POLYMERS ANDPOLYMERS AND
POLYMERPOLYMER
COMPOSITESCOMPOSITES
Contents
• Topics
• Introduction on polymers
• Definition
• Advantages
• Disadvantages
• Classification
• Origin of compos...
Introduction
• Polymers are using for making
• Fancy decoration items
• Textiles
• Building materials or packing materials...
What is a polymer?
• A long
molecule made
up from lots
of small
molecules
called
• monomers.
Elastomers, plastics &
fibres
THERMOPlASTICS
Thermosets
Polymers replaced metals,
ceramics and wood. Why?
• High strength
• Light weight
• Good flexibility
• Special electrical p...
Crystalline polymers
Glass transion
temperature
Are polymers mostly amorphous,
crystalline, or in-between? Also,
what is the glass transition
t...
Glass transition
temperature
Glassblowing at temperatures
just above the glass transition
Tacticity-Isotactic
Syndiotactic
Tacticity- atactic
Significance:
• Polymers can be used to
• Bond objects
• Seal joints
• Fill cavities
• Bear loads
• Clothing the naked to ...
Why composites?
• Individual polymers not alone satisfy our needs.
Search for new materials started and
composites origina...
What are composites?
• Composite" is a material having two or
more distinct constituents or phases.
• "Polymer composite" ...
Origin of composites
• Charles Macintosh in the middle of the
nineteenth century
• Raincoats are made from two layers of
c...
First Composite
Advantages over
conventional materials
• Tensile strength of composites is four to six time grater
than that of steel or a...
Classification of
composites
• BLENDS- a
blend is a
mixture of two
or more
substances. 
Eg: steel, which is a combination ...
FIBER COMPOSITES-
Composites
• Contain fibers in
the matrix
material
Fiberglass fish holding tanks
NANOCOMPOSITES
• Composites in which the fiber
reinforcement is on the extremely
small "nano scale" (1*10-9 meters)
are kn...
Bio composites
• Biocomposites are
materials made by
nature or
synthetically that
include some type
of natural
material in...
Natural composites
• Wood
• Cotton
• Hemp
• Soyabean
• Wheat
• Corn
What is a fiber reinforced
polymer plastics?
• Fiber reinforced composites
(FRP) are composites prepared
by the incorporat...
FRPS
MATRICES/RESINS/
BINDER
• Thermoplastics.
• polyolefins, polyamides, vinyl polymers,
polyacetals, polysulphones,
polycarbo...
Thermosets
• Unsaturated polyesters
• Epoxides, acrylic resins, alkyd resins
• Diallyl phthalate (DAP).
• Melamine formald...
Fibers
• A wide range of amorphous and
crystalline materials can be used as the
fibre
• Glass fibers –largest used fibers
...
What Fibers Do
• Act as a reinforcement
• Increase the overall strength
What the Matrix Does
• The matrix holds the fibers together. (binder)
• The matrix can absorb energy by deforming
under st...
Mechanism of
Reinforcement
• The reinforcement of a low modulus
polymer with a high modulus, high
strength fiber uses the ...
:
• Parameters
• Strength of the fibers and of the
polymer matrix.
•   Elastic modulus of the fibers and
of the matrix.
• ...
Applications of FRPs
Compounding-incorporation of
additives into the matrix
• Vulcanisers
• Accelerators
• Activators
• Fillers
• Colourig agen...
Moulding-conversion of compounded
mix to a desired shape
Compression moulding
Compression Moulding
Injection moulding
Injection Moulding
INJECTION MOULDING
PROCEDURE
Injection Moulding
INJECTION MOULDED
COMPONENTS
INJECTION MOULDED
COMPONENTS
INJECTION
MOULDING MACHINE
Transfer Moulding
TRANSFER MOULDED
COMPONENTS
Extrusion Moulding
TUBE EXTRUDED
COMPONENTS
Blow moulding
Types of blow moulding
Blow moulded products
FRP Manufacturing
• Hand lay –up
• Spray lay up
• Filament winding process
Hand- lay up
Filament winding
Spray –up Process
Spray-up process
Filament winding process
Filament winding
Pultrusion
Resin Transfer Process
Laminate Process
Laminates-a product obtained
by joining two or more layers of a
solid material.
• Parallel laminate-
grains of the
layers ...
Laminates----
• Laminated plastics-impregnating sheets of
paper, wood, fiber with a resin solution
• Thermosetting resin
•...
Laminates---
• Laminated glass-joining glass plates/sheets
with a layers of plastic in between them
• Safety glass-dry she...
Polymers and polymer composites
Polymers and polymer composites
Polymers and polymer composites
Polymers and polymer composites
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Polymers and polymer composites

polymer and polymerisation
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Engineering      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Polymers and polymer composites

  • 1. POLYMERS ANDPOLYMERS AND POLYMERPOLYMER COMPOSITESCOMPOSITES
  • 2. Contents • Topics • Introduction on polymers • Definition • Advantages • Disadvantages • Classification • Origin of composites • Classification • Matrices • Reinforcements • Processing • Characterization • Applications • Future trends • Conclusion
  • 3. Introduction • Polymers are using for making • Fancy decoration items • Textiles • Building materials or packing materials • Light and elegant luggage made of Plastics. • Plastic chairs to add colour and comfort. • Armour shield made of Polycarbonate combines the transparency of glass and strength of steal
  • 4. What is a polymer? • A long molecule made up from lots of small molecules called • monomers.
  • 5. Elastomers, plastics & fibres
  • 6. THERMOPlASTICS
  • 7. Thermosets
  • 8. Polymers replaced metals, ceramics and wood. Why? • High strength • Light weight • Good flexibility • Special electrical properties • Resistance to chemicals • Ability for quick and more production. • Fabrication into complex shapes in wide variety of colours.
  • 9. Crystalline polymers
  • 10. Glass transion temperature Are polymers mostly amorphous, crystalline, or in-between? Also, what is the glass transition temperature? the Tg of a Rubber band is below RT the Tg of polystyrene is above RT Glass transition temperature (Tg) Crystalline transition temperature (Tc) Melt Transition (Tm) Decomposition temperature (Td)
  • 11. Glass transition temperature Glassblowing at temperatures just above the glass transition
  • 12. Tacticity-Isotactic
  • 13. Syndiotactic
  • 14. Tacticity- atactic
  • 15. Significance: • Polymers can be used to • Bond objects • Seal joints • Fill cavities • Bear loads • Clothing the naked to powering a space vehicle to even replacing a human organ. » Artificial heart » Artificial kidney • Limbs etc
  • 16. Why composites? • Individual polymers not alone satisfy our needs. Search for new materials started and composites originated. • • Composite materials are made of more than one phase, in order to achieve combined properties that cannot be met by a single-phase material. • Composites are able to meet diverse design requirements with significant weight savings as w ell as high strength-to- weight ratio
  • 17. What are composites? • Composite" is a material having two or more distinct constituents or phases. • "Polymer composite" is a homogeneous polymer based material created by the synthetic assembly of a polymer and reinforcement to obtain specific properties. • Natural composites • Eg.Bone, mollusc shells and wood
  • 18. Origin of composites • Charles Macintosh in the middle of the nineteenth century • Raincoats are made from two layers of cotton fabric and embedded them in natural rubber. • Rubber -waterproof • Cotton layers –comfortable to wear. • Combination of water resistance of polyisoprene and the comfort of cotton.
  • 19. First Composite
  • 20. Advantages over conventional materials • Tensile strength of composites is four to six time grater than that of steel or aluminum • 30-45% lighter than aluminum structures designed to the same functional requirenmts • Composites are versatile than metals • Long life offers excellent fatigue, impact, environmental resistance and reduced maintenance • Composites enjoy reduced life cycle cost compared to metals • Exhibit excellent corrosion resistance and fire retardancy
  • 21. Classification of composites • BLENDS- a blend is a mixture of two or more substances.  Eg: steel, which is a combination of iron and carbon.
  • 22. FIBER COMPOSITES- Composites • Contain fibers in the matrix material Fiberglass fish holding tanks
  • 23. NANOCOMPOSITES • Composites in which the fiber reinforcement is on the extremely small "nano scale" (1*10-9 meters) are known as nanocomposites • Clay particles is a common nano- component in composites
  • 24. Bio composites • Biocomposites are materials made by nature or synthetically that include some type of natural material in its structure.  The amazing thing is that it grows with the fruit
  • 25. Natural composites • Wood • Cotton • Hemp • Soyabean • Wheat • Corn
  • 26. What is a fiber reinforced polymer plastics? • Fiber reinforced composites (FRP) are composites prepared by the incorporation of fibers into Plastic material • Combination of polymeric substances with solid fillers give rise to filled composites
  • 27. FRPS
  • 28. MATRICES/RESINS/ BINDER • Thermoplastics. • polyolefins, polyamides, vinyl polymers, polyacetals, polysulphones, polycarbonates, polyphenylenes and polyimides. Acrylonititrile-butadiene- styrene(ABS), Fluropolymers,Nylons,Styrene -acrylonitrile
  • 29. Thermosets • Unsaturated polyesters • Epoxides, acrylic resins, alkyd resins • Diallyl phthalate (DAP). • Melamine formaldehyde • Phenol resins • Polyurethane
  • 30. Fibers • A wide range of amorphous and crystalline materials can be used as the fibre • Glass fibers –largest used fibers • Carbon fiber • Aramid fibers • Nylon fibers • Natural fibers
  • 31. What Fibers Do • Act as a reinforcement • Increase the overall strength
  • 32. What the Matrix Does • The matrix holds the fibers together. (binder) • The matrix can absorb energy by deforming under stress. The matrix adds toughness to the composite. • Fibers have good tensile strength (that is, they're strong when you pull on them), they usually have awful compressional strength. • The matrix gives compressional strength to the composite.
  • 33. Mechanism of Reinforcement • The reinforcement of a low modulus polymer with a high modulus, high strength fiber uses the plastic flow of the polymeric material under stress to transfer the load to the fibre this results in a high strength, high modulus composite.
  • 34. : • Parameters • Strength of the fibers and of the polymer matrix. •   Elastic modulus of the fibers and of the matrix. •   Aspect ratio of the fibers (L/D)
  • 35. Applications of FRPs
  • 36. Compounding-incorporation of additives into the matrix • Vulcanisers • Accelerators • Activators • Fillers • Colourig agents • Stabilizers • Plasticizers
  • 37. Moulding-conversion of compounded mix to a desired shape Compression moulding
  • 38. Compression Moulding
  • 39. Injection moulding
  • 40. Injection Moulding
  • 41. INJECTION MOULDING PROCEDURE
  • 42. Injection Moulding
  • 43. INJECTION MOULDED COMPONENTS
  • 44. INJECTION MOULDED COMPONENTS
  • 45. INJECTION MOULDING MACHINE
  • 46. Transfer Moulding
  • 47. TRANSFER MOULDED COMPONENTS
  • 48. Extrusion Moulding
  • 49. TUBE EXTRUDED COMPONENTS
  • 50. Blow moulding
  • 51. Types of blow moulding
  • 52. Blow moulded products
  • 53. FRP Manufacturing • Hand lay –up • Spray lay up • Filament winding process
  • 54. Hand- lay up
  • 55. Filament winding
  • 56. Spray –up Process
  • 57. Spray-up process
  • 58. Filament winding process
  • 59. Filament winding
  • 60. Pultrusion
  • 61. Resin Transfer Process
  • 62. Laminate Process
  • 63. Laminates-a product obtained by joining two or more layers of a solid material. • Parallel laminate- grains of the layers are parallel to each other • cross laminate- Some layers are right angles to each other • Adherends-layers of the materials are so bonded by an adhesive • Plywood-cross laminate
  • 64. Laminates---- • Laminated plastics-impregnating sheets of paper, wood, fiber with a resin solution • Thermosetting resin • Fiber is passed through a solution of resin bath • Dried at suitable temp (< curing temp) • Cut into suitable size and piled one over another • Cured in a hydraulic press 180O C, 120kg/cm2
  • 65. Laminates--- • Laminated glass-joining glass plates/sheets with a layers of plastic in between them • Safety glass-dry sheet of plastic between two glass sheets • Thermocole-is a formed plastic –blowing air/plastic through molten PS or Polyurethane

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