, such as the Sand Creek Massacre, Indian Wars, and the Battle of Little Bighorn, were fought between the Indians and the whites.  Angry that they kept getting pushed back, many Indian tribes lost support and kindness for the whites. As a result, many Indian tribes, such as the Dakota Indians’ attack on a white farmer, attacked the explorers.
  • 20. Effects on the Indians  Indians, such as the Mandan and the Pawnee, were hit by many diseases like smallpox that the whites brought. Therefore, the populations of such tribes were drastically reduced.  Many Indians, such as the Dakota Indians who were seen as savages and cruel by the whites, who denied help were killed by those that met them.  Many Indian tribes were confined to reservations, like the Apache Indians, who were ordered by the federal government to live on reservations because of constant attacks on the whites.
  • 21. Questions on the Indians – What is similar about the beliefs of the Plains Indians? – What is the most common food source for the Indians? – Name the war encounters of the Dakota people and the white settlers. – What is the difference between the shelters for the Mandan Indians and the Cheyenne Indians? – Name the similarities of the way the Indians dressed. – What did the Pawnee Indians eat? – Summarize the Indians’ encounters with the white settlers. – What did the Shoshone Indians wear? – Which kind of transportation is used the most by the Indians? – Which Indian tribe(s) lived in Nebraska?
  • 22. Matching Match each Indian tribe with a letter representing their geography, beliefs, food, shelter, clothing, transportation, or encounters and wars with white settlers. 1. Shoshone  2. Apache  3. Dakota   4. Cheyenne  5. Mandan  6. Pawnee 7. Sioux    8. Cherokee   a. Lives in present day Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona b. Used dog travois as transportation c. Sacagawea was from this tribe d. A few warriors attacked a white farmer e. Lives in log houses f. Victims of the Sand Creek Massacre g. Believe in cosmic forces and heavenly bodies h. Live throughout the northern plains of North America
  • 23. Answer Sheet for the Matching Test Number 1 is matched with letter c. Number 2 is matched with letter a. Number 3 is matched with letter d. Number 4 is matched with letter f. Number 5 is matched with letter b. Number 6 is matched with letter g. Number 7 is matched with letter h. Number 8 is matched with letter e.
  • 24. Answers For the Questions 1. Both the Sioux and the Pawnee Indians, both of which are Plains Indians, believed in external or a higher power above and the sundance. 2. Buffalo was the most common food source for the Indians. 3. The Dakota Indians once attacked a white farmer. Also, constant violent encounters with the white settlers led to the hanging of 38 Dakota people. 4. The Cheyenne Indians lived in tee-pees while the Mandan Indians lived in circular, four-post earth lodges surrounding a central plaza. 5. All the Indian tribes wore clothes made out of some kind of animal hide. 6. For food, the Pawnee Indians ate maize, pumpkin, beans, and the animals they hunted. 7. Sample Answer: Although one tribe had no encounters with the whites and a few had friendly encounters, most of the meetings between the Indian tribes and the whites led to disastrous results. For example, one tribe’s population was dramatically reduced from acquiring smallpox from the whites. Another tribe would constantly fight with the whites and was finally confined to reservations. 8. For clothing in the season of summer, male Shoshone Indians wore breechcloth while females wore double aprons. During the season of winter, clothes made of rabbit and other animal furs were most common. 9. Most Indian tribes used horses for transportation. 10. The Dakota and the Pawnee Indians lived in Nebraska.
  • 25. Answers for the Handout For the handouts: There are no specific answers. Answers may vary.
  • 26. Grading Rubric For the matching test: Each question is worth one point. For the ten questions: Each question is worth ten points. 7 correct out of 8= 87.5% (B+) 6 correct out of 8= 75% (C) 5 correct out of 8= 62.5% (D-) 4 correct out of 8= 50% (F) 3 correct out of 8= 37.5% (F) 2 correct out of 8= 25% (F) 1 correct out of 8= 12.5% (F) 0 correct out of 8= 0% (F) 10 correct out of 10: 100% (A+) 9 correct out of 10: 90% (A-) 8 correct out of 10: 80% (B-) 7 correct out of 10: 70% (C-) 6 correct out of 10: 60% (D-) 5 correct and less out of 10: F 8 correct out of 8= 100% (A+) For the handouts: Each handout is worth 10 points. Points are given depending on completion and not accuracy. If a student seemed to write enough information on each handout to occupy the handout, full ten points should be given.
  • 27. Handout 1 Directions: Complete the table Colonists’ Views Native Americans’ Views • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
  • 28. Handout 2: Venn Diagram Directions: Compare and contrast the Forest Indians, Desert Indians, and Plains Indians
  • 29. Map of the Indian Tribes
  • 30. Effect Indians Made on the Travelers  Travelers saw how Indians hunted buffalo to use as food and supplies.  Indians showed travelers how to survive out in the plains.  Indians helped the travelers with stuck wagons, drowning in rivers, and rounding up cattle.  Indians traded and gave the travelers horses and food.
  • 31. Effects Travelers had on the Indians  Travelers spread diseases to the Indians, such as the decrease of population in the Mandan and Pawnee Indians because of the spread of smallpox.  Travelers taught Indians new cultures and how to read and write.  Travelers traded with the Indians and gave them rifles, tobacco, and clothes.  Travelers took away the grass, firewood, and buffalo from the Indians.
  • 32. Diary Entries of William H. Ashley Sunday 4th : having found yesterday some grass we moved our camp to day about one mile N where we remained the day for the benefit of our horses - A detached mountain by S W. about 10 miles where I went [interlined: the 5th] for the purpose of taking a view of the adjacent country - while there was discovered & followed by a party of (as I suppose) snake Indians who stole from me 17) Seventeen of my best horses Monday 6th: followed the trail of the Indians about 8 miles West recovered two of the horses which had been so severely traveled as not to be able to proceed farther. The Indians change their course northward. Tuesday 7th: proceeded one mile & encamped; followed the Indian trail over high hills in the direction of a mountain clothed with pine by N 20 or 30 miles - having ascertained from an arrow found an other appearances that the rogues are Snake Indians returned to camp and prepared to follow them tomorrow. Friday 10th : Last night two of my horses were stolen by Indians.
  • 33. Diary Entry of Patrick Breen Sunday 28th : Froze hard last night; today has fair weather with sunshine and wind S.E. 1 solitary Indian passed by yesterday; came from the lake and had a heavy pack on his back. He gave me 5 or 6 roots resembling onions in shape. They taste something like sweet potatoes. All are full of little, tough fibers.
  • 34. Diary Entries of Richard Blinn April, Wednesday 8, 1868: Big Timber creek. Left Hays this morning at 7 oclock drove 16 miles had a big scare today. Saw our first Indians today. They were about four miles off. They did not notice us at all but went about their business what ever it was. We are traveling with a Mexican train. They are camped about a mile back. April, Saturday 11, 1868: Fort Dodge. Started out of the camp this morning at 3 oclock and drove 12 miles and stopped at this place to go to a dance tonight at some of Jack's friends. Found lots of Indians here but they were friendly and do not offer to hurt anyone. October 9, 1868: Indians attacked my train. The savages captured my wife, Clara, and my son, Willie, and took them to Indian territory.
  • 35. Diary Entries of Daniel Boone March 20, 1775: We proceeded with all possible expedition until we came within fifteen miles of where Boonsborough now stands, and where we were fired upon by a party of Indians that killed two, and wounded two of our number; yet, although surprised and taken at a disadvantage, we stood our ground. March 24, 1775: On the fourth day, the Indians killed one of our men. December 24, 1775: On the twenty-fourth day of December following, we had one man killed, and one wounded, by the Indians, who seemed determined to persecute us for erecting this fortification. July 14, 1776: On the fourteenth day of July 1776, two of Col. Callaway's daughters, and one of mine, were taken prisoners near the fort. I immediately pursued the Indians, with only eight men, and on the sixteenth overtook them, killed two of the party, and recovered the girls. The same day on which this attempt was made, the Indians divided themselves into different parties, and attacked several forts, which were shortly before this time erected, doing a great deal of mischief. July 4, 1776: On the fourth day of July following, a party of about two hundred Indians attacked Boonsborough, killed one man, and wounded two. They besieged us forty-eight hours; during which time seven of them were killed, and, at last, finding themselves not likely to prevail, they raised the siege, and departed. The Indians had disposed their warriors in different parties at this time, and attacked the different garrisons to prevent their assisting each other, and did much injury to the distressed inhabitants.
  • 36. Diary Entries of Daniel Boone (Continued) July 4, 1776: On the fourth day of July following, a party of about two hundred Indians attacked Boonsborough, killed one man, and wounded two. They besieged us forty-eight hours; during which time seven of them were killed, and, at last, finding themselves not likely to prevail, they raised the siege, and departed. The Indians had disposed their warriors in different parties at this time, and attacked the different garrisons to prevent their assisting each other, and did much injury to the distressed inhabitants. July 19, 1776: On the nineteenth day of this month, Col. Logan's fort was besieged by a party of about two hundred Indians. During this dreadful siege they did a great deal of mischief, distressed the garrison, in which were only fifteen men, killed two, and wounded one. The enemy's loss was uncertain, from the common practice which the Indians have of carrying off their dead in time of battle. July 25, 1776: On the twenty-fifth of this month, a reinforcement of forty-five men arrived from North Carolina, and about the twentieth of August following, Col. Bowman arrived with one hundred men from Virginia. Now we began to strengthen, and from hence, for the space of six weeks, we had skirmishes with Indians, in one quarter or other, almost every day.
  • 37. Diary Entries of John Bradbury March 31, 1810: After we had formed our camp, the interpreter went into the village, where he had some acquaintance. On his return, he informed us that there was a war party of Indians in the neighborhood, consisting of the Ayauwais, Potowatomies, Sioux, and Saukee nations, amounting to nearly three hundred warriors. May 2, 1810: Our hunters went out, but soon returned without attempting to kill any thing, having heard some shots fired, which they discovered proceeded from Indians in pursuit of elk. May 8, 1810: Towards evening an old chief came down, and harangued the Indians assembled about the boats, for the purpose of inviting the warriors of the late expedition to a feast prepared for them in the village. June 2, 1810: The Nodowessie, or Sioux Indians, intended to oppose our progress up the river, and as no great dependence was placed on our Canadians in case of an attack, the loss of two good riflemen was a matter of regret to us all.
  • 38. Diary Entries of An Unknown Traveler Friday 15th.: This morning when the company got up their teams, the four horses which detained us until about 10 o'clock. Soon after we started it commenced to storm severely, and after traveling about 4 or 5 miles we fell in with a company of Crow Indians, who detained us until about 2 o'clock. We then went on and camped for the night at Willow Springs in a severe snow storm. Snow in the morning on the ground two inches deep and ice frozen in the bucket nearly two inches thick. Saturday 23rd.: Started a little before 8 o'clock. I went ahead and arrived at Fort Laramie at a little before ten o'clock. Myself and Sister Babbitt went to see the commander of the Post in order to get some information in regards to the murder of her husband, A.W. Babbitt, by the Indians. My sister requested him to make a statement in writing of the information that he had received through the French traders from the Indians in regard to the matter which he at first promised to do, but afterwards sent for me and told me that he would do nothing about it. He said that he had no doubt that the Indians killed and plundered Col. Babbitt. I am confident that the reason why he was unwilling to make a written statement of the matter was that he was afraid he would loose favor in the eyes of those who were opposed to the inhabitants of Utah. We purchased a few necessaries and drove about ten miles down the river and camped for the night. Monday 25th.: We started early in the morning and drove about two miles when we met another mountaineer with two wagons drawn by oxen who had been all winter trading with the Cheyenne Indians. He told us that the other mountaineers had lied, for the was no Cheyenne Indians near the road. They had heard that soldiers were being sent against them and they were moving back on to the Arkansas River to prepare for war. We thought his story looked the most like truth, however, we kept up a good night watch and day, with the strong guard about our animals. At night we camped a little above Chimney Rock.
  • 39. More Facts on Indians  Missionaries wanted to convert American Indians to Christianity.  The trip could be confusing because of other trails made by Indians and buffalos. To get there safely, emigrants traveled together.  Animals were common targets for theft from unfriendly Native Americans during the Westward Expansion or trail robbers. Horses were a favorite item. The slower and larger oxen were not deemed useful for the native Americans, thus the least likely to be stolen.  Trigger-happy emigrants shot at Indians for target practice, which worsened relations between the travelers and Native Americans.  Traveling the Mormon Trail, emigrants traded with Native Americans for food and other goods in Indian Town.
  • 40. More Facts on Indians (Con’t)  Along the journey, pioneers had a constant fear of being attacked by Indians. However, most of the frightening stories they had heard were false, and in actuality, they had greater dangers to fear than the Indians. Few pioneers realized that it was a custom among many of the tribes to exchange gifts with strangers, but those pioneers who understood this custom were often rewarded with fresh meat or fish--both greatly needed foods--for which they traded goods that they had stored in their wagons. Of course, some deadly attacks did occur-- albeit, rare as they might have been. The land being crossed and settled by westward pioneers had been the home of Native Americans for thousands of years. The cultural losses they suffered during the western expansion, not to mention the destruction and suffering they endured, caused natural rebellion. Along the journey, pioneers had a constant fear of being attacked by Indians. However, most of the frightening stories they had heard were false, and in actuality, they had greater dangers to fear than the Indians. Few pioneers realized that it was a custom among many of the tribes to exchange gifts with strangers, but those pioneers who understood this custom were often rewarded with fresh meat or fish--both greatly needed foods--for which they traded goods that they had stored in their wagons. Of course, some deadly attacks did occur-- albeit, rare as they might have been. The land being crossed and settled by westward pioneers had been the home of Native Americans for thousands of years. The cultural losses they suffered during the western expansion, not to mention the destruction and suffering they endured, caused natural rebellion.  The Ward Train was attacked by Shoshones, who tortured and murdered nineteen emigrants.
  • 41. Literature Search 1. http://www.isu.edu/~trinich/00.n.dairies.html 2. http://www.endoftheoregontrail.org/maplibrary/northwesttribes.html 3. http://www.isu.edu/~trinmich/Native.html 4. http://www.over-land.com/indians.html 5. http://www.oregongenealogy.com/ahgp/trail.htm 6. http://inkido.indiana.edu/w310work/romac/plains.html 7. http://www.d21.k12.il.us/isu_d21_pds/ss_projects/native_americans/ 8. http://www.nps.gov/fola/indians.htm 9. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/WWsioux.htm 10. http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/northamerica/sioux.html 11. http://www.crystalinks.com/cheyenne.html 12. http://www.geocities.com/bigorrin/cheyenne_kids.htm 13. http://www.onlineutah.com/shoshonehistory.shtml 14. http://www.d91.k12.id.us/www/skyline/student_projects/history/starman/timeline.htm 15. http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/reference/revbib/westo.htm 16. http://indy4.fdl.cc.mn.us/~isk/linkpage.html 17. http://kira.pomona.claremont.edu/plains.html 18. http://indy4.fdl.cc.mn.us/~isk/maps/usmapindex.html 19. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/ntreaty/ntreaty.htm 20. http://besthistorysites.net/USHistory_WestwardExpansion.shtml 21. http://www.ecb.org/surf/west.htm 22. http://history.enotes.com/westward-expansion-about/introduction 23. www.americaslibrary.gov/.../ shoshone_3
  • 42. Literature Search (Cont’d) 24. http://www.books-about- california.com/Pages/Academy_Pacific_Coast_History/Diary_of_Patrick_Breen_txt.html 25. http://www.xmission.com/~drudy/mtman/html/ashjrnl.html 26. http://www.stjohnks.net/santafetrail/mileagecharts/blinndiarychart.html 27. http://www.earlyamerica.com/lives/boone/chapt2/index.html 28. http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~steelquist/JABushnell.html 29. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/WWwagontrain.htm 30. http://www.historylink.org/t-tac/unit_5_Oregon_Trail.htm 31. http://www.xmission.com/~drudy/mtman/html/bradbury.html 32. http://www.endoftheoregontrail.org/road2oregon/sa18death.html 33. http://www.nebraskastudies.org/0400/frameset_reset.html? 34. http://www.nebraskastudies.org/0400/stories/0401_0143.html 35. http://www.nps.gov/whmi/educate/ortrtg/ortrtg1.htm 36. http://www.foodtimeline.org/foodpioneer.html 37. http://www.edhelper.com/ReadingComprehension_35_424.html 38. http://www.endoftheoregontrail.org/road2oregon/sa12mileposts.html 39. http://www.sd129.org/goodwin/journ-4.htm#need%20a%20ferry%20ticket 40. http://curriculum.enoreo.on.ca/socialstudies/pioneer-virtual/frontier.html 41. http://heritage.uen.org/companies/1848.html 42. http://mdmd.essortment.com/pioneerwomenor_rzou.htm 43. http://www.sd129.org/goodwin/journ-1.htm 44. http://www.oregonpioneers.com/constant.htm 45. http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~bbunce77/1849GoldRush2.html