ByByMuhammad Rizwan LiaqatMuhammad Rizwan LiaqatUniversity of Agriculture, Faisalabad.University of Agriculture, Faisalaba...
CONTENTS INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES MATERAILS AND METHODS RESULTS CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION
 Tobacco (Tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccumNicotiana tobaccum) is the most) is the mostimportant cash crop of Pakistan, belong ...
PakistanPakistan Area (hact):Area (hact): 2593625936 Production (Mio kgs):Production (Mio kgs): 64.67064.670 Average yi...
DISEASESDISEASES Tobacco crop is attacked by several seriousTobacco crop is attacked by several seriousdiseases in which ...
SYMPTOMSSYMPTOMS
OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES
 To survey the major tobacco growing areasTo survey the major tobacco growing areas(Charsada, Mardan) of KPK to find out ...
MATERIALSMATERIALSANDANDMETHODSMETHODS
Disease surveyDisease surveyField survey was conducted in all theField survey was conducted in all thetobacco growing area...
Disease incidence (%)Disease incidence (%)Disease incidence was calculated by the followingDisease incidence was calculate...
Disease severity (%)Disease severity (%) Disease severity was calculated for each locationDisease severity was calculated...
SCALE FOR DISEASE SEVERITY (%)SCALE FOR DISEASE SEVERITY (%)100 x Σn100 x ΣnS = -----------------S = -----------------4N4N...
The experiment was consist of five cultivars andfour number of irrigations. Design Split Plot Design Replication 3 Plan...
ParametersParameters Plant heightPlant height Leaves at harvestLeaves at harvest Cured leaves per kg-1Cured leaves per ...
RESULTSRESULTS
S. No LocationCultivarDisease incidence (%) Disease severity (%)1 KoperPVH-23104 12 BadragaSpeight-2816 43 PirsaddiPVH-231...
S. No Location Cultivar Disease incidence (%) Disease severity (%)1 Shareef AbadPVH-23104 12 QadameySpeight-2812 33 Solanj...
VarietiesNumber of IrrigationsMeanSeven Eight Nine TenPVH-2310 1 EF 0.6 EF 1.3 DEF 1 EF 1 CPVH-50 1.3 DEF 1 EF 1 EF 1.6 CD...
VarietiesNumber of IrrigationsMeanSeven Eight Nine TenPVH-2310 147 158 152 151 152 aPVH-50 148 154 152 151 151 aRGH-4 147 ...
VarietiesNumber of IrrigationsMeanSeven Eight Nine TenPVH-2310 27 ef 33 a 31 d 28 de 30 aPVH-50 27 ef 31 b 30 bc 27 ef 29 ...
VarietiesNumber of IrrigationsMeanSeven Eight Nine TenPVH-2310 137 138 134 134 136 bPVH-50 136 138 135 135 136 bRGH-4 139 ...
VarietiesNumber of IrrigationsMeanSeven Eight Nine TenPVH-2310 975 1002 996 988 990 aPVH-50 969 994 992 985 985 bRGH-4 966...
VarietiesNumber of IrrigationsMeanSeven Eight Nine TenPVH-2310 82 84 86 87 85 dPVH-50 83 85 87 88 86 cdRGH-4 84 86 87 90 8...
CONCLUSIONSCONCLUSIONS
 Among the cultivars, PVH-2310 was foundAmong the cultivars, PVH-2310 was foundto be the most resistant to black shank of...
RECOMMENDATIONSRECOMMENDATIONS
 The combination of PVH-2310 and eightThe combination of PVH-2310 and eightirrigations gave the lowest disease severityir...
THANKSTHANKS
Prevalance of tobacco black shank in mardan and charsada region and its management through host resistance and irrigation
Prevalance of tobacco black shank in mardan and charsada region and its management through host resistance and irrigation
Prevalance of tobacco black shank in mardan and charsada region and its management through host resistance and irrigation
Prevalance of tobacco black shank in mardan and charsada region and its management through host resistance and irrigation
Prevalance of tobacco black shank in mardan and charsada region and its management through host resistance and irrigation
Prevalance of tobacco black shank in mardan and charsada region and its management through host resistance and irrigation
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Prevalance of tobacco black shank in mardan and charsada region and its management through host resistance and irrigation

Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Education      Health & Medicine      Technology      
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Transcripts - Prevalance of tobacco black shank in mardan and charsada region and its management through host resistance and irrigation

  • 1. ByByMuhammad Rizwan LiaqatMuhammad Rizwan LiaqatUniversity of Agriculture, Faisalabad.University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.PREVALANCE OF TOBACCOBLACK SHANK IN MARDAN ANDCHARSADA REGION AND ITSMANAGEMENT THROUGH HOSTRESISTANCE AND IRRIGATION
  • 2. CONTENTS INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES MATERAILS AND METHODS RESULTS CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
  • 3. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION
  • 4.  Tobacco (Tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccumNicotiana tobaccum) is the most) is the mostimportant cash crop of Pakistan, belong toimportant cash crop of Pakistan, belong toSolanacea family.Solanacea family. It is utilized as an organic pesticide, in someIt is utilized as an organic pesticide, in somemedicine as Nicotine Tartrate, chewingmedicine as Nicotine Tartrate, chewingtobacco, cigars, cigarettes, creamy snuff,tobacco, cigars, cigarettes, creamy snuff,electronic cigarettes, gutka, hooka, rollies orelectronic cigarettes, gutka, hooka, rollies orroll ups and pipe smoking.roll ups and pipe smoking.
  • 5. PakistanPakistan Area (hact):Area (hact): 2593625936 Production (Mio kgs):Production (Mio kgs): 64.67064.670 Average yield (kg/ha)Average yield (kg/ha) 24932493(PTB 2010-2011)(PTB 2010-2011)
  • 6. DISEASESDISEASES Tobacco crop is attacked by several seriousTobacco crop is attacked by several seriousdiseases in which black shank is verydiseases in which black shank is veryimportant caused byimportant caused by Phytophthora parasiticaPhytophthora parasitica.. Black shank disease losses can reach up to 100Black shank disease losses can reach up to 100% in individual fields (Gallup% in individual fields (Gallup et al,et al, 2006)2006) .. The disease is prevalent in all the tobaccoThe disease is prevalent in all the tobaccogrowing areas of KPK.growing areas of KPK.
  • 7. SYMPTOMSSYMPTOMS
  • 8. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES
  • 9.  To survey the major tobacco growing areasTo survey the major tobacco growing areas(Charsada, Mardan) of KPK to find out disease(Charsada, Mardan) of KPK to find out diseaseincidence and severity of black shank of tobacco.incidence and severity of black shank of tobacco. To evaluate the resistance of commercial tobaccoTo evaluate the resistance of commercial tobaccocultivars against black shank of tobacco.cultivars against black shank of tobacco. To investigate the effect of number of irrigations onTo investigate the effect of number of irrigations onthe severity of black shank and its effect on yield/the severity of black shank and its effect on yield/yield components under natural infectionyield components under natural infectionconditions.conditions.
  • 10. MATERIALSMATERIALSANDANDMETHODSMETHODS
  • 11. Disease surveyDisease surveyField survey was conducted in all theField survey was conducted in all thetobacco growing areas of Mardan andtobacco growing areas of Mardan andSwabi district.Swabi district.
  • 12. Disease incidence (%)Disease incidence (%)Disease incidence was calculated by the followingDisease incidence was calculated by the followingformulaformulaNo. of infected plantsNo. of infected plants x 100x 100Total no. of plantsTotal no. of plants
  • 13. Disease severity (%)Disease severity (%) Disease severity was calculated for each locationDisease severity was calculated for each locationusing disease severity scale of Wrightusing disease severity scale of Wright etet alal (2005).(2005). The scale ranges from 0-4.The scale ranges from 0-4. 0 = Plants totally healthy.0 = Plants totally healthy.11 = 1-25% of the plants infected.= 1-25% of the plants infected. 2 = 26-50 % of the plants infected.2 = 26-50 % of the plants infected. 3 = 51-75 % of the plants infected.3 = 51-75 % of the plants infected. 4= 76-100 % of the plants infected.4= 76-100 % of the plants infected.
  • 14. SCALE FOR DISEASE SEVERITY (%)SCALE FOR DISEASE SEVERITY (%)100 x Σn100 x ΣnS = -----------------S = -----------------4N4N S = Black shank severity (%).S = Black shank severity (%). Σn = Summation of individual rating.Σn = Summation of individual rating. N = Total number of plants assessed andN = Total number of plants assessed and 4 = Highest value on the severity scale to4 = Highest value on the severity scale todetermine disease severity (%).determine disease severity (%).
  • 15. The experiment was consist of five cultivars andfour number of irrigations. Design Split Plot Design Replication 3 Plant to plant distance 24 cm Row to Row distance 36 cm Plot size 1 ha Fertilizer applied NPK @ 10 bags perha-1`
  • 16. ParametersParameters Plant heightPlant height Leaves at harvestLeaves at harvest Cured leaves per kg-1Cured leaves per kg-1 Leaf sizeLeaf size Days to maturityDays to maturity Yield ha-1Yield ha-1
  • 17. RESULTSRESULTS
  • 18. S. No LocationCultivarDisease incidence (%) Disease severity (%)1 KoperPVH-23104 12 BadragaSpeight-2816 43 PirsaddiPVH-23100 04 ShahbatkheilK-39916 45 RaidanPVH-508 26 HossaiRGH-412 37 Takht bhaiK-3998 28 Said AbadPVH-500 09 Jamal GhariRGH-40 010 GhalegaySpeight-288 2Table 4.1. Prevalence of Black shank of tobacco in district Mardan
  • 19. S. No Location Cultivar Disease incidence (%) Disease severity (%)1 Shareef AbadPVH-23104 12 QadameySpeight-2812 33 SolanjerPVH-23100 04 Kalu DhairK-39912 35 TolandeyPVH-508 26 DageyRGH-48 27 YaqoobeyK-3990 08 DhobianPVH-500 09 Ghazi KoatRGH-40 010 Sara CheenaSpeight-288 2Table.4.2 Prevalence of Black shank of tobacco disease in district Swabi
  • 20. VarietiesNumber of IrrigationsMeanSeven Eight Nine TenPVH-2310 1 EF 0.6 EF 1.3 DEF 1 EF 1 CPVH-50 1.3 DEF 1 EF 1 EF 1.6 CDE 1.2 CRGH-4 1.6 CDE 1.3 DEF 1.6 CDE 2.3 ABC 1.7 BK-399 2 BCD 1.6 CDE 1.6 CDE 2.6 AB 2 BSpeight G-28 2.6 AB 2.3 ABC 2 BCD 3 A 2.5 AMean 1.7 B 1.4 C 1.5 BC 2.1 ATable 4.3 Effect of different tobacco cultivars and number of irrigations on diseaseseverity as affected by black shank of tobacco.
  • 21. VarietiesNumber of IrrigationsMeanSeven Eight Nine TenPVH-2310 147 158 152 151 152 aPVH-50 148 154 152 151 151 aRGH-4 147 153 151 150 151 aK-399 146 151 150 148 149 bSpeight G-28 145 150 149 147 148 bMean 147 c 153 a 151 b 150 bTable 4.4 Effect of different tobacco cultivars and number of irrigations ontobacco plant height (cm) as affected by black shank of tobacco.
  • 22. VarietiesNumber of IrrigationsMeanSeven Eight Nine TenPVH-2310 27 ef 33 a 31 d 28 de 30 aPVH-50 27 ef 31 b 30 bc 27 ef 29 bRGH-4 27 ef 29 cd 28 de 28 de 28 cK-399 25 g 29 cd 28 de 26 fg 27 dSpeight G-28 25 g 27 ef 27 ef 26 fg 26 eMean 26 d 30 a 29 b 27 cTable 4.5 Effect of different tobacco cultivars and number of irrigations onnumber of leaves at harvest as affected by black shank of tobacco.
  • 23. VarietiesNumber of IrrigationsMeanSeven Eight Nine TenPVH-2310 137 138 134 134 136 bPVH-50 136 138 135 135 136 bRGH-4 139 140 137 136 138 aK-399 134 136 134 132 134 bSpeight G-28 135 137 133 133 135 cMean 136 b 138 a 135 c 134 d 136Table 4.6 Effect of different tobacco cultivars and number of irrigations onnumber of cured leaves kg-1 as affected by black shank of tobacco.
  • 24. VarietiesNumber of IrrigationsMeanSeven Eight Nine TenPVH-2310 975 1002 996 988 990 aPVH-50 969 994 992 985 985 bRGH-4 966 988 987 981 981 cK-399 956 985 984 976 975 dSpeight G-28 951 d 982 a 976 b 970 cTable 4.7 Effect of different tobacco cultivars and number of irrigations on leafsize (cm) as affected by black shank of tobacco.
  • 25. VarietiesNumber of IrrigationsMeanSeven Eight Nine TenPVH-2310 82 84 86 87 85 dPVH-50 83 85 87 88 86 cdRGH-4 84 86 87 90 87 cK-399 88 91 93 95 92 bSpeight G-28 90 93 96 97 94 aMean 85 d 88 c 90 d 91 aTable 4.8 Effect of different tobacco cultivars and number of irrigations on daysto maturity as affected by black shank of tobacco.
  • 26. CONCLUSIONSCONCLUSIONS
  • 27.  Among the cultivars, PVH-2310 was foundAmong the cultivars, PVH-2310 was foundto be the most resistant to black shank ofto be the most resistant to black shank oftobacco. It also performed better than othertobacco. It also performed better than othercultivars in terms of yield ha-1, plant height,cultivars in terms of yield ha-1, plant height,leaf size, leaves at harvest and minimumleaf size, leaves at harvest and minimumdays to maturity.days to maturity. Eight irrigations resulted in the lowestEight irrigations resulted in the lowestdisease severity and highest yield and yielddisease severity and highest yield and yieldcomponents.components.
  • 28. RECOMMENDATIONSRECOMMENDATIONS
  • 29.  The combination of PVH-2310 and eightThe combination of PVH-2310 and eightirrigations gave the lowest disease severityirrigations gave the lowest disease severityand highest yield. Therefore this combinationand highest yield. Therefore this combinationis recommended for controlling the diseaseis recommended for controlling the diseaseand obtaining the maximum yield.and obtaining the maximum yield. Other number of irrigations should also be testedOther number of irrigations should also be testedincluding several other varieties of tobacco to findincluding several other varieties of tobacco to findthe most appropriate combination.the most appropriate combination.
  • 30. THANKSTHANKS

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