PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF LIFE SCIENCES
DEPARTMENT OF BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOL...
SL. No. NAME OF THE COURSE CREDIT PAGE NO.
THIRD SEMESTER
BMB 501 MOLECULAR BASIS O...
Unit BMB 401: BIOMOLECULES 3 CREDITS
1. Biomolecules- che...
Unit BMB 402: HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY 3 CREDITS
1. Introduction- Int...
Unit BMB 403: CELL BIOLOGY 3 CREDITS
1. Dynamics of the ...
Unit BMB 404: ANALYTICAL BIOCHEMISTRY & BIOPHYSICS 3 CREDITS
1. Electrochemical...
Unit BMB 405: BIOSTATISTICS & SCIENTIFIC WRITING 3 CREDITS
1. Introduction- de...
Lab Course each having 1 CREDIT
BMB 451 BIOMOLECULES LAB
1. Laboratory safety
2. Dete...
BMB 453 CELL BIOLOGY LAB
1. Paper Chromatography of Chlorophyll pigments
2. Arrest and observation of chromosomes after c...
Unit BMB 406: METABOLISM & REGULATION 3 CREDITS
1. General introduct...
Unit BMB 407: ENZYMOLOGY 3 CREDITS
1. Enzymes- hist...
Unit BMB 408: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY-I 3 CREDITS
1. History and scop...
Unit BMB 409: BIOINFORMATICS 3 CREDITS
1. Introductio...
410: ENDOCRINOLOGY 3 CREDITS
1. Introduction to Endocrinology- Historical perspect...
Lab Course each having 1 CREDIT
BMB 456 METABOLISM & REGULATION LAB
1. Preparation of Lactalbumin...
BMB 458 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY –I LAB
1. Isolation & purification of genomic DNA from bacteria
2. Isolation & purification of ...
BMB 501: MOLECULAR BASIS OF CELLULAR DISORDERS 3 CREDITS
1. Inflammation and Repair...
Unit BMB 502: MOLECULAR IMMUNOLOGY 3 CREDITS
1. Introduction &...
Unit BMB 503: PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 3 CREDITS
1. Introduction to Pl...
Unit BMB-504:MOLECULAR BIOLOGY-II 3 CREDITS
1. Enzymes in geneti...
Lab Course each having 1 CREDIT
BMB 551: MOLECULAR IMMUNOLOGY LAB
1. Analyses of Antigens: Im...
BMB 553: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY II – LAB
1. Preparation of competent cell
2. Calcium chloride mediated transformation
3. ...
Unit BMB 505: CANCER BIOLOGY 3 CREDITS
1. Introduction - hist...
Unit BMB 506: PROTEOMICS 3 CREDITS
1. Prot...
Unit BMB 507: MOLECULAR ENDOCRINOLOGY 3 CREDITS
1. Definition and scope o...
Unit BMB-508: PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY 3 CREDITS
1. Introduction t...
BMB 575: PROJECT
4 CREDITS
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of 27

PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY

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Transcripts - PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY

  • 1. PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF LIFE SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY SYLLABI FOR M. Sc. BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY (2007-08 on wards) SL. No. NAME OF THE COURSE CREDIT PAGE NO. FIRST SEMESTER BMB 401 BIOMOLECULES 3 3 BMB 402 HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY 3 4 BIOT 403 CELL BIOLOGY 3 5 BMB 404 ANALYTICAL BIOCHEMISTRY & 3 6 BIOPHYSICS BMB 405 BIOSTATISTICS & SCIENTIFIC 3 7 WRITING BMB 451 BIOMOLECULES LAB 1 8 BMB 452 HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY LAB 1 8 BMB 453 CELL BIOLOGY LAB 1 9 BMB 454 ANALYTICAL BIOCHEMISTRY & 1 9 BIOPHYSICS LAB SECOND SEMESTER BMB 406 METABOLISM & REGULATION 3 10 BMB 407 ENZYMOLOGY 3 11 BMB 408 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY -I 3 12 BMB 409 BIOINFORMATICS 3 13 BMB 410 ENDOCRINOLOGY 3 14 BMB 455 METABOLISM & REGULATION LAB 1 15 BMB 456 ENZYMOLOGY LAB 1 15 BMB 457 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY –I LAB 1 16 BMB 458 BIOINFORMATICS LAB 1 16 1
  • 2. SL. No. NAME OF THE COURSE CREDIT PAGE NO. THIRD SEMESTER BMB 501 MOLECULAR BASIS OF CELLULAR 3 17 DISORDERS BMB 502 MOLECULAR IMMUNOLOGY 3 18 BMB 503 PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 3 19 BMB 504 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY II 3 20 BMB 551 MOLECULAR IMMUNOLOGY LAB 1 21 BMB 552 PLANT PHYSIOLOGY LAB 1 21 BMB 553 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY II LAB 1 22 FOURTH SEMESTER BMB 505 CANCER BIOLOGY 3 23 BMB 506 PROTEOMICS 3 24 BMB 507 MOLECULAR ENDOCRINOLOGY 3 25 BMB 508 PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY 3 26 BMB 575 PROJECT 4 27 2
  • 3. Unit BMB 401: BIOMOLECULES 3 CREDITS 1. Biomolecules- chemical composition and bonding - chemical reactivity - 4 Lectures ionization of water - weak acids and weak bases - buffers - buffering in biological systems. Principles of bioenergetics- Laws of thermodynamics and their applications 5 Lectures in biological system – entropy and enthalpy - standard free energy changes- standard reduction potentials – thermodynamics of coupled reaction. 2. Carbohydrates-Monosaccharides- disaccharides- oligosaccharides- sugar 5 Lectures derivatives- amino sugar- phosphate esters- deoxysugar- sugar acid- polysaccharides- structure and biological functions of homo- and hetero- polysaccharides- biosynthesis and degradation of glucose and glycogen. 3. Proteins-primary- secondary- tertiary and quaternary structure- 6 Lectures Ramachandran plot- super secondary structures- helix loop helix- βαβ- biosynthesis of urea. Nature of enzymes- classification and nomenclature of enzymes - kinetic 5 Lectures analysis of enzyme catalyzed reactions– regulation of enzyme activity by non-genetic mechanisms - ribozymes. 4. Lipids- Classification- structure and properties- phospholipids- 5 Lectures glycoplipids- sphingolipids- cholesterol. Fatty acids- saturated and unsaturated fatty acids- biosynthesis and degradation- Structure and biological role of prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes. 5. Nucleic acids- types and structural organization- triple helix of DNA- DNA 5 Lectures denaturation and renaturation- hypochromicity- Tm. Text Book: 1. Nelson. D. L, Cox. M. M. Lehninger’s Principle of Biochemistry. 4th ed. Freeman, 2004 2. Murray. R. K, Granner. D. K, Mayes. P. A, Rodwell. V. W. Harper’s Biochemistry. 27th ed. McGraw Hill, 2006. Suggested Reading: 1. Dixon & Webb. Enzymes. 3rd ed. Longmans, 1979. 2. Berg. J. M, Tymoczko. J. L, Stryer, L. Biochemistry. 6th ed. Freeman, 2006 3. Adams. R. L, Knowler. J. T, Leader. D. P. Biochemistry of Nucleic Acids. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1998. 3
  • 4. Unit BMB 402: HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY 3 CREDITS 1. Introduction- Internal environment and homeostasis- coordinated body 2 Lectures functions. Digestion- digestive processes at various regions of digestive system, 6 Lectures regulation of -gastric secretion and motility- intestinal secretion and motility-role of gastrointestinal hormones. 2. Cardiophysiology- functional anatomy of heart- genesis and spread of 7 Lectures cardiac impulses- cardiac cycle- heart sound- cardiac output- cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms- basic E.C.G. 3. Respiratory physiology- functional anatomy of air-passages and lung- 6 Lectures respiratory muscles- mechanism of respiration- lung volumes and capacities- gas exchange in the lungs- regulation of respiration. 4. Renal physiology- structure of nephron- glomerular filtration- tubular 6 Lectures reabsorption and secretion- formations of urine- regulation of water and mineral excretion- counter current multiplier and exchanger- renal role in acid base balance. 5. Nerve physiology-Structure of neuron and synapse- excitability- action 4 Lectures potential- conduction of never impulse-synaptic transmission- neurotransmitter systems. Muscle physiology- skeletal and smooth muscle- electrical properties and 4 Lectures ionic properties- types of muscle contraction- Neuromuscular transmission. Text Book: 1. Ganong W. E. Review of Medical Physiology. 21st ed. Mc. Graw Hill, 2003. 2. Guyton. A.C, Hall. J.E. Textbook of Medical Physiology. 11th ed. Saunders Company, 2005. Suggested Reading: 1. Widmaier. E. P, Raff. H, Strang. K. T. Vander’s Human Physiology: The Mechanism of Body Function, 8th ed. Mc. Graw Hill, 2003. 4
  • 5. Unit BMB 403: CELL BIOLOGY 3 CREDITS 1. Dynamics of the eukaryotic cell- Molecules of life- Cellular evolution- 4 Lectures assembly of macromolecules and Origin of life- integrated structural organization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells- Concept of a composite cell and Molecular composition of cells. Biomembranes- Structural organization- Models of a plasma membrane, 5 Lectures Membrane permeability- Transport across cell membranes- Transmembrane signals- Artificial membranes- liposome. 2. Micro bodies-Peroxisomes and Glyoxysomes- Mechanism of degradation of 5 Lectures fatty acids and cellular toxic compounds- Glyoxalate cycle- Lysosomes - as acidic organelles- Enzymes of Lysosomes- Functions of Lysosomes 3. Molecular organization and function of mitochondria- components of 6 Lectures respiratory chain- Chemiosmotic theory- Kinetics of electron transport, ATP formation- uncouplers of oxidative –phosphorylation- mitochondrial DNA and Semiautonomy. Chemistry of chloroplasts- supramolecular organization of chloroplast 5 Lectures membranes and thylakoids- photosynthetic carbon assimilation- C3, C4 and CAM pathways of photosynthesis. 4. Endomembrane system- Endoplasmic reticulum- protein segregation- 4 Lectures microsomes- functions of endoplasmic reticulum- Golgi complex and cell secretion- Protein glycosylation. 5. Ribosomes- Structural organization- DNA replication- transcription and 6 Lectures translation- Protein synthesis and protein processing. Nucleus- Internal organization- Nuclear pore complex- Nucleosomes, Chromatin- The flow of genetic information. Text Book: 1. Alberts. B, Johnson. A, Lewis. J, Raff. M, Roberts. K, Walter. P. Molecular Biology of the cell. 4th ed. Garland publishing Inc, 2002. 2. De Robertis and De Robertis. Cell and Molecular Biology, Lea and Febiger. 8th ed. 2000. Suggested Reading: 1. Cooper. G. M. Cell - A molecular approach. 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, 2000 5
  • 6. Unit BMB 404: ANALYTICAL BIOCHEMISTRY & BIOPHYSICS 3 CREDITS 1. Electrochemical techniques- basic principles- The pH electrode- Ion-selective- 3 Lectures gas- sensing and oxygen electrodes- Elementary details of biosensors. Principles and techniques of colorimetry and spectrophotometry-Beer- 3 Lectures Lamberts Law -instrumentation - qualitative and quantitative methods of analysis-protein estimation methods-hypo and hyper chromicity- coupled assays - Spectrofluorimetry -Turbidimetry - Flame and Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer 2. Principles of analytical instrumentation- techniques and applications of 5 Lectures Electron spin resonance- Nuclear magnetic resonance- Circular Dichroism (CD) - Optical Rotary Dispersion (ORD). Microscopy- basic principles and applications –Light- Compound- Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)- Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)- Fluorescence Microscopy- Scanning Tunneling Microscopy- (STM)- Automated Fluorescence Microscopy - Confocal Microscopy. 3. Centrifugation- basic principles-instrumentation-centrifugation units-types of 3 Lectures centrifuges-colloidal nature of particles-centrifugation methods and accessories - sedimentation velocity-sedimentation equilibrium-cell fractionation methods. 4. Chromatography- types- column, thin layer, paper, adsorption, partition, gas 10 Lectures liquid ion exchange, affinity, HPLC- principles of each type- instrumentation and accessories- detection methods and systems qualitative and quantitative aspects-applications. Electrophoresis- types-paper and gel-agarose and PAGE- pulsed field-capillary - isoelectric focusing- blotting methods-western- southern and northern- application- methods in life sciences and biotechnology. 5. Radioactive methods- types of radioisotopes-half life- units of radioactivity- 5 Lectures uses of radioisotopes in life sciences and biotechnology- detection and measurement of Radioactivity- liquid scintillation counting- solid state counting- Geiger counter - Radiation hazards. Text Book: 1. Freifelder D. M. Physical Biochemistry- Application to Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed., W.H. Freeman, 1982. 2. Wilson & Walker. Principles and Techniques in Practical Biochemistry. 5th ed. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2000. Suggested Reading: 1. Horst Friebolin. Basic One and Two-dimensional spectroscopy. VCH Publ, 1991. 2. Murphy D. B. Fundamental of Light Microscopy & Electron Imaging. 1st ed. Wiley-Liss, 2001. 6
  • 7. Unit BMB 405: BIOSTATISTICS & SCIENTIFIC WRITING 3 CREDITS 1. Introduction- definition of statistics-population and universe- the sample 3 Lectures and population- statistical inference- parameter and statistics Handling of bulky data- construction a histogram- interpretation of 5 Lectures histogram- the normal distribution- the mean-mode-and standard deviation- representing the normal curve as straight line- uncertainties in estimating a mean. 2. Proportion data- Examples of Proportion data- MPM- sterility testing of 6 Lectures medicines- animal toxicity- infection and immunization studies e.g., LD50, ED50, PD50 statistical treatment to proportion data- Chi-square test- goodness of fit to normal distribution. Count data- Examples of count data (bacterial cell count, radioactivity 5 Lectures count, colony and plaque count, etc.). Statistical treatment to count data- possion distribution- standard error- confidence limits of counts. 3. Analysis of variance- Introduction –procedure-F and t test. 4 Lectures 4. Correlation regression and line fitting through graph points- standard 5 Lectures curves- correlation- linear regression (fitting the best straight line through series of points)- standards curves and interpolations of unknown y- values thereon. 5. Methodology for writing science report and oral presentation- 7 Lectures compilation of experimental record- program of writing- use of vocabulary- use of good english-art of illustration- report writing- editing and correcting- technique of oral presentation. Text Book: 1. Green. R. H. Sampling Design and Statistical Methods for Environmental Biologists .John Wiley & Sons, 1979. Suggested Reading: 1. Snedecor G. W. & Cochran W. G. Statistical methods. 8th ed. Iowa State Press, 1989. 2. Thomas Glover, Kevin Mitchell. Introduction to Biostatistics. 1st ed. McGraw –Hill Science, 2001. 3. Matthews. Sucessful Scientific writing: A step-by- step Guide for Biomedical Scientists. 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, 2001. 4. Jerrold H. Zar. Biostatistical Analysis. 4th ed. Pearson Education, 2006 7
  • 8. Lab Course each having 1 CREDIT BMB 451 BIOMOLECULES LAB 1. Laboratory safety 2. Determination of Absorption Maximum 3. Verification of Beer-Lambert’s Law 4. Preparation of Standard curve 5. Estimation of protein by Biuret method. 6. Estimation of protein by Lowry’s method. 7. Extraction of biochemical constituents from various tissues. 8. Purification & Estimation of DNA from plant, animal and bacteria 9. Purification & Estimation of RNA from plant, animal and bacteria 10. Estimation of Enzyme activity (e.g.Urease) 11. Effect of pH and temperature on enzyme activity- Amylase. 12. Effect of substrate concentration on enzyme activity. 13. Purification & Estimation of Casein in milk. 14. Estimation of cholesterol. BMB 452 HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY LAB 1. Microscopy 2. RBC count & WBC count 3. Differential leucocyte count by Leishman’ s staining 4. Estimation of Haemoglobin by Sahli’s acid haematin method 5. Determination of Packed cell volume (PCV) 6. Determination of Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) 7. Determination of Coagulation time & Bleeding time 8. Determination of blood group 9. Determination of Blood Pressure by Sphygmomanometry 10. Electrocardiography (ECG) 11. Pulmonary function tests 12. Stethography 8
  • 9. BMB 453 CELL BIOLOGY LAB 1. Paper Chromatography of Chlorophyll pigments 2. Arrest and observation of chromosomes after colchicine treatment in onion roots. 3. Cell fractionation 4. Estimation of Chlorophyll 5. Ascorbic acid estimation in different tissues of plants and animals. 6. Catalase assay 7. Growth curve of bacteria. 8. Estimation of cell mass of bacteria. BMB 455 ANALYTICAL BIOCHEMISTRY & BIOPHYSICS LAB 1. Buffer preparation 2. pH titration 3. Protein purification by ammonium sulfate precipitation. 4. Molecular modeling using modeling kit. 5. Absorption spectra- UV-Visible. 6. Paper Chromatography of amino acids, carbohydrates, nucleic acid. 7. Ion exchange chromatography. 8. SDS Gel electrophoresis. 9
  • 10. Unit BMB 406: METABOLISM & REGULATION 3 CREDITS 1. General introduction- Anabolism- Catabolism- Vitamins- coenzymes- 2 Lectures interrelations - regulation- antimetabolites. . 2. Carbohydrates metabolism- Pentose phosphate pathway- Glyoxylate pathway- 4 Lectures Xenobiotic metabolism. Metabolism of lipids- Biosynthesis and catabolism in general-oxidation of 6 Lectures fatty acids – Biosynthesis of Mono and PUFA-Biosynthesis and degradation of triacylglycerol- phospholipids- sphingolipids - Cholesterol synthesis - Arachidonic acid metabolism – Prostaglandins- Leukotrienes - Thromboxanes. 3. Metabolism of Proteins and Non-essential amino acids-interrelations between 6 Lectures metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and amino acids. Biosynthesis and Catabolism of Porphyrins- heme-bile pigments-transport and 7 Lectures excretion- Biosynthesis of Purines and Pyrimidines - catabolism and regulation. 4. Genetic errors of metabolism- Representative examples - phenylketonuria, 5 Lectures alkaptonuria- sickle cell anemia- galactosemia – cystinuria- Thalasemia. 5. Signal Transduction- intracellular receptor and cell surface receptors- 5 Lectures signaling via G-protein linked receptor-PKA- PKC- CaM kinase- enzyme linked receptor signaling – JAK-STAT pathway- cross talk between different signal mechanisms. Text Book: 1. Nelson. D. L, Cox. M. M. Lehninger’s Principle of Biochemistry. 4th ed. Freeman, 2004 2. Murray. R. K, Granner. D. K, Mayes. P. A, Rodwell. V. W. Harper’s Biochemistry. 27th ed. McGraw Hill, 2006 Suggested Reading: 1. Berg. J. M, Tymoczko. J. L, Stryer, L. Biochemistry. 6th ed. Freeman, 2006 2. Zubay. Biochemistry. 4th ed. William C. Brown Publication, 1998 3. Voet and Voet. Biochemistry. 3rd. John Wiley, 1995. 10
  • 11. Unit BMB 407: ENZYMOLOGY 3 CREDITS 1. Enzymes- historical perspective- nomenclature- methods of isolation and 3 Lectures purification- enzyme units- substrate specificity. Enzyme kinetics- Factors affecting enzyme activity- Michaelis-Menten 6 Lectures equation- analyses of kinetic data- Lineweaver-burk plot- catalytic efficiency- Haldane relationship- Hill’s plot- Bisubstrate reactions- sequential - ping- pong reactions- rate equations and examples. 2. Enzyme inhibition- Irreversible- reversible- competitive- non-competitive - 4 Lectures uncompetitive inhibition- Graphical analysis. 3. Enzymatic catalysis- acid-base catalysis- covalent catalysis- metal ion 4 Lectures catalysis- electrostatic catalysis- catalysis through proximity and orientation effects- catalysis by transition state binding. Co-enzymes- A, B-complex, C, D, E and K- structure and function- 7 Lectures Isoenzymes-LD- CK- Applied Enzymology-Immobilized enzymes- methods and applications in industry- medicine- enzyme electrodes - biosensors. 4. Carboxypeptidase- Lysozyme- enzyme structure- catalytic mechanism- 4 Lectures Phillips mechanism. 5. Regulation of enzyme activity- allosteric control- reversible covalent 7 Lectures modification- proteolytic activation- sequential- concerted and cumulative feed back control- importance of compartmentation- Allosteric enzymes- Jacob and Monod model of allosteric enzymes- Koshland model- subunit interaction and regulation of enzyme activity – ATCase. Text Book: 1. Nelson. D. L, Cox. M. M. Lehninger’s Principle of Biochemistry. 4th ed. Freeman, 2004 2. Berg. J. M, Tymoczko. J. L, Stryer, L. Biochemistry. 6th ed. Freeman, 2006 Suggested Reading: 1. Dixon & Webb. Enzymes. 3rd ed. Longmans, 1979. 2. Murray. R. K, Granner. D. K, Mayes. P. A, Rodwell. V. W. Harper’s Biochemistry. 27th ed. McGraw Hill, 2006. 11
  • 12. Unit BMB 408: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY-I 3 CREDITS 1. History and scope of molecular biology- Discovery of DNA- evidence for 2 Lectures DNA as the genetic material. The genomes of bacteria, viruses, plasmids, mitochondria and chloroplast- 7 Lectures Gene transfer in microorganisms- conjugation- transformation, transduction - protoplasmic fusion. 2. Organisation of eukaryotic genome- components of eukaryotic chromatin- 5 Lectures chromatin and chromosome structure- DNA-supercoiling -linking number- satellite DNA-possible functions- Cot curve- C- value paradox. 3. DNA replication- Prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA replication, mechanism of 6 Lectures replication. Enzymes and necessary proteins in DNA replication. Telomeres, telomerase and end replication. Role of telomerase in aging and cancer. 4. Transcription- Prokaryotic and eukaryotic Transcription- RNA polymerases- 6 Lectures general and specific transcription factors- regulatory elements- mechanism of transcription regulation- Transcription termination Post transcriptional modification- 5’ cap formation-3’ end processing and 5 Lectures polyadenylation- splicing- editing- nuclear export of mRNA- mRNA stability. 5. Translation- Genetic code- Prokaryotic and eukaryotic translation- 4 Lectures translational machinery- Mechanism of initiation- elongation and termination- Regulation of translation. Text Book: 1. Watson. J. D, Baker. T. A, Bell. S. P, Gann. A, Levine. M, Losick. R. Molecular Biology of Gene. 5th The Benjamin / Cummings Pub. Co. Inc, 2003 2. Weaver. R. F. Molecular Biology. 3rd ed. Mc Graw Hill publilcation , 2005 Suggested Reading: 1. Darnell, Lodish and Baltimore. Molecular Cell Biology, Scientific American Publishing Inc, 2000 2. Bruce Alberts, Alexander Johnson, Julian Lewis, Martin Raff, Keith Roberts, Peter Walter. Molecular biology of the Cell. 4th ed. Garland publishing Inc, 2002 3. Benjamin Lewin. Gene VII. Oxford University Press, 2000 4. Nelson Cox. Lehninger’s Principle of Biochemistry. 3rd ed. MacMillian Worth Publ, 2000 12
  • 13. Unit BMB 409: BIOINFORMATICS 3 CREDITS 1. Introduction- scope- Historical account. 6 Lecture Database Management Systems- Database System Versus File Systems- View of Data- Data Models- Database Languages- Database Users and Administrators- Database System Structure- RDBMS- SQL commands 2. 5 Lectures Biological Databases and Data Retrieval: Nucleotide (Genbank- EMBL- DDBJ)- Sequence submission Methods and tools (Sequin, Sakura, Bankit)- Sequence retrieval systems (Entrez & SRS)- Sequence File Formats and Conversion tools- Protein (Swiss-prot, PIR, Expasy)- Structural Databanks (PDB and NDB)- Protein Structure Classification (SCOP, CATH and FSSP)- Metabolic Pathway db (KEGG)- Specialized db (IMGT, Rebase, COG) Molecular Sequence Alignment- Pair wise Alignment- Global Alignment- Local 7 Lectures Alignment- Visual Alignment- Dynamic Programming- Heuristic approach- Scoring Matrices and Affine Gap costs- Database Search methods- Multiple Sequence Alignment methods. Gene Prediction and Phylogenetic Analysis: Gene structure in Prokaryotes and 3. 5 Lectures Eukaryotes- Gene Prediction methods- Construction of Phylogenetic trees - Distance Methods- Maximum Parsimony Method- Maximum likelihood method. 4. Molecular Modeling and Drug Designing: Introduction to Protein Structure 6 Lectures Prediction- Rational drug discovery- Recent advances in drug design methodologies- Structure-based drug design- Drug-receptor interactions- Structure-Activity Relationships. 5. Introduction to Networks and Linux: Introduction to Network- Intranet- Internet- 6 Lectures DNS- TCP/IP- Web Designing- HTML tags- tables- frames- forms- XML- UML- SOAP- Files and Directories- Bash commands- Users and Groups- Permissions- Software installation- communicating with other computers using Telnet- FTP- SCP- SSH- Shell scripting- STDI/O- Pipes and control. Text Book: 1. Claverie. J. M, Notredame. C. Bioinformatics For, Wiley Publishing, Inc. 2003 2. Dan. E. Krane, Michael L. Raymer – 1st ed. Fundamental concepts in Bioinformatics. Pearson Education. 2006. Suggested Reading: 1. David Mount. Bioinformatics: Sequence and Genome Analysis. CSHL 2001. 2. Andreas D. Baxevanis & B.F. Francis Ouellellette. Bioinformatics – A Practical Guide to the Analysis of Genes and Proteins, John Wiley & Sons, UK, 1998. 3. Des Higgins. Bioinformatics Sequence, Structure databanks. Willie Taylor. Abraham Silberschatz, Henry F. Korth, Sudarshan S., “Database System Concepts” – (3rd Edition), McGraw-Hill. 13
  • 14. 410: ENDOCRINOLOGY 3 CREDITS 1. Introduction to Endocrinology- Historical perspective - Aims and scope 6 Lectures of endocrinology. Endocrine glands and their hormones- Peptide hormones- Thyroid 5 Lectures hormones- adrenal hormones- islet hormones. Neurotransmitters- Neuropeptides- Growth - stimulating factors- prostaglandins- pheromones. 2. General mechanisms of hormone action- Cellular receptors & hormone 5 Lectures action- Receptor signal transduction- cyclic nucleotides and hormone action- Calmodulin – An intracellular calcium receptor- Termination of hormone action. 3. The Endocrine hypothalamus- The Neurovascular hypothesis- 5 Lectures Hypophysiotropic hormones 4. Pituitary gland- Hormones of the pituitary gland- Glycoprotein hormones- 6 Lectures ACTH- Prolactin- GH- Oxytocin- Vasopressin- melanotropin Pineal gland- Gastrointestinal hormones. 2 Lectures 5. Endocrine methodologies- Methods of study-Histological- cytological 6 Lectures studies- surgical methods- Tissue extraction and purification- bioassays- Radioisotope studies- Electrophysiological - pharmacological methods. Text Book: 1. E. Knobil & J.D. Neill. The Physiology of Reproduction. 2nd ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1994. 2. Williams. R. H, Foster. D. W, Kronenberg. H. M, Larsen. P. R, Wilson. J. M. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 10th ed. W. B. Saunders Company, 2002. Suggested Reading: 1. G. Litwack.Biochemical Actions of Hormones. Academic Press, 1970. 2. Nelson Cox. Lehninger’s Principle of Biochemistry. 3rd ed. MacMillian Worth Publ, 2000. 3. Mac E. Hadely. Endocrinology. 5th ed. Pearson Education, 2000. 14
  • 15. Lab Course each having 1 CREDIT BMB 456 METABOLISM & REGULATION LAB 1. Preparation of Lactalbumin from milk. 2. Folin-Wu method of blood glucose estimation. 3. Estimation of Calcium by Clarke & Collip method. 4. Estimation of urea by Diacetyl monoxime method. 5. Preparation of hemoglobin from blood. 6. Paper electrophoresis of serum proteins. 7. Estimation of glucose by Benedict’s method. 8. Estimation of Creatinine in urine. BMB 457 ENZYMOLOGY LAB 1. Colorimetric enzyme assay 2. Coupled enzyme assay 3. Determination of Km & Vmax of the enzymes 4. Column Chromatography 5. Partial purification of enzyme 6. Enzyme kinetics – determination of rate constant 7. Enzyme inhibition studies 15
  • 16. BMB 458 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY –I LAB 1. Isolation & purification of genomic DNA from bacteria 2. Isolation & purification of plasmid DNA from bacteria 3. Isolation & purification of genomic DNA from plants 4. Agarose gel electrophoresis of chromosomal 5. Agarose gel electrophoresis of plasmid DNA 6. Determination of purity of DNA spectrophotmetrically 7. Restriction digestion of chromosomal & plasmid DNA 8. Isolation of DNA fragment from agarose gel BMB 459 BIOINFORMATICS LAB 1. Plasmid Construction 2. Restriction Mapping 3. PCR Primer Designing 4. Sequence Retrieval and Format Conversion 5. ORF Finding 6. Homology Search 7. Multiple Sequence Alignment 8. Gene Prediction in prokaryotes 9. Motif finding in DNA and Protein Sequences 10. Structure Visualization 11. Protein Secondary Structure Prediction 12. Phylogenetic Analysis 16
  • 17. BMB 501: MOLECULAR BASIS OF CELLULAR DISORDERS 3 CREDITS 1. Inflammation and Repair/Wound healing: Acute inflammation-Vascular 6 Lectures changes-cellular events-chemical mediators of inflammation-chronic inflammation-morphologic patterns in acute and chronic inflammation-systemic effects of inflammation-wound healing-mechanism of wound healing- pathologic aspects of inflammation and response. 2. Hemodynamic disorders, Thrombosis & Shock: Edema-hyperemia and 5 Lectures congestion-hemorrhage-hemostasis and thrombosis-endothelium-platelets- coagulation system-genesis of thrombosis-fate of thrombus-embolism- pulmonary, systemic, amniotic fluid, air and fat-infarction-septic shock. 3. Red & White cell diseases: Normal development of blood cells-anemias- 7 Lectures hemolytic-G6PD deficiency-sickle cell-thalassemias-paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria-megaloblastic-iron deficiency – chronic disease -aplastic- marrow failure-polycythemia-bleeding disorders-leukopenia-reactive proliferation of white cells –neoplastic proliferation of white cells-leukemias & myeloproliferative disorders - plasma cell dyscrasias. 4. Neoplasia & Transformation: Benign & malignant neoplasm-differentiation 15 Lectures and Anaplasia-Invasion and metastasis-epidemiology of cancer incidence- molecular basis of cancer-biology of tumor growth-carcinogenic agents & their cellular interactions- hot defense against tumors-tumor antigens-antitumor effector mechanisms-immunosurveillance-immunotherapy-gene therapy of tumors. Environmental and Nutritional diseases: Magnitude of environmental problem-air pollution-chemical and drug injury-adverse drug reactions- exogenous oestrogens and oral contraceptives-carcinogens-street drugs-physical injuries-mechanical force-temparature related-hyperthermic injuries-pressure related-electrical and radiation injuries- protein calories malnutrition-nutritional excesses and imbalances-obesity-diet and systemic diseases. 5. Hepatic disorders: Hepatic injury-Hepatitis a through E-Alcohol liver disease- 7 Lectures Drug and toxin induced liver disease- cirrhosis- pregnancy associated- transplantation associated-adenomas and primary carcinoma. Text Book: 1. Cotran, Kumar, Robbins. Pathological Basis of Disease. 7th ed. Prism, India. 2004. 2. Harold Varley. Clinical Practical Biochemsitry. Arnold Heineman Publishers. Suggested Reading: 1. Goodman & Gilman. Pharmaological Basis of therapeutics. 11th ed, McGraw Hill 2006. 2. Zilva & Pannell. Clinical Biochemistry in Diagnosis & Treatment, Lloyd Luke Publications USA. 17
  • 18. Unit BMB 502: MOLECULAR IMMUNOLOGY 3 CREDITS 1. Introduction & overview – The origin of immunology - Principles of 7 Lectures Immunity: Innate vs. Acquired - inherent immunity; humoral and cell mediated immunity; Immunity at Body Surfaces. Cells of the immune system - Organs of the immune system – primary and secondary lymphoid organ; B cell, T cell and macrophages; Mononuclear Phagocytic System 2. Antigens - Antibodies: Antigenicity - Structure, Biological function - 7 Lectures synthesis of antibody and secretion – antigen-antibody reaction - Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies - Antibody genes molecular basis of antibody diversity - Mechanisms of Heavy Class Switching Antigen-antibody reactions - Major histocompatibility complex - Antigen processing and presentation 3. B-cell diversity, generation, activation, differentiation - Response of B-Cells 7 Lectures to Antigens - Genetic Basis of Ag Recognition – T-cell receptor - T-cell maturation, activation, differentiation - Effector T-Cell Functions. 4. Lymphokines and Cytokines - The complement system - Cell-mediated 6 Lectures effectors responses (CTL, NK, DH) - Immune responses to infection - Vaccines 5. Leukocyte recirculation and inflammation - Hypersensitive reactions 13 Lectures (immunopathologies) allergies - AIDS and other immunodeficiencies – Autoimmunity: Breakdown in Self-Tolerance. Transplantation: tissue and organ grafting - Cancer and the immune system - Cancer Immunotherapy. Text Book: 1. I. Roitt. Essential Immunology. 10th ed. Blackwell Science, 2005 2. Richard A. Goldsby, Thomas J. Kindt and Barbara A. Osborne. Kuby Immunology. 4th ed. W. H. Freeman & Company, 2000. Suggested Reading: 1. Eli Benjamini, Richard Coico, G. Sunshine. Immunology- A Short Course. 4th Ed. Wiley’s Publication, 2000. 18
  • 19. Unit BMB 503: PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 3 CREDITS 1. Introduction to Plant Physiology: Historical perspectives. 10 Lectures Photosynthesis: Photosynthetic pigments and light harvesting complexes, Photoinhibition of photosynthesis, Photosynthetic carbon reduction (PCR) cycle, C4 syndrome and Crassulacean acid metabolism. 2. Cellular Respiration: Glycolysis, Oxidative respiration, Oxidative 6 Lectures pentose phosphate pathway, Glyoxalate cycle, alternate electron pathways and Respiration rate. 3. Nitrogen metabolism: Physical and biological nitrogen fixation, 12 Lectures Ammonification, Nitrification, Denitrification, Biochemistry and Genetics of nitrogen fixation and Ammonium assimilation. Lipid metabolism: Classification of lipids, Biosynthesis of fatty acids, Enzymatic degradation of fats and Physiological effects. 4. Plant Hormones: Biosynthesis, Physiological effects and mechanism 6 Lectures of action of Auxins, Gibberellic acids, Cytokinins, Abscisic acid, Ethylene, Brassinosteroids and Polyamines. 5. Plant Stress physiology: Plant stress, Plant responses to abiotic and 6 Lectures biotic stresses, Water deficit and drought resistance, Flooding, Temperature stress, Salt stress, Ion toxicity, Pollution stress and potential biotic stress (insects and diseases). Text Book: 1. Salisbury, F. B. and Ross, C.W. Plant Physiology. 4th ed. Wadsworth Pub. Co. California,USA, 1992. 2. Mukherji, S and Gosh A. K. Plant Physiology. 2nd ed. New Central Book Agency, Kolkata, 2005. Suggested Reading: 1. Hopkins, W. G and Huner, N. P. A. Introduction to Plant Physiology. 3rd ed. John Wiley & Sons Inc. New York, 2004. 2. Wilkins, M. B. Advanced Plant Physiology, English Language Book Agency, Longman, London, 1987. 3. Taiz, L. & Zeiger, E. Plant Physiology. 3rd ed. Sinamer Associates Inc. Publishers, Sunderland, USA, 2000. 19
  • 20. Unit BMB-504:MOLECULAR BIOLOGY-II 3 CREDITS 1. Enzymes in genetic engineering –Restriction endonucleases, Ligases. DNA 6 Lectures modification enzymes-alkaline phosphatase, polynucleotide kinases, Exonuclease III, DNase I, Mungbean and S1nuclease, DNA polymerase, klenow fragment, Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferases, Reverse transcriptases, RNase. 2. Vectors for cloning – plasmid, Bacteriophage, cosmids viral vectors, yeast 9 Lectures artificial chromosome Introducing genes in to prokaryotes –Natural gene transfer methods, calcium chloride mediated transformation, Transfection with phage vectors. Introducing genes in to eukaryotes –Recombinant viral techniques, DNA mediate gene transfer- calcium phosphate mediated gene transfer, Liposome mediated transformation, Microinjection, Electroporation. 3. Identifying the right clones-Direct screening, indirect screening- 9 Lectures immunochemical, and hybrid arrested translation and Nucleic acid probes Cloning strategies - Genomic libraries, cDNA cloning, sub cloning, shotgun cloning. Cloning in E.coli, and Yeast. 4. Prokaryotic gene expression –Maxi cell, Minicell, Expression of phage genes. 8 Lectures Eukaryotic gene expression –Fused genes, unfused genes, secreted proteins. Regulation of gene expression –cis acting and trans acting factors,- Transcription factors –NfkB, PPAR. Gene regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes -cAMP and regulation, gene silencing – SiRNA 5. Techniques in genetic engineering-blotting techniques, hybridization, 8 Lectures Southern-northern-western blotting, Mutagenesis-site directed mutagenesis, Restriction mapping, DNA footfrinting, chromosome walking, chromosome jumping. DNA sequencing and PCR. Text Book 1. Primrose, Twyman & Old. Principles of gene manipulation 6th ed. Blackwell Publishers.2001. 2. Sandhya Mitra.Genetic engineering. Macmillan India Limited.2005. Suggested Readings 1.Primrose. Principles of Genome analysis. Blackwell Sci.2003 2.Nicholls. Genetic Engineering.Cambridge Univ Press.2002 3.Watson. Recombinant DNA.2nd ed. American Publishers.1992 20
  • 21. Lab Course each having 1 CREDIT BMB 551: MOLECULAR IMMUNOLOGY LAB 1. Analyses of Antigens: Immunodiffusion (Ouchterlony) method. 2. Immunoelectrophoresis (IEP). 3. SPE: Serum Protein Electrophoresis 4. Preparation of mouse spleen cells 5. Isolation of lymphocytes. 6. Cell counting. 7. Immunoaffinity chromatography. 8. Generation and purification of polyclonal antibodies. 9. ELISA. BMB 552: PLANT PHYSIOLOGY LAB 1. Estimation of total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a and b, xanthophylls and carotenoid pigments from the leaves. 2. Isolation of chloroplasts and estimation of photochemical activity. 3. Determination of Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b in C3 and C4 plants. 4. Estimation of starch content by Anthrone reagent. 5. Spectrophotometric estimation of Indoleacetic acid in plant tissues. 6. Determination of nitrate reductase activity in crop plants under low water regimes. 7. Determination of Gibberllic acid by half seed method. 8. Determination of succinic dehyrogenase activity with and without inhibitors. 9. Determination of peroxidase activity. 10. Determination of protein under abiotic stress. 21
  • 22. BMB 553: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY II – LAB 1. Preparation of competent cell 2. Calcium chloride mediated transformation 3. Ligation of DNA 4. Polymerase chain reaction 5. Restriction fragment length polymorphism 6. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA 7. Cloning of GFP protein 22
  • 23. Unit BMB 505: CANCER BIOLOGY 3 CREDITS 1. Introduction - historical perspective – classification – epidemiology - 12 Lectures Carcinogenesis (chemical, radiation, viral); cancer initiation, promotion and progression - Phenotypic characteristics of cancer cells. Oncogenes and Signal Transduction Retroviral oncogenes - Cellular proto-oncogenes - oncogene activation - growth factors – receptors - signal transduction in cancer - Transcription factors. 2. Tumor Suppressor Genes & Cell Cycle Regulation 12 Lectures Tumor suppressor genes - DNA Viruses and human cancer - Telomerase and cell immortalization - Telomeres, Senescence, and Immortality - Cell: cell interactions; cell adhesion; invasion and metastasis - DNA methylation - epigenetic silencing of suppressor genes - Apoptosis in cancer biology – cancer cell cycle. Apoptosis: Cell death by apoptosis – caspases – apoptotic pathways 3. Natural History of Cancer Development 7 Lectures Free radicals, antioxidants and cancer - Aberrant metabolism during cancer development - Paraneoplastic syndromes - cancer endocrinology - Epidemiology of selected cancers - Gene rearrangements - detecting oncogene abnormalities in clinical specimens - Genomic and proteomic approaches for cancer detection and therapy 4. Tumor Immunology 4 Lectures Cytokines in tumors – immunological characterization of tumors - Strategies of anticancer immunotherapy 5. Current concepts in cancer therapy 5 Lectures Strategies of anticancer drug therapy – chemotherapy - translating therapies from the laboratory to the clinic - Strategies of anticancer gene therapy - gene discovery in cancer research - Stem Cells and Cancer. Text Book: 1. R. G. McKinnell, R. E. Parchment, A. O. Perantoni, G. Barry Pierce, I. Damjanov. The Biological Basis of Cancer. 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press, 2006. 2. R. A. Weinberg. The Biology of Cancer. Garland Science. 2006. Suggested Reading: 1. S. Pelengaris, M. Khan. The Molecular Biology of Cancer. Blackwell Publication. 2. Malcolm R. Alison. The Cancer Hand Book. Nature Publishing Group. 23
  • 24. Unit BMB 506: PROTEOMICS 3 CREDITS 1. Protein Profiling: Introduction: Human genome, From Genomes to Proteomes- 3 Lectures Proteomics. Branches of proteomics: Protein separation, Protein identification, Protein quantification, Protein sequence analysis, Structural proteomics, Interaction proteomics, Protein modification, and Cellular proteomics. Sample handling and storage: Preparation of Sample, Subcellular fractionation, Density 2 Lectures gradients, Affinity, Protein fractionation, Ultrafiltration. Purification: Removal of interfering compounds, Salts, DNA, lipids, Protein 3 Lectures solubilisation, Disulfide bonds, chaotropes, detergents, etc. Detection and quantitation: Chemical tagging, fluorescence, negative staining, Radio- 2 Lectures labelling. 2. Protein expression and interaction: Protein Expression system: transfection, 3 Lectures transformation, transduction, induction, detection and purification of expressed transgenes. Protein/peptide chemical synthesis: Biotinylated product, Antibody Production & 2 Lectures Engineering Protein Interactome: Methodology for detection, protein-protein interactions. Protein 5 Lectures Arrays: protein-polynucleotide, interactions with other Biomolecules, Signaling Complex, Liposome, reconstitution of membrane protein in lipid vesicles. 3. Protein Identification/ Post-Separation Analysis: X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance - Tandem mass spectrometry combined with reverse phase 8 Lectures chromatography or 2-D electrophoresis - Affinity chromatography - fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) - X-ray Tomography. 4. Proteome analysis – Algorithms for proteomics – Protein expression profiling – protein 7 Lectures arrays – Protein microarrays. Advantages and disadvantages of DNA and protein microarrays. 5. Analysis of profile in normal and disease condition: Body Fluids, Lipid & Kidney, 5 Lectures Blood diseases, Diabetes, Infectious Diseases, Stroke & Myocardial infarction, Nervous System, Alzheimer, Low abundance and hydrophobic proteins. High through put technique to identify the protein molecules in the sample. Text Book: 1. Twyman, R. M. Principles of proteomics. BIOS Scientific Publishers, New York. 2004. 2. Liebler, D. C. Introduction to Proteomics: Tools for the New Biology. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ. 2002. Suggested Reading: Westermeier, R. and T. Naven. Proteomics in Practice: A Laboratory Manual of Proteome Analysis. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, 2002. 24
  • 25. Unit BMB 507: MOLECULAR ENDOCRINOLOGY 3 CREDITS 1. Definition and scope of molecular endocrinology. Steroid hormones: 8 Lectures structure, biosynthesis and transport - dynamics of steroid hormone production and metabolism - mechanism of action of sex steroid hormones. 2. Peptide hormones: gonadotropins - cell surface receptors - signal 8 Lectures transduction - second messengers - protein kinases - regulation of gene expression. 3. Applications of molecular biology to reproduction: peptide hormone 7 Lectures receptor genes - sexual differentiation - testicular and ovarian determining genes - mullerian inhibiting substance genes. 4. Molecular basis of endocrinopathies- Hormones, receptors, transduction 12 Lectures and transcription. Molecular targets of male and female contraception. Principles of radioimmunoassay and enzyme linked immunoassays – 5. basic principles and measurement of steroid hormone receptors. 5 Lectures Text Book: 1. Bolander, F. F. Molecular Endocrinology, III ed. Academic Press, 2004. 2. R. A Lobo, D.R. Mishell (Jr.), R.J. Paulson, D. Shoupe. Text Book of Infertility, Contraception, and Reproductive Endocrinology, 4th ed. Blackwell Science, Malden, M. A, U.S.A, 1997. Suggested Reading: 1. Knobil & Neill’s Physiology of Reproduction – III Edition, J.D. Neill (Ed in chief), Elsevier Academic Press, 2006. 2. L. Hermo, Y. Clermont, Ed. B. Robeira, J.L. Pryor, J. M. Transler, Handbook of Andrology. American Society of Andrology, San Francisco, 1995. 3. T.D. Pollard, W. C. Earnshaw. Cell Biology. Saunders, New York, 2002 4. L.D. Russell, M.D. Griswold. The Sertoli Cell. Clearwater Cache River Press, 25
  • 26. Unit BMB-508: PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY 3 CREDITS 1. Introduction to cell and tissue culture –Media composition and preparation, 7 Lectures culture types –callus culture cell suspension culture, protoplast culture and etc. Somatic embryogenesis, organogenesis, Embryo culture and embryo rescue 2. Protoplast isolation, Protoplast culture and fusion, selection of hybrid cells, 8 Lectures cybrids, somaclonal variation Anther culture, pollen culture and ovary culture for production of haploid plants. Germplasm storage and cryo-preservation 3. Basic features of vectors for plant transformation –promoter and terminator, 8 Lectures selectable markers-Antibiotic resistance marker, Antimetabolite resistance marker and reporter genes-GUS gene, Lux gene and GFP protein. Co-integrate and binary vectors, Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer -Ti plasmid, The process of T-DNA transfer and integration, Direct gene transfer methods –particle bombardment, PEG transformation, Electroporation 4. Application of transgenesis in crop improvement –Insect resistance, 9 Lectures Disease resistance, virus resistance, herbicide resistance, and resistance to abiotic stress. Transgenesis for production of carbohydrates, lipids, protein and vaccines Transgenesis for male sterility and terminator seed. Transgenic plant –Bt cotton, Plant genome –Rice 5. Molecular markers and their uses in plant biotechnology-Molecular 8 Lectures markers-Restriction fragment length polymorphism, Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, DNA amplification fingerprinting [DAF], Amplified fragment length polymorphism [AFLP], Single sequence repeats [SSR], arbitrarily primed PCR [AP-PCR] Text book 1. Slater A, N.W.Scott, M.R.Fowler.Plant biotechnology. Oxford University press. 2003. 2. Hans-Walter Heldt. Plant Biochemistry &Molecular Biology. Oxford University Press. 1997 Suggested Readings 1. Lea and Leagood. Plant Biochemistry and Molecular biology. John Wiley & Sons. 2nd ed 1993. 2. Ramawat, K.G. & J.M Merillon. Biotechnology of Secondary Metabolites Oxford &IBH Pub. 1999. 26
  • 27. BMB 575: PROJECT 4 CREDITS 27

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