Policy Framework Review
Newcomers to Winnipeg
Immigration and Settlement
Richard Dilay, MSW
Kaplan Research Associates
Apr...
1
Table of Contents
1. Executive Summary 2
2. Introduction 3
- Purpose
- Scope of Work
- Methodology
- Definition of Publi...
2
Executive Summary
Richard Dilay, Kaplan Research Associate, conducted this Policy Framework Review
as a component of the...
3
Policy Framework Review
Newcomers to Winnipeg
Immigration and Settlement
1. Introduction
In October 2014, Kaplan Researc...
4
Services), Winnipeg Regional Health Authority, Manitoba Housing, Winnipeg
School Division, Winnipeg Child and Family Ser...
5
Continuum of Policy to Practice
Policy
legislation
(acts, statutes, regulations)
intergovernmental
agreements
government...
6
Policy In Practice
Perhaps the most tangible result of immigration and settlement policy in Manitoba,
in the past decade...
7
2. Document Search Summary
Public accountability is a principle inherent to all levels of government in Canada,
although...
8
On-Line Search (supplemented through other information)
Government of Canada
The Government of Canada web site contains ...
9
Other legislation includes the Citizenship Act, the Multiculturalism Act, and the
Department of Citizenship and Immigrat...
10
Manitoba Education and Advanced Learning has a Multicultural Learning Policy and
funding programs for English as an Add...
11
City of Winnipeg
The City of Winnipeg does not have a constitutional role, as with Canada and
Manitoba, in immigration ...
12
Winnipeg Regional Health Authority (WRHA)
The WRHA has Interpreter Service and Language Access policy to provide guidan...
13
3. Key Informant Interview Summary
a) The number of immigrants/refugees (newcomers) to Manitoba, mainly
immigrating to ...
14
Healthcare is perhaps the one system that most if not all people residing in
Canada access, at some point, whether to a...
15
b) How has the current governmental policy framework, as you understand it,
impacted your work, particularly in address...
16
interested in the offer from the federal government to administer this
funding. At that time, settlement service fundin...
17
The WRHA does have some specific policies to address newcomer needs. It’s
Interpreter and Language Access Policy is imp...
18
It was suggested that cutbacks in the federal civil service have hampered the
ability of CIC to provide adequate servic...
19
4. Focus Groups Summaries
Services Provider Organizations Focus Groups
a) The number of immigrants/refugees (newcomers)...
20
through CIC, LIM is not currently providing additional funding to serve these
clients. In some cases, newcomers may be ...
21
Resources such as affordable housing, childcare, and wellness services (i.e.,
mental health/ counselling) need to be ac...
22
costs for providing childcare, counselling for newcomers, and serving clients
no longer eligible for certain government...
23
resources (possibly expanding the City of Winnipeg 311 service to play this
role).
Access to needed services should not...
24
Disagreements, particularly over the 2013 realignment of settlement service
administration, may be another reason for t...
25
accessible or affordable. The City of Winnipeg, including the Winnipeg Police Service
and Winnipeg Transit, is also a m...
26
6. Conclusions and Recommendations
Three main questions were initially identified to guide this research. In addition, ...
27
SPOs are perhaps the most impacted by immigration and settlement policy,
other than newcomers themselves, although perh...
28
government to work in partnership to resolve these issues. There is also an
expectation by Manitobans that the levels o...
29
settlement service provider program where SPOs can apply and be considered
for funding.
Recommendation 4: That the City...
30
participants as important. Newcomers often have school age children and
larger families, but lower incomes. Refugees, i...
31
7. Acknowledgements
Key Informant Interviews
Government of Canada Robert Vineberg
(Citizenship and Immigration) Retired...
32
Focus Groups
Participating Organizations
Service Provider Organizations:
Manitoba English as an Additional Language Org...
33
Researcher Background Information
Richard Dilay is currently self-employed as a consultant to not-for-profit and public...
34
72%
12%
1% 10%
4% 1%
Immigrant Centre Manitoba Inc.
2014 Financial Highlights
Government of Canada
(Citizenship &
Immig...
35
Policy Framework Illustration
An attempt was made to illustrate the different layers of policy that are involved in
imm...
36
of 37

Policy_Review_Report_April15_final

Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Policy_Review_Report_April15_final

  • 1. Policy Framework Review Newcomers to Winnipeg Immigration and Settlement Richard Dilay, MSW Kaplan Research Associates April 2015
  • 2. 1 Table of Contents 1. Executive Summary 2 2. Introduction 3 - Purpose - Scope of Work - Methodology - Definition of Public Policy - Continuum of Policy to Practice - Policy In Practice 3. Document Search Summary 7 4. Key Informant Summary 13 5. Focus Group Summaries 19 - Service Provider Organizations - Funders 6. Analysis 23 7. Conclusions and Recommendations 26 8. Acknowledgements 31 - Key Informant Interviews - Focus Group Participant Organizations - Researcher Background 9. Appendix 33 - Settlement Services Funding Example (Immigrant Centre Manitoba Inc.) - Policy Framework Illustration
  • 3. 2 Executive Summary Richard Dilay, Kaplan Research Associate, conducted this Policy Framework Review as a component of the Immigration Partnership Winnipeg (IPW) research series. The purpose was to resource the IPW with background on public policy in support of the settlement of newcomers (recent immigrants and refugees) to Winnipeg. A policy framework would be determined for the three levels of government and how they interact, along with other public agencies and settlement service providers/funders. The methodology for the review involved document search, key informant interviews with representatives from governmental departments and public agencies, and focus groups with newcomer settlement service providers and funders. Public policy was defined as a course of action adopted by a level of government and enforced by a public agency. It includes formal documents such as legislation (e.g. Immigration and Refugee Protection Act), but also involves a continuum from policy to practice. Public agencies include arms-length organizations such crown corporations, health and child welfare authorities, and school divisions. The increase in immigration to Manitoba, more than doubling from 2004-2013, was used as an illustration of policy in practice. The document search was conducted primarily through an on-line review of governmental and public agency internet web sites. Under the Canadian Constitution, the Government of Canada has the primary responsibility for developing immigration policy, in collaboration with the provinces including Manitoba. Settlement policy is perhaps broader involving all three levels of government, public agencies, local service providers and funders. The key informant interviews involved representatives of all three levels of government and public agencies such as the Winnipeg Regional Health Authority. Although Canada and Manitoba have been collaborating on immigration and settlement policy specific to Manitoba, they and their respective agencies have also been impacted by the increase in immigration over the past decade. Settlement policy has had to adapt from Manitoba previously administering federal funding for local service providers to Canada resuming that role in 2013. The focus groups identified that service provider organizations, such as the Immigrant Centre Manitoba Inc., have perhaps been the most impacted by changes in immigration and settlement policy. Funders have also experienced more funding requests from newcomer service providers and have responded as best they can. Both policy and service provision gaps were identified. Ten recommendations were developed to address gaps in immigration and settlement policy and service provision specific to Winnipeg.
  • 4. 3 Policy Framework Review Newcomers to Winnipeg Immigration and Settlement 1. Introduction In October 2014, Kaplan Research Associates were contracted to conduct two research components in support of the strategic plan to establish the Immigration Partnership Winnipeg (IPW). Richard Dilay was identified as the lead researcher for the Immigration and Settlement Policy Framework Review and Gerry Kaplan was identified as the lead researcher for the Labour Market Assessment. Purpose The main purpose of this research component is to resource the IPW Council with background on public policy in support of the settlement of newcomers (recent immigrants and refugees) to Winnipeg. A policy framework would be determined for the three levels of government and how they interact, along with other public agencies (arms-length institutions) and settlement service funders. The framework is expected to be somewhat complex and multi-faceted. Scope of Work 1. Identify and describe the policies of the three levels of government towards the support and settlement of newcomers to Winnipeg; 2. Determine the newcomer-specific policy framework of key government departments, public agencies including the health and education sectors, and other funders of settlement services including charitable foundations; 3. Identify current gaps in newcomer-specific policy; and 4. Recommend how policy gaps can be filled and policies leveraged to enhance the settlement and integration of newcomers to Winnipeg. Methodology 1. Review current policy documents for the three levels of government and relevant institutions specific to immigration and settlement services. 2. Conduct a total of ten key informant interviews with representatives each of the Government of Canada (Citizenship and Immigration), Province of Manitoba (Labour and Immigration), the City of Winnipeg (Community
  • 5. 4 Services), Winnipeg Regional Health Authority, Manitoba Housing, Winnipeg School Division, Winnipeg Child and Family Services, Winnipeg Police Service, University of Winnipeg, and Red River College. 3. Conduct two focus groups with Winnipeg-based not-for-profit organizations providing newcomer settlement services and one focus group with funders of settlement service providers. General questions to be addressed through these methods include: a) How is the current policy framework, including any recent policy changes, impacting the delivery of newcomer settlement services in Winnipeg? b) What other services to newcomers (e.g., education) are being impacted by current immigrant and settlement policy? c) What are the current policy gaps and recommendations to fill those gaps and improve services to newcomers? Definition of Public Policy Public policy can be defined as a course of action adopted by a level of government and enforced by a public agency (profwork.org/pp/study/define). It includes legislation (laws) such as Acts, Statutes, and Regulations and may include other documents such as (intergovernmental) agreements. Public agencies, including crown corporations, authorities, and school divisions, may also have policy documents that state how they enforce and/or provide services based on legislation. Policy is also demonstrated in practice. This research paper acknowledges a continuum from policy to practice. In practice, there may be public agencies that are providing services to accommodate the needs of newcomers without any specific documented policy to guide that service. In between, there may be other documents such as strategies and action plans that contribute to the policy framework. Non-governmental agencies may also have services that support newcomer settlement. In many cases, these agencies receive funding from one or more levels of government, as well as other sources. In providing these services, they must adhere to legislative requirements, as well as any requirements from government funding programs. Charitable foundations and other funders also fund the work of these organizations. The policies of these organizations may go beyond what is prescribed by public policy, including possibly lobbying government for changes to its immigration and settlement policies.
  • 6. 5 Continuum of Policy to Practice Policy legislation (acts, statutes, regulations) intergovernmental agreements governmental (or public agency) policies and programs Practice financial or in-kind commitments accomodation actions/services strategies action plans standards guidelines directives
  • 7. 6 Policy In Practice Perhaps the most tangible result of immigration and settlement policy in Manitoba, in the past decade, has been the increase in immigration to Manitoba and particularly Winnipeg. According to the Province of Manitoba – Immigration Facts 2013, immigration to Canada has remained fairly consistent at approximately 250,000 newcomers (permanent residents) per year from 2004 to 2013. During that same time period, however, immigration to Manitoba has more than doubled with most new immigrants settling in Winnipeg (84.5% of Manitoba newcomers in 2013). This circumstance was identified as the result of collaboration between the Province of Manitoba and Government of Canada in implementing immigration policy specific to Manitoba, as will be further illustrated in the document search summary.
  • 8. 7 2. Document Search Summary Public accountability is a principle inherent to all levels of government in Canada, although demonstrated somewhat differently by each level of government. Public agencies are also accountable to the public. Community-based Service Provider Organizations (SPO), often in receipt of public funds, also often make information on their operations public. Most often, this information is now expected to be accessible to the public on-line through official internet web sites. Official government web sites contain some critical policy information. Legislation is most easily accessible on both the Government of Canada and Province of Manitoba web sites, although most often in technical and legalistic language that may be difficult for the average person to understand and also open to interpretation. Intergovernmental agreements, strategies and action plans, and major programs are also fairly easily accessible on these sites, although one may need to know about these documents in advance of searching for them. There may be internal documents, such as Ministerial or Senior Management directives, which are not available to the public on these web sites. Recent policy changes may also take some time to be posted on a web site. Public agencies may also have policy documents available on their web sites. These agencies usually include their mission statement, objectives, and services provided, as well as other information, on their web sites. In some cases, program information may not be available on these web sites, but accessible through physical documents (e.g., brochures) available at the agency office and/or by request. SPOs often have their own web sites, depending on their capacity to develop and maintain these sites (often a challenge for government departments and public agencies to keep up to date). In addition to their own mission statements, objectives and services provided, there may be links to other relevant public and/or community resources. While SPOs are not directly involved in the development of public policy, they are both impacted by it and may be involved in advocating for change to public policy. In this sense, they may be on the cutting-edge of the future direction of Manitoban and Canadian immigration policy. All three levels of government, as well as many public agencies such as the Winnipeg Regional Health Authority, have human resource policies that include employment equity and diversity or cultural proficiency. Employment equity policy, identifying Aboriginal, Visible Minority, and Disabled persons (and sometimes Women) as target groups, is often a factor in recruiting new employees. While not all newcomers are visible minorities and not all visible minorities are newcomers, this policy may have some impact on newcomers seeking employment. Diversity or cultural proficiency policy promotes understanding of the diversity in language, culture, religion and other differences when serving the public.
  • 9. 8 On-Line Search (supplemented through other information) Government of Canada The Government of Canada web site contains information on its immigration and settlement policies, including legislation and other official policy documents. As the level of government most directly responsible for immigration, it maintains legislation specific to immigration. Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) is the key department that is responsible for implementing this legislation. CIC also posts information about its services and programs, in both official languages. First enacted in 1867, the Government of Canada - Constitution Act outlines the roles and responsibilities of the federal government and the provinces. While immigration is identified as a concurrent power shared between the Government of Canada and the provinces, the federal government is given sole responsibility for “naturalization and aliens” or what is now immigration and citizenship. The Constitution Act also divides other powers between the federal and provincial governments. While the federal government maintains responsibility for policy relating to areas such as taxation, criminal law, and national defence, the provincial governments maintain responsibility for policy relating to the delivery of services in areas such as education, housing, and social services. An independent Judiciary (court system) is also identified in order to interpret and ensure the enforcement of laws including the Constitution Act. In 1982, the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms became part of the Constitution Act. It outlines a guarantee of rights and freedoms available to all persons residing in Canada, as well as some that are specific only to Canadian citizens (e.g., right to vote in an election of members of the House of Commons or of a legislative assembly and to be qualified for membership therein). Fundamental freedoms include freedom of conscience and religion, expression, peaceful assembly, and association. Rights include democratic, mobility, legal, equality, official language, and minority language education rights. Occasionally, these rights and freedoms require interpretation by the courts. Enacted in 2001, the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act outlines the federal government’s objectives specific to immigration and refugees. In terms of immigration, it includes the economic and social objectives such as supporting the development of a strong and prosperous Canadian economy, reuniting families and promoting the successful integration of permanent residents into Canada. In terms of refugees, it includes humanitarian objectives including offering protection to the displaced and persecuted, fulfilling Canada’s international legal obligations with respect to refugees, and offering a safe haven, while balancing this with national security objectives.
  • 10. 9 Other legislation includes the Citizenship Act, the Multiculturalism Act, and the Department of Citizenship and Immigration Act. In addition, the federal government maintains other legislation, while not directly related to immigration, that may have an impact on the implementation of immigration policy. The combined powers of this legislation allows the Government of Canada to develop other policy specific to immigration, determine who is allowed to immigrate to Canada or enter Canada as a refugee, and to deliver programs and services based on its policies. The Government of Canada has immigration agreements with several provinces, including Manitoba. The Canada-Manitoba Immigration Agreement was first signed in 1998 and the current version in 2003. The purpose of the agreement is to define the respective roles and responsibilities of the governments of Canada and Manitoba relating to immigrants and temporary residents to Manitoba. It includes commitments from each level of government to foster an effective partnership for integration of immigrants to the province, to cooperatively develop new initiatives that meet regional immigration needs, and to share responsibilities for the settlement and integration of immigrants in Manitoba. From 1999 to 2013, this also included Manitoba administering CIC funding to settlement SPOs. The Express Entry Program is new for 2015. Candidates can be awarded points for having a job offer in Canada, a nomination from a province or territory, and skill and experience factors (including English and/or French language). Candidates with the highest scores will be issued an invitation to apply for permanent residence. As this program is new, it is difficult to determine what will be its impact on Manitoba. In addition to determining immigrants to Canada, CIC also manages Settlement Funding programs. Rather than providing settlement services directly to newcomers, CIC contracts with local SPOs to provide these services. These settlement services range from orientation and English and French language instruction to employment preparation. This funding is made available through a call for proposal process. Funding is also provided to SPOs with specified terms and conditions. CIC identifies that the amount of this funding has tripled over a five-year period and, in 2012/13, amounted to over $36 Million for Manitoba. Province of Manitoba Manitoba identifies Labour and Immigration (LIM) as the key department dealing with immigration and settlement policy. Although Manitoba has limited ability to enact legislation specific to immigration, it does have considerable responsibility for a wide range of services including education, social service and housing that are important for newcomer settlement. LIM is responsible for administering the Manitoba Immigration Council Act and the Worker Recruitment and Protection Act (providing protection to Temporary Foreign Workers amongst others). As with the Government of Canada, Manitoba also has a Multiculturalism Act.
  • 11. 10 Manitoba Education and Advanced Learning has a Multicultural Learning Policy and funding programs for English as an Additional Language (EAL) for school-aged children, and the Intensive Newcomer Support Grants. Multiculturalism and Literacy also supports Adult Learning Centres and provides grants to Ethno-cultural community programs. Manitoba also maintains a system of public agencies or arms-length organizations, including crown corporations such as the Manitoba Housing and Renewal Corporation (MHRC), Health and Child Welfare Authorities, and School Divisions. Each of these organizations has respective legislation that empowers them to deliver services on behalf of Manitoba. They may have Boards of Directors that are publicly elected (i.e., school divisions), appointed through an Order in Council (e.g., MHRC), or determined through some other designated process. While considerable public funding is often involved to these organizations, they may also generate some of their own revenue (e.g., education taxes) and crown corporations such as Manitoba Hydro may generate surplus revenue for the Province of Manitoba. The Province of Manitoba, under the Manitoba Action Plan for Economic Growth – Growing Immigration (2007), identified reaching its initial target of increasing immigration to Manitoba to 10,000 immigrants per year. It also identified the desire to double that number within the following ten years. According to the Manitoba Immigration Facts 2013 report, immigration to Manitoba has so far peaked at almost 16,000 in 2011, but declined to 13,100 in 2013. The Manitoba Provincial Nominee Program is part of the Government of Canada’s Provincial Nominee Program. Manitoba is one of several provinces participating. Under this program, Manitoba is able to select economic immigrants according to criteria developed in Manitoba, under provisions in the Canada-Manitoba Immigration Agreement, and nominate approved applicants for consideration by CIC. In the past decade, most of the new immigrants to Manitoba have been provincial nominees. Currently, CIC has capped the number of provincial nominees from Manitoba at 5,000 per year. Manitoba START is a program funded in part by the Province of Manitoba, since 2010, and delivered by Employment Solutions for Immigrants. It has been the first step in accessing settlement services in Manitoba. Newcomers can be assessed and referred to various settlement resources including employment supports. The Winnipeg English Language Assessment and Referral Centre (WELARC), established in 2007, also play a role in this process.
  • 12. 11 City of Winnipeg The City of Winnipeg does not have a constitutional role, as with Canada and Manitoba, in immigration policy. As with other municipalities, the Province of Manitoba has legislation (i.e., The City of Winnipeg Charter) empowering the City of Winnipeg to conduct elections for city council, collect property and other prescribed taxes, establish by-laws, and deliver certain services such as maintaining municipal infrastructure and community services including recreation facilities. The City of Winnipeg also oversees the operation of the Winnipeg Police Service (WPS) and Winnipeg Transit. Although the City of Winnipeg does not currently have a documented policy specific to immigration and settlement, it is both impacted by immigration to Winnipeg and provides essential services that are important to newcomers. The Community Services department employs community liaison workers who work with community organizations, including SPOs, to ensure that city services meet the needs of all Winnipeg residents including newcomers. The WPS also has a five-member Diversity Relations Section that networks with newcomer organizations amongst others. In practice, the City of Winnipeg has been providing some funding to various community organizations including a total of almost $140,000 to IRCOM, the Immigrant Centre, and the African Canadian Foundation, in 2014. It also provides some in-kind support to organizations such as the William Whyte Residents Association, one of the sites for the Neighbourhood Immigrant Services Workers. As one example of its commitment to affordable housing for newcomers, he City of Winnipeg recently partnered with the other two levels of government and a private developer in funding the construction of Marie Rose Place providing 40 affordable housing units for newcomer women and their families. The Our Winnipeg Planning Framework (2011) document provides direction to “develop community-directed strategies to support quality of life for our growing communities of international newcomers”. The Economic Development Strategy 2013-2017 also identifies the objective to work collaboratively to develop new programming and training focused on attracting, retaining, and integrating new immigrants and their families. It proposes to partner with the Province of Manitoba and other stakeholders in building connections with cultural communities and organizations to promote business support and employment assistance services, to develop strategies to reduce barriers for new immigrants seeking skill development and employment, and to make Winnipeg a centre of excellence in immigrant engagement and community integration.
  • 13. 12 Winnipeg Regional Health Authority (WRHA) The WRHA has Interpreter Service and Language Access policy to provide guidance to healthcare providers and assist patients in discussing and understanding their health care. WRHA employs a bank of approximately 70 trained interpreters as well as access to other language services available either in person or over the telephone. The policy document also provides information on how to access such services. In addition, the WRHA Bridge Clinic targets services specifically to government- sponsored refugees. Manitoba Housing and Renewal Corporation (Manitoba Housing) Although Manitoba Housing does not have documented policy specific to accommodating the needs of newcomers, it manages over 13,000 of units of social housing in Manitoba (most located in Winnipeg), as well as providing programs to assist renters and in the development of affordable housing units. In particular, Manitoba Housing has partnered with the other levels of government in providing a total of $14.7 for the expansion of IRCOM House and, most recently, in the development of Marie Rose Place, as two examples of its commitment, both providing affordable housing units for newcomers. Red River College and the University of Winnipeg Both Red River College (RRC) and the University of Winnipeg (UW) participate in the federal International Student Program. Although international students are classified as temporary residents, the International Student program is identified as an entry point for persons interested in immigrating to Canada/ Manitoba. In 2014, RRC had approximately 800 international students and UW had approximately 500. UW also operates its Global Welcome Centre to support newcomers interested in pursuing further education. The Winnipeg School Division (WSD) and Winnipeg Child and Family Services (WCFS) Both WSD and WCFS have some services specifically targeted to newcomers, although this information was not available on either of their web sites. WSD has a team of multi-lingual Community Liaison Officers/ Cultural Support Workers, as well as offering EAL services to both children and adults. WCFS has a multi-lingual Newcomer Unit, established in 2007, offering child protection and other services to newcomer families residing in Canada for less than five years.
  • 14. 13 3. Key Informant Interview Summary a) The number of immigrants/refugees (newcomers) to Manitoba, mainly immigrating to Winnipeg, has more than doubled in the past decade. This has been largely the result of collaboration between the federal and provincial governments on immigration policy specific to Manitoba. How has this impacted your organization and its ability to provide services to newcomers to Winnipeg? The Province of Manitoba, primarily through Labour and Immigration Manitoba (LIM), has been most instrumental in the increase in immigration to Manitoba in general and Winnipeg in particular, in the past decade. Growing through Immigration is a key component of Manitoba’s Economic Growth Strategy. While Manitoba has identified a goal of attracting up to 20,000 immigrants per year, the largest number of immigrants to Manitoba has so far peaked at approximately 16,000 in 2011 and has declined back to 13,100 permanent residents in 2013. The vast majority of these newcomers have settled in Winnipeg. The Province of Manitoba is both the author of this policy and is also impacted through the many services it provides and/or funds including healthcare. While the Government of Canada has continued to attract approximately 250,000 immigrants per year, it has demonstrated its willingness to increase immigration to provinces such as Manitoba, although not necessarily to the levels that the Province of Manitoba has requested. As with the Province of Manitoba, meeting the needs of the labour market has been a key to its immigration policy. The federal government, through CIC, also funds local SPOs to provide settlement services. Although the City of Winnipeg does not have a direct constitutional role in immigration, as with the other two levels of government, it has been both impacted by the increase in immigration and has responded in various ways. As the population of Winnipeg has increased, there is both a greater demand on its services as well as some increase in revenue. Although we can fairly precisely determine the number of newcomers to Winnipeg, it seems much more difficult for public service providers to determine the number of newcomers using their services. In most cases, newcomers are entitled to many of the same services enjoyed by Canadian citizens, with some exceptions for family-sponsored immigrants and non- governmental sponsored refugees. Public service providers do not necessarily track whether it is a Canadian citizen or newcomer using their services.
  • 15. 14 Healthcare is perhaps the one system that most if not all people residing in Canada access, at some point, whether to attend a doctor appointment or for more intensive treatment to deal with a serious illness or accident. The Winnipeg Regional Health Authority (WRHA) acknowledges that the special needs of newcomers, such as accommodation for language barriers, create some unique service demands. Refugees also may present special health concerns, depending on their country of origin. The education system has been impacted by the fact that many newcomer families include school-age children and large families by Canadian standards. The Winnipeg School Division (WSD) accommodates many newcomer students who require additional English language instruction (for the Divison Scolaire Franco- Manitoban that could include additional French language instruction). And enrolment has been increasing at many WSD schools that include English as an Additional Language (EAL) students. Post-secondary education has been impacted somewhat differently. International student programs have been identified as an entry point to immigrating to Canada, including in Winnipeg. Red River College identifies that it has experienced an approximate 35% increase in its international student enrolment over the past five years. International students are also a source of revenue for post-secondary institutions, as they pay higher tuition. Housing is an essential need for newcomer families, primarily affordable rental housing. Manitoba Housing has indicated that newcomers have placed greater demand on its services, including the need for housing units to accommodate larger families. While Manitoba Housing did not indicate the number of newcomers accessing its housing units, the Winnipeg Housing Rehabilitation Corporation has indicated that almost half of its units are currently occupied by newcomer families. The child welfare system has perhaps been less impacted than other systems, although newcomer families do present challenges through language barriers, family size, and cultural differences. The Winnipeg Child and Family Services (WCFS) has experienced some greater demand in that a majority of newcomer families in Manitoba continue to settle in Winnipeg. The majority of their cases, however, continue to involve Canadian citizens including Aboriginal families. The Winnipeg Police Service (WPS) may be the least impacted. There is no indication that newcomers present any significant increase in service demand, as crime rates in Winnipeg continue to fall, although language and cultural barriers again provide some challenges. WPS indicates, however, that newcomer gangs such as Mad Cows pose a challenge.
  • 16. 15 b) How has the current governmental policy framework, as you understand it, impacted your work, particularly in addressing the needs of newcomers to Winnipeg? What policies have either assisted or hindered your work in accommodating the needs of newcomers? As the Province of Manitoba has been the primary author of the policy to increase immigration to Manitoba, it has endeavoured to meet its goals. The Manitoba Provincial Nominee Program, in particular, has been used to identify specific immigrants that Manitoba wants to attract. While there has been a Canada-Manitoba Immigration Agreement in place since 1998 (current one signed in 2003), the continued partnership with the federal government is critical to Manitoba immigration policy. To a large extent, the Government of Canada has accommodated the desire of Manitoba to increase its immigration. As labour markets have shifted from predominantly central Canada to the western provinces, this has benefited Manitoba to some extent. The Manitoba economy, however, may not justify the immigration levels requested by the Province of Manitoba. The City of Winnipeg has indicated that SPOs may require more support to allow them to better accommodate the needs of newcomers. Direct financial support and/or incomes of newcomer families may also not be sufficient to allow them to access basic services such as public transit. The City of Winnipeg appears to be willing to play a limited role, within its mandate and available resources, in ensuring newcomer needs are being met. Although most public agencies have been impacted by the increase in immigration, to some extent, their funding has not necessarily increased sufficiently to meet this demand. Several interviewees also identified affordable housing as a critical need for newcomers, although it is often difficult to find. It was also expressed that, in some cases, newcomers may be invited to Manitoba to fill jobs that may not be available to them, whether due to qualifications not being recognized in Manitoba or other factors including racism/discrimination. c) Are you aware of any recent changes to governmental and/or arms-length agency policy that has impacted your ability to provide services to newcomers to Winnipeg? If yes, please describe. In 2013, the Government of Canada made a decision to return the administration of settlement service funding to CIC in the two provinces with such arrangement, British Columbia and Manitoba. Its official position has been simply to ensure one standard of service for all Canadian provinces by realigning administration centrally. In 1998, only two provinces had been
  • 17. 16 interested in the offer from the federal government to administer this funding. At that time, settlement service funding was approximately $3.5 Million for Manitoba. Since then, other provinces had indicated more interest in this model, although the federal government appears to be less interested. The Province of Manitoba has been vocal in its criticism of the Government of Canada decision to change the provision of the Canada-Manitoba Immigration Agreement, in 2013, by returning administration of settlement service funding to CIC after 14 years of the previous model. Its position has been that the previous model had worked well and assisted in delivering on its policy to increase immigration to Manitoba. In particular, Manitoba allowed for more flexibility to SPOs to serve clients including recent Canadian citizens, refugee claimants, and Temporary Foreign Workers. The City of Winnipeg and public agencies have not been directly involved in the immigration policy process, but are generally aware of some of the more recent changes. The adult education system has been impacted by CIC funding for EAL now excluding ineligible clients such as recent Canadian citizens (LIM funding had not made these same exclusions). d) Does your organization have any policies that specifically apply to accommodating the needs of newcomers to Winnipeg (including any preferential hiring policies)? If yes, please describe. LIM administers the Worker Recruitment and Protection Act that requires employers to register when recruiting Temporary Foreign Workers. It continues to provide financial and other support to Manitoba START. It works interdepartmentally to accommodate the needs of newcomers, including educating other departments on the needs of newcomers. It also offers assistance to local SPOs in order to build capacity. CIC continues to determine newcomer entry to Canada and, in collaboration with the provinces, where newcomers will settle. It now directly administers settlement service funding with local SPOs in Winnipeg. LIPW could provide a collective body that CIC could negotiate with on broader issues including recommending changes to immigration policy. The City of Winnipeg does not have a formal policy on accommodating the needs of newcomers. It does, however, make some accommodations to address those needs. The City of Winnipeg has made some provision for the needs of newcomers through investments to recreation services in neighbourhoods where newcomers are prevalent, as well as waiving fees for some services, and by providing some funding to SPOs, particularly the Immigrant Centre and IRCOM.
  • 18. 17 The WRHA does have some specific policies to address newcomer needs. It’s Interpreter and Language Access Policy is implemented by employing a bank of approximately 70 trained interpreters and providing health care and other public agencies access to other interpreters speaking a total of over 200 languages. A Cultural Proficiency Policy is in place to ensure that staff members are aware of cultural differences when providing service. The BridgeCare Clinic also targets services to government-sponsored refugees. Although Manitoba Housing does not have a formal policy on accommodating the needs of newcomers, it manages thousands of units of rent-geared-to- income social housing, as well as providing rent subsidies and delivering programs to develop affordable housing. Its programs can be accessed by newcomer families and service organizations that qualify. IRCOM, in particular, has recently accessed Manitoba Housing funding to expand its facility and other newcomer housing projects (i.e., Marie Rose House) have also recently opened. Although most other public agencies also do not have any formal policy on accommodating the needs of newcomers, most do provide some specialized services. The WSD employs a team of eleven multi-lingual Community Support Workers/ Cultural Liaison Officers, two of which are funded through CIC. Both U of W and RRC participate in delivering EAL and International Student Program services. WCFS has a multi-lingual Newcomer Unit and WPS a Diversity Section. e) In your opinion, what are some of the current policy gaps or challenges, as well as strengths and opportunities, in providing services to accommodate the needs of newcomers to Winnipeg? It was generally expressed that Winnipeg has a good mix of public services and newcomer-specific SPOs addressing the needs of newcomers. Public agencies are often able to refer clients to SPOs and vice-versa. These services need to work together build on their strengths and to collectively meet the needs of newcomers, although coordination of these services is an ongoing challenge. It was also generally expressed that access to resources such as housing, childcare and wellness (i.e., mental health services/counselling) is not sufficient to meet the needs of newcomers. Newcomers also often find it difficult to find employment in general and particularly employment that matches their qualifications (which are often not recognized in Canada). Services such as EAL were identified as a critical to newcomers being able to successfully integrate, although eligibility was cited as a concern. The needs of newcomers may also continue well beyond the initial settlement period.
  • 19. 18 It was suggested that cutbacks in the federal civil service have hampered the ability of CIC to provide adequate service. Current CIC staff may be inexperienced, overworked, and often located in Ottawa or Calgary. It was also suggested that the Province of Manitoba is not doing as much as some other provinces to share the cost of providing services to newcomers, including providing funding for services not eligible through CIC funding. Immigration consultants are often charging newcomers thousands of dollars, but not always getting good service and/or information. f) Do you have any recommendations to improve services for newcomers to Winnipeg, including any changes to current policy? While it seemed easier for interviewees to identify strengths or gaps, specific recommendations were somewhat more challenging to identify. The following represents some specific recommendations, as well as general comments as interpreted by the interviewer: The federal and provincial governments must continue to work together to ensure that immigration policy works for Manitoba/ Winnipeg. Determine a sustainable level of immigration for Manitoba/ Winnipeg, based on social and economic factors such as the availability of resources such as affordable housing and jobs, as well as humanitarian interests. The settlement services coordination role, previously played by Labour and Immigration Manitoba, needs to be re-developed in some form. Focus on priorities identified in the National Settlement Outcomes Survey (i.e., Language Services, Social Connections, and Employment Fit) and those newcomers most in need of these services. Cultural proficiency should be promoted in all public services. Explore best practices in immigration policy in other jurisdictions (i.e., other Canadian provinces and cities) that might be applicable to Manitoba/ Winnipeg, including how LIPs are working in those jurisdictions.
  • 20. 19 4. Focus Groups Summaries Services Provider Organizations Focus Groups a) The number of immigrants/refugees (newcomers) to Manitoba, mainly immigrating to Winnipeg, has more than doubled in the past decade. This has been largely the result of collaboration between the federal and provincial governments on immigration policy specific to Manitoba. How has this impacted your organization and its ability to provide services to newcomers to Winnipeg? It was expressed that the level of supports, including funding to SPOs, has not kept pace with the increase in immigration to Winnipeg. Some current Winnipeg SPOs have only been established or have expanded in the past decade to respond to the demands for service and resources, particularly in the area of affordable housing. One SPO identified increasing its service from offering one English as an Additional Language (EAL) class in 2007 to currently offering thirteen EAL classes with an average of 25 students per class. Newcomers have also requested services closer to the neighbourhoods in which they live, scattered across Winnipeg, and SPOs have endeavoured to provide those services (e.g., Neighbourhood Immigrant Service Workers). b) In your experience, are there particular groups and/or classifications of newcomers who require greater or specialized services? Refugees were identified as the class of newcomers most in need of service. Many refugees come with low levels of English and often little formal education. In particular, it was identified that they have difficulty accessing wellness services to deal with issues such as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Many refugees have settled in the inner city of Winnipeg in order to access affordable housing and other services. At the other end of the spectrum are immigrants with professional qualifications that are not necessarily recognized in Manitoba. Often, these two disparate groups have similar difficulties in finding suitable employment. c) Are you aware of any recent changes to governmental and/or arms-length agency policy that have impacted your ability to provide services to newcomers to Winnipeg? If yes, please describe. In general, SPOs are very aware of the change in settlement service funding in 2013, as they now deal directly with CIC. In some cases, it has been difficult to contact CIC officials and/or to get a response to requests. Eligibility rules for accessing settlement services have created difficulties for SPOs. While LIM administered funding had previously allowed them to serve clients not funded
  • 21. 20 through CIC, LIM is not currently providing additional funding to serve these clients. In some cases, newcomers may be delaying application for citizenship to continue to be eligible for services. d) Does your organization have any services/policies that go beyond what might be funded by government? If yes, please describe including how these services are resourced. SPOs identified the need to diversify their funding base in order to deliver many of their services. In some cases, SPOs receive little or no funding from CIC. In particular, services that more involve advocacy may not be eligible for government funding. SPOs that are registered charities may be able to access funding from charitable foundations such as the United Way of Winnipeg. Some SPOs charge fees for services to certain clients (e.g., Canadian citizens). e) In your opinion, what are some of the current policy gaps or challenges, as well as strengths and opportunities, in providing services to accommodate the needs newcomers to Winnipeg? The City of Winnipeg was identified as a potential resource as many newcomers are dependent on public transportation on local recreation such as community centres. Access to affordable housing was identified as the most critical gap. It was expressed that Manitoba Housing, in particular, needs to be more sensitive to the needs of newcomers. Other resources such as childcare were also identified as in short supply. Eligibility for services is a challenge, although some SPOs have been able to get case-by-case approvals to serve certain clients. Racism and discrimination both against and by newcomers (particularly involving the Aboriginal community) is an ongoing issue. f) Do you have any recommendations to improve services for newcomers to Winnipeg, including any changes to current policy? How could you work with other organizations to bring about these changes? In general, focus group participants appear to have been willing to suggest recommendations. There were both some similar and quite different recommendations suggested as compared to key informants. As with key informants, SPO focus group participants made some specific recommendations, as well as general comments interpreted by the facilitator: Need for a national housing strategy, developed in collaboration with decision-makers including public, private, and not-for-profit sectors.
  • 22. 21 Resources such as affordable housing, childcare, and wellness services (i.e., mental health/ counselling) need to be accessible for newcomers. Eligibility for settlement services needs to be sorted out between the federal and provincial governments. City of Winnipeg planning should consider the needs of a growing newcomer population requiring access to services such as accessible public transportation and recreation services. Orientation for newcomers needs to include more of the history of Canada, in particular regarding the Aboriginal community. Need for an effective network of SPOs, including ways to avoid duplication of services and reduce competition for available resources. Funders Focus Group a) The number of new immigrants/refugees (newcomers) to Manitoba, mainly immigrating to Winnipeg, has more than doubled in the past decade. This has been largely the result of collaboration between the federal and provincial governments on immigration policy specific to Manitoba. Has this impacted funding requests to your organization from newcomer-serving organizations and/or from other community based-organizations for projects serving newcomers? If yes, how have you been able to respond to these requests? If no, is your organization able to consider requests from these organizations and/or projects? In general, all of the participants have been experiencing more applications from SPOs and other organizations that are interested in providing services to newcomers. Some provide ongoing funding to some of the SPOs, while others can only consider requests for time-limited projects. Charitable foundations usually require applicants to be registered charities. All funders have their own program criteria, which may not always align with requests. Available funds are always limited and cannot meet all of the requests. b) Are you aware of any recent changes to governmental and/or arms-length agency policy that has impacted the ability of community-based organizations to provide services to newcomers to Winnipeg? If yes, please describe? Participants identified the 2013 changes in the administration of CIC settlement service funding in Manitoba. Some funders are now being asked to fill gaps to services no longer funded or not funded sufficiently, including
  • 23. 22 costs for providing childcare, counselling for newcomers, and serving clients no longer eligible for certain government-sponsored services. Bridge funding is sometimes requested, but it is often uncertain as to whether organizations will be receiving additional governmental or other funding requested. c) Does your organization have any policies that specifically apply to accommodating the needs of newcomers to Winnipeg (including any preferential hiring policies)? If yes, please describe. Some participants identified providing funding to organizations that serve newcomers as one of its priorities, although usually one of several competing priorities (e.g., organizations serving Aboriginal persons). Promoting diversity is often a consideration, including accommodating needs of newcomers. Governmental funding programs may be subject to employment equity polices when hiring new staff. d) In your opinion, what are some of the current policy gaps or challenges, as well as strengths and opportunities, in providing services to accommodate the needs newcomers to Winnipeg? The change in eligibility rules for the receipt of certain settlement services has contributed to more requests to funders, although not all of these requests can be granted. Some resources such as mental health services may currently be insufficient to meet the needs of newcomers. Fees for various services such as recreation programs can present barriers for newcomer families, although these fees can sometimes be waived or subsidies provided. Racism, discrimination, and segregation amongst different ethnic groups are issues that require ongoing attention. Long-term or core operational funding was identified as preferable to allow SPOs to be more sustainable. e) Do you have any recommendations to improve services for newcomers to Winnipeg, including any changes to current policy? The following represents some specific recommendations, as well as general comments interpreted by the facilitator: There needs to be more opportunities for partnerships and capacity-building between newcomer-serving organizations, including established organizations mentoring newer organizations and shared services such as assistance in writing proposals. Orientation for newcomers needs to be improved, including the creation of a central telephone service linking newcomers to available community
  • 24. 23 resources (possibly expanding the City of Winnipeg 311 service to play this role). Access to needed services should not depend on the particular newcomer classification and the appropriate levels of government, perhaps with other funders, should work towards sorting out who funds these services. Increased governmental funding (possibly involving all three levels) for the expansion of localized services such as the Neighbourhood Immigrant Services Worker program. 5. Analysis of Canada-Manitoba Immigration and Settlement Policy and the Impact on Winnipeg Immigration Policy The federal government provides the context for immigration and settlement policy in Canada, whether in Toronto, Edmonton, or Winnipeg. While immigration to Canada has hovered around 250,000 newcomers per year, over the past decade, the Government of Canada has demonstrated its willingness to shift some of the traditional destinations for immigrants from provinces such as Ontario and cities such as Toronto to provinces such as Manitoba and cities such as Winnipeg. Economic factors are often cited as the reason for this shift, as the economies of the western provinces have tended to outperform central Canada in the past decade. Manitoba’s relatively low unemployment rate and demand for skilled workers, as well as general affordability, have perhaps made it a more attractive destination for newcomers to Canada. Although immigration to Canada has remained fairly consistent in the past decade, immigration to Manitoba has doubled overall for the same period, although declining somewhat in the past two years, with most new comers settling in Winnipeg. Between 2004 and 2013, the population of Manitoba has increased by over 90,000 people (City of Winnipeg – Population, March 2014). The Province of Manitoba has promoted growing immigration as part of its Economic Action Plan and demonstrated through its use of the Provincial Nominee Program to accomplish this goal. While immigration to Canada has remained fairly consistent, there was a spike in 2010 and subsequent decline. The slower growth of Manitoba’s economy in the past few years, as well as issues of housing affordability/ availability and provincial debt, have perhaps placed some dampers on the federal government’s willingness to continue to accommodate Manitoba’s interest in increasing immigration levels.
  • 25. 24 Disagreements, particularly over the 2013 realignment of settlement service administration, may be another reason for the recent decline and the current cap on provincial nominees. The City of Winnipeg, while not directly involved in immigration policy, has been the Manitoba municipality most impacted by the increase in immigration. Immigration to Winnipeg, in particular, has been on par with larger urban centres such as Edmonton. Winnipeg has again been growing in population to a considerable extent through immigration. Between 2004 and 2013, the population of Winnipeg has grown by over 50,000 people (City of Winnipeg – Population, March 2014). Winnipeg may also be benefiting from this increased population through an increased property tax base. Other than Citizenship and Immigration Canada and Labour and Immigration Manitoba, public agencies in Winnipeg have also not been directly involved in immigration policy. Not-for-profit organizations providing settlement services may be even less involved in this process, although perhaps the most impacted. Some public agencies, particularly in health care and education, have continued to see their budgets increase as well as some newcomer settlement services. The Immigration Partnership Winnipeg may provide a vehicle for these organizations to play a larger role in how immigration policy is implemented in Winnipeg. Settlement Policy In 2013, CIC resumed the administration of its Settlement Funding programs in Manitoba, after 14 years of administration by the Province of Manitoba. Funding for settlement services has been increasing, over the past decade, and funding levels seem to be continuing to be provided at similar rates to Service Provider Organizations (SPO) in Winnipeg. There has been some criticism that cuts to the public service, as well as CIC staff being mainly located in Ottawa and Calgary, have impacted service to Winnipeg. CIC also appears to be interpreting its service eligibility more narrowly than had LIM. Since 2013, LIM has lost its role in administering federal settlement services funding. While it has continued to support Manitoba START, it does not currently have a program to provide settlement funding to other SPOs. LIM may need to redefine its role in coordination of settlement services with other departments. While Manitoba maintains its policy to increase immigration, it does not appear to currently have a well-articulated policy on its role in the settlement of newcomers to Manitoba. While the City of Winnipeg does not have a specific documented newcomer policy, it has demonstrated some interest in supporting newcomer settlement. Both the Our Winnipeg Planning Framework and Economic Development Strategy 2013-2017 recommend developing strategies to address the needs of newcomers. Winnipeg has resources and services that are important to newcomers, but not always easily
  • 26. 25 accessible or affordable. The City of Winnipeg, including the Winnipeg Police Service and Winnipeg Transit, is also a major employer that can use its employment equity and diversity policies to ensure that newcomers have access to those employment opportunities. Public agencies, such as the Winnipeg Regional Health Authority, have developed some polices and/or services to better accommodate the needs of newcomers. These agencies often have the resources to respond to newcomer needs and address linguistic and cultural barriers to effective service. Not all public agencies, however, have been able to respond as well as others. SPOs are at the forefront of implementing newcomer settlement policy in Winnipeg and largely dependent on CIC settlement funding. While CIC funding has been increasing, the demand for SPO services has perhaps increased at a greater rate. SPOs, particularly those that are also registered charities, have been diversifying their funding base to allow them to better provide services in demand. Sustainability, however, remains a challenge for most SPOs. The LIPW may provide a vehicle for these organizations to play a larger role in the development of settlement policy and how it is implemented in Winnipeg. Current State of Affairs in Winnipeg The Social Planning Council of Winnipeg, in partnership with MIRSSA, is currently exploring the development of the IPW. Networking opportunities, coordination of services, and ability to influence immigration and settlement policies were identified by both key informants and focus group participants as issues that could be addressed by the IPW. The IPW ideally needs to have the attention of the three levels of government to increase its influence and effectiveness. It also needs to be broad- based and represent the interests of newcomers to Winnipeg. Some Lessons from Other Jurisdictions Municipalities in Ontario, including those similar in size to Winnipeg, have had LIPs in place for several years. Ontario also has an Immigration Strategy that not only includes promoting immigration but also settlement services. As part of that strategy, the Province of Ontario has a funding program for SPOs to augment funding from CIC and other sources. The City of Edmonton also has a Newcomer Strategy and funding programs for its SPOs. In developing LIPW, the experience in those jurisdictions, as well as others, should be explored to help shape the development of LIPW
  • 27. 26 6. Conclusions and Recommendations Three main questions were initially identified to guide this research. In addition, the increase in immigration to Manitoba in the past decade was used to illustrate one of the most tangible results of the collaboration between the Province of Manitoba and Government of Canada on immigration and settlement policy. The document search, key informant interviews, and focus groups formed the methodology for this research. The following are the conclusions reached and the recommendations by the researcher: a) How is the current policy framework, including any recent policy changes, impacting the delivery of newcomer settlement services in Winnipeg? The Government of Canada is the main jurisdiction responsible for developing and implementing immigration and settlement policy. It has an obligation, under the Constitution Act and reinforced through the Canada-Manitoba Immigration Agreement, to collaborate with the Province of Manitoba in both developing and implementing immigration and settlement policy specific to Manitoba. Since 2013, Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) now directly administers Settlement Funding to Manitoba and, in 2013, provided over $36 Million to Service Provider Organizations (SPO) in Manitoba. As most newcomers to Manitoba have been settling in Winnipeg, this settlement funding has also mostly been directed to Winnipeg SPOs. Manitoba also has a role, again under the Constitution Act and reinforced by the Canada-Manitoba Immigration Agreement, to work with the Government of Canada in these same areas. Although it no longer directly administers CIC Settlement Funding, it continues to support Manitoba START in particular. Other provincial government departments also continue to provide funding to newcomer SPOs for housing, employment, and other specific projects. Manitoba is both impacted through demands to provide settlement supports to newcomers and through newcomer contribution to our social and economic wellbeing. The City of Winnipeg has been impacted by current immigration and settlement policy, although not having a direct role in either developing or implementing this policy. As with the other two levels of government, the City Of Winnipeg has both increased demands for service and increasing revenues. Although not having policy specific to immigration and settlement, it has demonstrated some willingness to accommodate the needs of newcomers. IPW can be an opportunity for the City of Winnipeg to play a more significant role in newcomer immigration and settlement policy.
  • 28. 27 SPOs are perhaps the most impacted by immigration and settlement policy, other than newcomers themselves, although perhaps have been the least engaged in the development of those policies. They also have limited resources, often provided by one of more levels of government and other funding sources. Despite these circumstances, SPOS are often on the cutting- edge of newcomer settlement service provision. IPW could offer them greater collective influence in this process. b) What other services to newcomers (e.g., education) are being impacted by current immigrant and settlement policy? The Government of Canada provides equalization and other transfer payments to Manitoba. These payments are often based on population. As the population of Winnipeg and Manitoba grows, the amount of these transfers can grow. As Manitoba’s economy grows, however, transfer payments are affected. As other provinces such as Ontario now receive equalization payments, Manitoba may have a smaller share than previously. The Province of Manitoba is responsible for many services such as education. As newcomers, often with school age children, come to Manitoba, there is both an increased demand for service and also in how services are provided. Public agencies are more often having to employ multi-linguistic service providers who better understand the needs of newcomers and/or interpreter services. The demand for English as an Additional Language and French language services is increasing for both children and adults. Public agencies, such as school divisions, often have to consider increasing their own revenue base (e.g., education tax) to meet these demands. The City of Winnipeg is also experiencing increased demands for services such as recreation, although limited in what it might be able to charge for some services. As with the other levels of government, it needs to consider how to meet these demands for service, while balancing that with its ability to generate revenue. The Winnipeg Police Service, in particular, has been challenged to ensure that its services respect the linguistic, cultural, and other diversity within Winnipeg by providing all of its staff members with mandatory diversity training and in recruiting new officers. c) What are the current policy gaps and suggested recommendations to fill those gaps and improve services to newcomers? There are several immigration and settlement policy issues that require the governments of Canada and Manitoba to work together to resolve. The Canada-Manitoba Immigration Agreement is a commitment by both levels of
  • 29. 28 government to work in partnership to resolve these issues. There is also an expectation by Manitobans that the levels of government work together in the interests of Manitobans. Recommendation 1: That the governments of Canada and Manitoba continue to work together to collaboratively resolve outstanding issues in immigration and settlement policy, including determining a sustainable level of immigration to Manitoba, eligibility for settlement services, and the ongoing role of each partner in meeting the settlement needs of newcomers to Manitoba. As CIC now directly administers Settlement Funding to Manitoba SPOs, there is some question as to the adequacy of its current human resources, often situated in Ottawa or other places, to liaise with Winnipeg SPOs in terms of information, problem resolution, and decision-making. Although CIC continues to maintain settlement officers in Winnipeg, some SPOs have identified difficulties in both contacting CIC representatives and getting timely information and/or problem resolution. While this may also be an issue of local CIC staff having to gain the required knowledge and experience, SPOs need to be able to meet the needs of their clients now and in the near future and require timely decisions about funding and other issues. Recommendation 2: That Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) ensure that it has the appropriate level of human resources to liaise with Winnipeg SPOs when needed and in making timely decisions. As LIM no longer administers CIC Settlement Funding, it may need to re- evaluate its role. While Manitoba has expressed policy on Growing Immigration, it is less clear in how it both coordinates provincial services supporting newcomers and how it supports newcomer SPOs. While some public agencies have specific policies and services to accommodate the needs of newcomers (e.g., Winnipeg Regional Health Authority), other agencies may not necessarily have any specific policy and/or services. Other provinces, such as Ontario, have policy specific to immigration and settlement services and programs to provide some funding to newcomer SPOs. Recommendation 3: That the Province of Manitoba further develop its immigration and settlement policy, including specifying its role in coordinating public services in support of newcomer settlement and providing some funding to newcomer SPOs. Although the City of Winnipeg does not currently have specific newcomer settlement policy, it has demonstrated interest in accommodating the needs of newcomers through planning documents, such as Our Winnipeg, as well as in practice. Edmonton currently has a newcomer strategy that also includes a
  • 30. 29 settlement service provider program where SPOs can apply and be considered for funding. Recommendation 4: That the City of Winnipeg develop a newcomer strategy that includes a funding program for community organizations including newcomer SPOs. In addition to administering CIC Settlement Funding, prior to 2013, LIM also played a coordinating role with Winnipeg SPOs. This included the establishment of Manitoba START in 2010. Currently, neither CIC nor LIM appears to be playing this role to the same extent. As a result, there has been concern expressed about a lack of coordination and possible duplication of services, fewer opportunities for networking, and increased competition for resources. Recommendation 5: That IPW explore coordination of settlement services in Winnipeg, including identifying which agency(s) should play that role and the resources required by the agency(s) to support that role. The National Settlement Outcomes Survey, which included surveying a representative sample of newcomers in Manitoba, identified three main priorities including language services, social connections, and employment fit. These priorities were also identified by key informants and focus group participants. This survey was funded by the Government of Canada and included participation of the provinces and other stakeholders. Recommendation 6: That IPW promote action with CIC, LIM and other stakeholders to focus on the priorities identified in the National Settlement Outcomes Survey. The lack of affordable rental housing in Winnipeg was identified as a critical concern for newcomers. Despite the current network of social housing and the expansion of affordable housing resources for newcomers (e.g., Marie Rose Place), often funded by the three levels of government, this was identified as an ongoing concern. While one suggestion was for a national housing strategy, a local strategy could be a good starting place. Recommendation 7: That IPW work with the three levels of government, public agencies such as Manitoba Housing, SPOs, and other stakeholders including provide landlords to develop a strategy to ensure that newcomers to Winnipeg have access to affordable rental housing. Other resources, such as access to affordable recreation, childcare and wellness services, were also identified by key informants and focus group
  • 31. 30 participants as important. Newcomers often have school age children and larger families, but lower incomes. Refugees, in particular, may require counselling and mental health services to deal with past trauma. Recommendation 8: That LIPW work with the three levels of government, public agencies, and other stakeholders to address newcomer access to affordable recreation, childcare, and wellness services, particularly for refugees and other vulnerable newcomers. The need for sustainable funding was identified by SPOs, in particular, but also identified by funders and key informants as important to maintain and improve the network of newcomer SPOs. CIC was identified as the main source of funding for SPOs, but that most needed to diversify their funding base in order to meet the demands for service. Often, available funding is project-based and time-limited. Recommendation 9: That IPW promote the concept of sustainable funding for newcomer SPOs with funders including the three levels of government, charitable foundations, corporate sponsors and others. Other jurisdictions, particularly other Canadian provinces and cities, can be a source for best practices in immigration and settlement policy. Manitoba has been identified as a best practice in terms of immigration and settlement, although the model has changed considerably, particularly since 2013, and there should be some consideration for developing a new model. LIPs, in particular, have been in place in Ontario and British Columbia for some time. Their experience can help guide the establishment of the LIPW. Recommendation 10: That IPW explore best practices in immigration and settlement policy in other jurisdictions, including other Canadian provinces and cities and their experience with Local Immigration Partnerships.
  • 32. 31 7. Acknowledgements Key Informant Interviews Government of Canada Robert Vineberg (Citizenship and Immigration) Retired (former Director) Province of Manitoba Liz Robinson (Labour and Immigration) Director of Settlement and Language Services City of Winnipeg Clive Wightman (Community Services) Director Manitoba Housing Adrien Sala Operations Analyst Red River College Eddy Lau Director of International Education University of Winnipeg Jino Distasio Associate Vice-President Research and Innovation Winnipeg Child and Family Services Patrick Harrison Acting Executive Director Winnipeg Police Service Stacy Wytink Sargent Diversity Relations Winnipeg Regional Health Authority Jeanette Edwards Regional Director Primary Health Care Winnipeg School Division Rob Riel Director of Aboriginal Education (including EAL/Newcomer Relations)
  • 33. 32 Focus Groups Participating Organizations Service Provider Organizations: Manitoba English as an Additional Language Organization (MEALO) Winnipeg English Language Assessment and Referral Centre (WELARC) Seven Oaks Adult Learning Centre Immigrant Centre Manitoba Inc. New Journey Housing Norwest Co-op Health Centre Welcome Place West Central Women’s Resource Centre (Neighbourhood Immigrant Settlement Workers) Funders: City of Winnipeg (Community Services) Manitoba Community Services Council (MCSC) Neighbourhoods Alive! United Way of Winnipeg Winnipeg Foundation
  • 34. 33 Researcher Background Information Richard Dilay is currently self-employed as a consultant to not-for-profit and public agencies. He has previously worked as a Senior Policy Analyst and Manager with the Province of Manitoba in the departments of Intergovernmental Affairs, Family Services, and Housing and Community Development. He also has experience in the not-for-profit sector as a Community Worker with the Community Education and Development Agency and as a Case Manager and Early Intervention Worker with Winnipeg Child and Family Services. Richard was born and raised in Winnipeg and has a Master of Social Work degree from the University of Manitoba. Special thanks to Tara Fitzgerald for her assistance, particularly with the document search and presentation design, and to Gerry Kaplan for his guidance with this research project! 8. Appendix Settlement Services Funding Example (Immigrant Centre Manitoba Inc.) The Immigrant Centre (IC) Manitoba Inc. is perhaps the oldest SPO in Winnipeg and is a registered charity with a diverse funding base totalling over $2 Million in 2014. CIC is the primary funder of SPOs providing IC over $1.4 Million of its revenue in 2014. Although the Province of Manitoba does not currently have a specific funding program for settlement services, other provincial government departments may be funding SPO projects involving housing or employment preparation. While the City of Winnipeg, also does not have a specific program for funding settlement services, it is currently providing funding to some SPOs including IC. Charitable Foundations such as the United Way of Winnipeg have been a source of sustainable funding for SPOs who are registered charities. Corporate sponsors such as the Investors Group have also become a funding source for SPOs. While currently a relatively small part of its annual revenue, short-term project funding is also part of the IC budget.
  • 35. 34 72% 12% 1% 10% 4% 1% Immigrant Centre Manitoba Inc. 2014 Financial Highlights Government of Canada (Citizenship & Immigration and Youth Employment Strategy) Province of Manitoba (Jobs & the Economy) City of Winnipeg Charitable Foundations (United Way, Winnipeg Foundation & Share Our Strength) Corporate Sponsors (RBC Foundation, Investors Group, Western Union Financial) Other (Manitoba Community Services Council, Communities 4 Families)
  • 36. 35 Policy Framework Illustration An attempt was made to illustrate the different layers of policy that are involved in immigration and settlement of newcomers to Winnipeg, although it does not adequately illustrate the overlapping jurisdiction. The outer layer is the newcomer Service Provider Organizations (SPO) such as the Immigrant Centre (IC) Manitoba Inc. IC receives Settlement Funding from CIC, as well as funding from Manitoba Jobs and the Economy and the City of Winnipeg. Public agencies such as the Winnipeg School Division also provide front-line services to newcomers. Citizenship and Immigration Canada, in collaboration with Labour and Immigration Manitoba through the Provincial Nominee Program and the Canada-Manitoba Immigration Agreement, determines both the level of immigration to Manitoba (and Winnipeg) and the level of Settlement Funding available to SPOs. At the core is the Canadian Constitution that defines the roles and responsibilities of the governments of Canada and the provinces in immigration and a wider range of resources and services involved in settlement of newcomers.
  • 37. 36

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