Recommended Practice for
Pipeline SCADA Displays
API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 1165
FIRST EDITION, JANUARY 2007
Recommended Practice for
for Pipeline SCADA Displays
Pipeline Segment
API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 1165
FIRST EDITION, JANUARY...
SPECIAL NOTES
API publications necessarily address problems of a general nature. With respect to particular
circumstances,...
FOREWORD
Nothing contained in any API publication is to be construed as granting any right, by impli-
cation or otherwise,...
CONTENTS
Page
1 SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...
Page
11 ADMINISTRATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
1
Recommended Practice for Pipeline SCADA Displays
1 Scope
1.1 PURPOSE
This Recommended Practice (RP) focuses on the desig...
Recommended Practice for Pipeline SCADA Displays
Recommended Practice for Pipeline SCADA Displays
of 9

Recommended Practice for Pipeline SCADA Displays

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Transcripts - Recommended Practice for Pipeline SCADA Displays

  • 1. Recommended Practice for Pipeline SCADA Displays API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 1165 FIRST EDITION, JANUARY 2007
  • 2. Recommended Practice for for Pipeline SCADA Displays Pipeline Segment API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 1165 FIRST EDITION, JANUARY 2007
  • 3. SPECIAL NOTES API publications necessarily address problems of a general nature. With respect to particular circumstances, local, state, and federal laws and regulations should be reviewed. Neither API nor any of API's employees, subcontractors, consultants, committees, or other assignees make any warranty or representation, either express or implied, with respect to the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of the information contained herein, or assume any liability or responsibility for any use, or the results of such use, of any information or process disclosed in this publication. Neither API nor any of API's employees, subcontractors, con- sultants, or other assignees represent that use of this publication would not infringe upon pri- vately owned rights. API publications may be used by anyone desiring to do so. Every effort has been made by the Institute to assure the accuracy and reliability of the data contained in them; however, the Institute makes no representation, warranty, or guarantee in connection with this publication and hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting from its use or for the violation of any authorities having jurisdiction with which this publi- cation may conflict. API publications are published to facilitate the broad availability of proven, sound engineer- ing and operating practices. These publications are not intended to obviate the need for applying sound engineering judgment regarding when and where these publications should be utilized. The formulation and publication of API publications is not intended in any way to inhibit anyone from using any other practices. Any manufacturer marking equipment or materials in conformance with the marking requirements of an API standard is solely responsible for complying with all the applicable requirements of that standard. API does not represent, warrant, or guarantee that such prod- ucts do in fact conform to the applicable API standard. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Contact the Publisher, API Publishing Services, 1220 L Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005. Copyright © 2007 American Petroleum Institute
  • 4. FOREWORD Nothing contained in any API publication is to be construed as granting any right, by impli- cation or otherwise, for the manufacture, sale, or use of any method, apparatus, or product covered by letters patent. Neither should anything contained in the publication be construed as insuring anyone against liability for infringement of letters patent. The colors used in this publication are provided only as examples and are not intended to be exact. This document was produced under API standardization procedures that ensure appropriate notification and participation in the developmental process and is designated as an API stan- dard. Questions concerning the interpretation of the content of this publication or comments and questions concerning the procedures under which this publication was developed should be directed in writing to the Director of Standards, American Petroleum Institute, 1220 L Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005. Requests for permission to reproduce or translate all or any part of the material published herein should also be addressed to the director. Generally, API standards are reviewed and revised, reaffirmed, or withdrawn at least every five years. A one-time extension of up to two years may be added to this review cycle. Status of the publication can be ascertained from the API Standards Department, telephone (202) 682-8000. A catalog of API publications and materials is published annually and updated quarterly by API, 1220 L Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005. Suggested revisions are invited and should be submitted to the Standards and Publications Department, API, 1220 L Street, NW, Washington, D.C. 20005, standards@api.org. iii
  • 5. CONTENTS Page 1 SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1.1 Purpose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1.2 Scope Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 2 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3 DEFINITIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 4 HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING CONSIDERATIONS IN DISPLAY DESIGN3 4.1 Short-term Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 4.2 Signal-to-Noise Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 4.3 Eye Scan Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 4.4 Consistency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 4.5 Coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 5 DISPLAY HARDWARE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 5.1 General Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 5.2 Display Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 5.3 Display Response. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 5.4 Controller Input Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 6 DISPLAY LAYOUT AND ORGANIZATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 6.1 General Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 6.2 Display Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 6.3 Window Management Issues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 7 DISPLAY NAVIGATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 7.1 General Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 7.2 Navigation Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 7.3 Zoom, Pan, and Overlays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 8 OBJECT CHARACTERISTICS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 8.1 General Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 8.2 Color. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 8.3 Symbols and Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 8.4 Animation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 8.5 Text. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 9 OBJECT DYNAMICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 9.1 General Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 9.2 Data Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 9.3 Data Attributes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 10 CONTROL AND SELECTION TECHNIQUES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 10.1 Object Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 10.2 Command Execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 10.3 Error Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 v
  • 6. Page 11 ADMINISTRATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 11.1 Consistency within a Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 11.2 Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 11.3 Consistency between Control Centers and Remote Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 11.4 MOC (Management of Change). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 12 SAMPLE DISPLAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 APPENDIX A EXAMPLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 APPENDIX A1 EXAMPLE SYMBOL DYNAMICS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 A1-1 Pumping Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 A1-2 Non SCADA Controllabe Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 A1-3 SCADA Controllable Valves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 A1-4 4 Way Valves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 A1-5 3 Way Valves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 A1-6 TankMixers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 APPENDIX A2 DISCRETE STATE POINTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 APPENDIX A3 NUMERIC POINTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 APPENDIX A4 SAMPLE STATION DISPLAY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 APPENDIX A5 SAMPLE SUMMARY DISPLAYS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 A5-1 Alarm Summary Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 A5-2 Event Summary Displays. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 A5-3 Communications Summary Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 A5-4 Database Summary Displays. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 APPENDIX A6 DETAILED POINT DISPLAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 APPENDIX A7 TREND DISPLAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 APPENDIX A8 SPECIAL APPLICATION DISPLAYS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
  • 7. 1 Recommended Practice for Pipeline SCADA Displays 1 Scope 1.1 PURPOSE This Recommended Practice (RP) focuses on the design and implementation of displays used for the display, monitoring, and control of information on pipeline Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems (SCADA). The primary purpose is to doc- ument industry practices that provide guidance to a pipeline company or operator who want to select a new SCADA system, or update or expand an existing SCADA system. This RP assists pipeline companies and SCADA system developers in identifying items that are considered best practices when developing human machine interfaces (HMI). Design elements that are discussed include, but are not limited to, hardware, navi- gation, colors, fonts, symbols, data entry, and control / selection techniques. 1.2 SCOPE LIMITATIONS This RP was created by an API Cybernetics Subcommittee task force, based on industry practices used on liquid pipeline SCADA systems. Most participants operate crude, product, chemical, and natural gas pipeline systems. It is recognized that each pipeline company has unique operating philosophies and SCADA systems; therefore, not all elements of this recommended practice may be applicable. For example: • Some pipeline control centers are a combination of several different SCADA systems. • Some of these SCADA systems may not have the developer tools necessary to implement the recommended practices. • Some operators may have existing display techniques that bridge over into unique operating philosophies. This RP is not all-inclusive. It is intended to cover best practices and provide examples for display techniques only, not dictate operational control philosophy or overall SCADA system functionality. The reader should have a good working knowledge of pipeline operations and display techniques, and may have to refer to other publications for background or additional information. This RP compliments but does not replace other procedures and effective display techniques or industry standards that are used for software development and implementation. Regulatory and individual company standards are not addressed in this publica- tion. 2 References 1. ASM Consortium Guidelines—Effective Operator Display Design. Version 2.01, July 28, 2000. 2. Galitz, W. O. (1993). User-interface screen design. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons: Amazon.com. 3. Gilmore, W.E., Gertman, D.I., & Blackman, H.S. (1989). User-computer interface in process control a human factors engi- neering handbook. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. 4. Jacko, J., A., & Salvendy, G. (1996). “Hierarchical menu design: breadth, depth, and task complexity.” Perceptual and Motor Skills, 82, 1187-1201. 5. Kiger, J. I. (1984). “The depth and breath trade-off in the design of menu-driven user interfaces.” International Journal of man-machine studies, 20, 201-213. 6. O’Hara, J., Brown, W., Lewis, P. & Perensky, J (2002) Human-system design review guidelines. (NUREG-0700, rev. 2). Washington DC: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. 7. Paap, K. R. (1988). Design of Menus. In M. Helander (ed.) Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction (pp. 205-235). North Holland: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. 8. Perlman, G. (1984). Making the right choices with menus. Proceedings of INTERACT. (pp. 291-295). 9. Roske-Hofstrand, R. J. & Paap, K. R. (1986). “Cognitive networks as a guide to menu organization: An application in the automated cockpit.” Ergonomics, 29(11), 1301-1311. 10. Savage, R. E. & Habinek, J. K. (1984) “A multilevel menu-driven user interface: Design and evaluation through simula- tion.” In J. C. Thomas & M. L. Schneider (Eds.) Human factors in computer systems, (pp. 165-186). Norwood, N.J.: Ablex. 11. Smith, S., & Mosier, J. (1986). Guidelines for designing user interface software. (ESD-TR-86-278) Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts: Electronic Systems Division, AFSC.

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