NATIONAL WATER PLANNING IN MEXICO
RICARDO SANDOVAL MINERO
SYNTHESIS
 Water planning has evolved along with the demographic, economic and social
transformations throughout the rece...
GENERAL CONTEXT
 112 336 538 inhabitants (2010)
 (11° biggest country pop.)
 192 247 “localities”
 2 456 municipalitie...
LEGAL FRAMEWORK
Federal Constitution
• National Waters Law
Art. 4°: constitutional right to water
Art. 27: wáter as nation...
WATER RESOURCES CONTEXT
REGIONAL INEQUALITIES
Institutional mapping
Water resources
management in Mexico
OECD, 2013
Institutional mapping
Water supply and
sanitation development
and management
OECD, 2013
Structure and
constituencies of
Mexico’s river basin
councils
OECD, 2013
DEMOGRAPHICS AND PLANNING MILESTONES
0.0
20.0
40.0
60.0
80.0
100.0
120.0
1910 1940 1970 1990 2000 2010
Población(millonesd...
HISTORY OF WATER POLICY IN MEXICO
Governance Legal and planning
framework
Infrastructure Finance Issues Capacities
Before ...
PHASES IN WATER RESOURCES PLANNING IN MEXICO
• “Developmental”.
Irrigation, energy,
water supply
expansion
1926-1947
• “De...
NATIONAL WATER PLANS (2006-2012)
NATIONAL WATER PLANS:THE 2030 CHARTERS
NATIONAL AND SPECIAL WATER PLANS (2012-2018)
NATIONAL, REGIONAL AND STATE PLANNING ALIGNMENT
SHORT, MEDIUM AND LONG TERM ALIGNMENT
PLANNING AND REALLOCATION ISSUES
 Planning as an exercise of ideas / proposals / projects / actions collection and priori...
A REFLECTION ON PLANNING MODELS: ARE WE / SHOULDWE BE / MOVING
FORWARD OR STEPPING BACK?
http://www.geo.fu-berlin.de/en/v/...
FUTURE TRENDS
 1992 NationalWater Law introduced modern water management
concepts
 Water rights, drilling bans, water ma...
WHICH PLANNING CAPACITIES SHOULD WE DEVELOP OR
RESTORE?
Technical?
Mathematical
modeling of physical
and socioeconomic
pro...
A PROPOSAL: BOUNDARY ORGANIZATIONS FOR TECHNICALLY
SOUND MODEL-BASED COLLABORATIVE PLANNING
Modelling Group decision Visua...
CONCLUSIONS
 Planning of public works and development in Mexico
has its modern roots in the social nature of Mexican
revo...
THANKYOU - OBRIGADO
r.sandoval@itesm.mx
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National water planning in mexico v2

Presentation at the Dialogue on Water Governance 2015 (DWG 2015) http://watergovernance2015.iwrn.org/
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Environment      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - National water planning in mexico v2

  • 1. NATIONAL WATER PLANNING IN MEXICO RICARDO SANDOVAL MINERO
  • 2. SYNTHESIS  Water planning has evolved along with the demographic, economic and social transformations throughout the recent history of the country  Growing demands have brought up the need to transcend sectoral and political- territorial boundaries  Nevertheless, the implementation of integrated resource management practices is still under way  A need to balance the positive aspects of rational and transactive planning approaches appears instrumental for dealing with growing challenges
  • 3. GENERAL CONTEXT  112 336 538 inhabitants (2010)  (11° biggest country pop.)  192 247 “localities”  2 456 municipalities  31 states  1 federal district  78% urban population (loc. > 2 500 hab)
  • 4. LEGAL FRAMEWORK Federal Constitution • National Waters Law Art. 4°: constitutional right to water Art. 27: wáter as national property Art. 115: municipalities responsible for water supply, sewage and wastewater treatment Natonal Water Commission (CONAGUA), water resource management and preservation Art. 9 – also “supporting role” for the development of municipal/state water supply and sanitation systems State constitutions • State Water Laws (regulation of water supply and sanitation services) General framework for water supply and sanitation services, including tariff setting and organization Municipal Orgainc Laws Municipal reglamentation Governmental and organizational issues Rights and duties of utilities and users • Internal reglamentations Structure and specific functions of utilities Procedures and relationship with the users
  • 5. WATER RESOURCES CONTEXT
  • 6. REGIONAL INEQUALITIES
  • 7. Institutional mapping Water resources management in Mexico OECD, 2013
  • 8. Institutional mapping Water supply and sanitation development and management OECD, 2013
  • 9. Structure and constituencies of Mexico’s river basin councils OECD, 2013
  • 10. DEMOGRAPHICS AND PLANNING MILESTONES 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0 1910 1940 1970 1990 2000 2010 Población(millonesdehabitantes) RURAL URBANA FederalWatersLaw ReformoftheFederalWatersLaw NationalWatersLaw ReformoftheNationalWatersLaw 1857 Constitución Política 1910 Ley de Aprovechamiento de Aguas de Jurisdicción Federal 1917 Constitución - Artículo 27 1917 Ley Federal sobre Uso y Aprovechamiento de las Aguas Públicas sujetas al Dominio de la Federación 1926 Ley sobre Irrigación con Aguas Federales 1929 Ley de Aguas de Propiedad Nacional 1934 Ley de Aguas de Propiedad Nacional 1938 Ley Sobre el Servicio Público de Aguas Potables en el Distrito Federal 1946 Ley de Conservación de Suelo y Agua 1946 Ley de Aguas de Propiedad Nacional 1948 Ley Reglamentaria del Párrafo Quinto del Art. 27 Constitucional en Materia de Aguas del Subsuelo 1948 Ley Federal de Ingeniería Sanitaria 1956 Ley Reglamentaria del Párrafo Quinto del Art. 27 Constitucional en Materia de Aguas del Subsuelo 1956 Ley de Cooperación para Dotación de Agua Potable a los Municipios 1972 Ley de Aguas de Propiedad Nacional (Ley Federal de Aguas) 1986 Reforma de la Ley Federal de Aguas 1992 Ley de Aguas Nacionales 2004 Reforma de la Ley de Aguas Nacionales EndofMexicanRevolution LawforWatersofNationalProperty “Developmental”: irrigation, energy “Developmental”: housing, pollution control “Managerial”: water rights, participation, finance
  • 11. HISTORY OF WATER POLICY IN MEXICO Governance Legal and planning framework Infrastructure Finance Issues Capacities Before 1926 Constitution (Private) Public 1926-1946 National Irrigation Commission Irrigation National property Irrigation Energy production Public Socioeconomic: agriculture, energy, water supply External consultants 1947-1976 Hydraulic Resources Ministry Watershed Executive Commissions National property Irrigation Housing Public Urbanization Industrialization Irrigation Multiple use infrastructure Trained at work Postgraduate scholarships External consultants 1977-1988 Agriculture and Hydraulic Resources Ministry Institutional dispersion FederalWaters Law National Water Plans (1975, 1985) Humid Tropic Development Aqueducts Bulk water supply Distribution Public Fiscal coordination Municipal tariffs (OPEX) Pollution Environment Service provision IMTA Universities Local consultants 1988-2011 National Water Commission under Environmental Ministry National Water Law (1992, 2004) National Water Programs 2030 Water Chart Slowing down construction pace Administrative demand management mechanisms Public-private partnerships Diminishing public funds Lag in tariffs Rural gap Urban growth Climate change Aging infrastructure Loss of human capital (Adapted from GonzálezVillarreal, 2012)
  • 12. PHASES IN WATER RESOURCES PLANNING IN MEXICO • “Developmental”. Irrigation, energy, water supply expansion 1926-1947 • “Developmental”: urbanization,basin commissions 1948 - 1976 • Sectorized and dispersed 1977-1988 • “Managerial” • Economic mechanisms • Integrated 1989-2011 • “Transverse” – “special” • “Adaptive” 2012-2018 Rural to urban Centralized Public funded Supply-driven Basin-oriented Sectorized Demand driven Decentralized & participatory Integrated
  • 13. NATIONAL WATER PLANS (2006-2012)
  • 14. NATIONAL WATER PLANS:THE 2030 CHARTERS
  • 15. NATIONAL AND SPECIAL WATER PLANS (2012-2018)
  • 16. NATIONAL, REGIONAL AND STATE PLANNING ALIGNMENT
  • 17. SHORT, MEDIUM AND LONG TERM ALIGNMENT
  • 18. PLANNING AND REALLOCATION ISSUES  Planning as an exercise of ideas / proposals / projects / actions collection and prioritization (investment portfolio)  Hydrological & technical criteria still important in drought planning and special projects (aqueducts, flood control, Cutzamala, aquifer restoration plans)  Water imbalance and reallocation, policies to restore water balance  Short-term restrictions: Lerma-Chapala basin according to negotiated nomograms; PRONACOSE (drought programs) following a similar approach  Long-term reallocation: water markets (“bancos de agua”)  Management plans for aquifeers: administrative measures, negotiated reductions with budgetary support for efficient water use, water rights “rescue”  “programs for the integrated management of national waters” as a requisite to obtain water reserves for bigger cities  Environmental flows: water reserves, water funds
  • 19. A REFLECTION ON PLANNING MODELS: ARE WE / SHOULDWE BE / MOVING FORWARD OR STEPPING BACK? http://www.geo.fu-berlin.de/en/v/geolearning/watershed_management/introduction_wm/natural_resource_management_planning/how_to_plan/planning_models/index.html Are we there? …or where we are? Shoud we step back?
  • 20. FUTURE TRENDS  1992 NationalWater Law introduced modern water management concepts  Water rights, drilling bans, water markets  Basin councils, preference order, negotiation instances  Coordination,“concertation”, induction mechanisms  2004 tried to go farther  Watershed-led planning and management  Decentralization and participation  But two failures remained:  Lack of effective ways to induce desired conducts in other governmental spheres and private users  Finance disrupted from planning  Present questions  Should the new “GeneralWater Law” strengthen central technical and administrative capacities?  Should users participation be enhanced (actually implemented)?  Should the federal and state government re-centralize water supply and sanitation?
  • 21. WHICH PLANNING CAPACITIES SHOULD WE DEVELOP OR RESTORE? Technical? Mathematical modeling of physical and socioeconomic processes Technology development Technical training Social? Participatory methods Negotiation skills Governance structures Instrumental? Monitor Communicate Steer and adjust Integrated? Example: boundary organizations, decision theaters
  • 22. A PROPOSAL: BOUNDARY ORGANIZATIONS FOR TECHNICALLY SOUND MODEL-BASED COLLABORATIVE PLANNING Modelling Group decision Visualization Best practices networking in LAC
  • 23. CONCLUSIONS  Planning of public works and development in Mexico has its modern roots in the social nature of Mexican revolution  Rational planning begun with a focus on coordination for the prioritized expenditure of public funds (1930- 1970)  When an urbanized country made it necessary to decentralize, fiscal coordination mechanisms were put in place to allow decentralized operation under central supervision leveraged with budgetary rules (70’s on)  The rise of rational planning occurred during the 70’s: a national effort for surveying and studying natural resources and socioeconomic trends  Water management knew at least three phases which are also reflected in its legal and planning scopes:  A “developmental” supply driven centralized administration to improve socioeconomic conditions after the revolution  A “developmental” supply driven centralized and sectorized administration fragmented between agriculture and urban issues  A “managerial” demand driven decentralized and participatory (integrated) model which hasn’t fully being achieved  Immediate challenges are demanding new innovation capacities, not only technological but mostly institutional
  • 24. THANKYOU - OBRIGADO r.sandoval@itesm.mx

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