Preservation Magazine Cover Story Spring 2013
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Preservation Magazine Cover Story Spring 2013
on Shelter Island
on Shelter Island
PEOPLE SAVING PLACES
The magazine of the National Trust for Historic Preservation
Stephanie K. Meeks President
DavidJ.BrownExecutive Vice President and Chief Preservation Officer
Tabitha Almquist Chief of Staff
Paul Edmondson Chief Legal Officer and General Counsel
Debra Neuman Chief Development Officer
Rosemarie Rae Chief Financial and Administrative Officer
Estevan Rael-Gálvez Vice President of Historic Sites
Terry Richey Chief Marketing Officer
Eastern Region William Aiken House, 456 King St.,
Charleston, SC 29403, (843) 722-8552
Field Offices Boston; Charleston; Chicago; District of Columbia;
Nashville; and Philadelphia
Western Region 1420 Ogden St., Suite 203, Denver, CO 80218,
Field Offices Boise; Canby, Ore.; Chicago; Denver; Seattle;
San Francisco; and West Memphis, Ark.
board of trustees
Carolyn Brody, Chairman
Jorge L. Hernandez and Kenneth Woodcock, Vice Chairmen
Victor Ashe, Leslie Greene Bowman, Laura W. Bush, Susan E. Chapman,
Lawrence H. Curtis, Kevin D. Daniels, Jack Davis, Christopher J. Elliman,
Gloria Estefan, Paul Goldberger, Joe Grills, F. Sheffield Hale, Irvin M.
Henderson, Marilynn Wood Hill, Diane Keaton, Elizabeth Kennan,
Nancy Killefer, Fernando Lloveras San Miguel, Marcia V. Mayo, Vincent
L. Michael, F. Joseph Moravec, Martin L. J. Newman, Clement A. Price,
Ph.D., Marita Rivero, Charles Morgan Royce, Jeffrey H. Schutz, Barbara
G. Sidway, Mary M. Thompson, Timothy P. Whalen
The Attorney General of the United States
The Secretary of the Interior
The Director of the National Gallery of Art
Representative, Main Street Coordinators
Chair, National Trust Advisors
Chair, National Trust Historic Sites Councils
Chair, Statewide and Local Partners
Robert M. Bass, Alan S. Boyd,
Nancy N. Campbell, William B. Hart,
J. Clifford Hudson, Jonathan M. Kemper
STATEWIDE AND LOCAL RESOURCES
To find state and local preservation organizations:
national trust headquarters
1785 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
isionary individuals have always been the backbone of the preservation move-
ment, and we lost one of our giants last fall with Tony Goldman’s passing. You
may not know Tony’s name, but you certainly know his work: SoHo; South
Beach; Center City, Philadelphia; Miami’s Wynwood Arts District. And that’s just a
partial list of the historic communities he revived over his remarkable 40-year career.
Like all great preservationists, Tony saw beauty, life, and potential where others
saw grime and decay. He specialized in turnarounds—the more spectacular, the bet-
ter. In the 1970s, he took SoHo’s Cast-Iron District from
Hell’s Hundred Acres to a thriving mixed-use neighbor-
hood of restaurants, lofts, and shops.
In the 1980s, he bought 18 properties in as many months
along Ocean Drive in Miami’s South Beach, and used them
to anchor a new American Riviera.
More recently, he and his children, Jessica and Joey—the
next generation of Goldman Properties—had been work-
ing their family magic on Miami’s Wynwood Arts District,
turning its industrial warehouses into an open-air canvas
for the largest collection of museum-quality street murals
in the country.
I had the pleasure of touring the SoHo Cast-Iron
District with Tony and the National Trust Council a year
ago, and as always, he was overflowing with ideas. His
creativity, optimism, and enthusiasm reminded us how rewarding it can be to bring
America’s historic communities back to life.
We were fortunate to have Tony’s good counsel on the National Trust’s board, and on
the board of our for-profit subsidiary, the National Trust Community Investment Cor-
poration. He inspired us, and now we’re hoping to pass that inspiration along to a new
generation of visionary individuals through our National Treasures program, which
brings people and communities together to save the places that tell America’s story.
One such place, which you’ll read about on page 24 of this issue, is Miami Marine
Stadium. Arching gracefully over the water, the stadium is architecture for “that
place where the land and the sea kiss” in the words of the Cuban architect Hilario
Candela, who designed the structure in the early 1960s.
The stadium’s floating stage hosted concerts, sporting events, and even Sunday
services until 20 years ago, when it was shuttered after Hurricane Andrew. But
today a growing network of high-profile supporters—Miami’s mayor, the Miami
Heat’s operations organization, and National Trust board member Gloria Estefan
(see interview page 88), to name just a few—are working with the National Trust
and Friends of Miami Marine Stadium to bring the venue back to life.
Tony was among the project’s strongest supporters, and his loss has been keenly
felt. But it’s up to us, the beneficiaries of his vision, to continue his work.
If Tony’s life shows us anything, it’s that we shouldn’t give up on historic, one-of-a-
kind places like Miami Marine Stadium, when with a little creativity and vision, we can
give them a second act. And they can give us a more vibrant, beautiful, soulful future.
on twitter @SavePlacesPres
6 preservation | SPRING 2013
PEOPLE SAVING PLACES
Saving South Florida’s iconic
34 | Signed. Sealed.
Adapted historic post offices
40 | Sylvester Manor
plantation showcases food,
farming, and music
68 | Majestic Monterey
Touring California’s first capital
and the scenic central coast
Clockwise from top left: ken hayden; Steve
Gross Susan Daley; Emily nathan
• Designed by
completed in 1963,
and forsaken after
Hurricane Andrew in
1992, Miami’s iconic
Marine Stadium is
poised for new life.
24 preservation | spring 2013
Saving architect Hilario Candela’s beloved stadium
HHilario Candela remembers how the inaugural day gave a hint of the many purposes the Miami Marine Sta-
dium would serve, and of the hopes the city had for it.
Military personnel parachuted from the sky. High-speed powerboats flew past on the race course with
engines roaring and rooster tails of water shooting up behind them. One driver, James Tapp, reportedly died
that day, in the very first of many boat-racing wrecks to come.
As the celebration continued that night, a symphony orchestra played Die Fledermaus aboard a barge
pulled in front of the stadium to become a makeshift floating stage. Fireworks lit the sky.
spring 2013 | preservation 25
of Miami Marine Stadium (FMMS), explains. “We
need activity at the site all the time.”
The efforts of the FMMS in some ways parallel the
life of the structure itself, which grew from small and
unspectacular origins, tapped into an emotional con
nection to the sense of place, and surpassed everyone’s
The city had wanted nothing more than a simple
structure with a metal roof, similar to the baseball stadi
ums of the day, able to seat 6,600. Candela wanted more.
“The relationship of the water and the land to me is
very special,” he says. “At the place where the stadium
was, I kept looking at the water and the land kissing each
other, right at that spot. And I wanted to celebrate that.”
As he looked out on the ripples and reflections on
the water, his vision began to take shape.
“That reminded me of the beautiful sails. That was
as much an image of our city [as anything else]—sail
boats out on the bay, etc… and the ripples of the water
reinforced one with the other,” he says. “I had to reach
out for something special. Design became the tool.”
And poured concrete, the way to achieve it.
“Concrete was, in my mind, the logical material that
would give me the opportunity to create a piece of sculp
ture. And what I wanted was a piece of sculpture on the
water reflecting on what nature was providing us.”
The city resisted the elaborate plan, but with the
• Despite a chain link
fence, locked gate,
and “No Trespassing”
sign, the Miami Marine
Stadium has continued
to play an important
role in the lives of
city residents who
use the structure for
everything from a
skate park and fishing
pier to a canvas for
“It’s something that the city should be proud
of,” says Miami Mayor Tomás Regalado.
“To me, the Marine Stadium is Miami.”
“The stadium was adopted by the community and
the stadium adapted itself to what the community
wanted it to be. I think it was the confluence of both,”
says Candela, who designed the structure when he was
just 28, an architect newly arrived from Cuba.
It was 1963, days before New Year’s. The stadium’s
unveiling offered the nation the only facility designed
specifically for powerboat races. With its boldly can
tilevered roof jutting defiantly over the water and its
poured-concrete plates folded like intricate origami, it
was a tourist attraction unlike any other, meant to put
Miami on the national map alongside its better-known
neighbor, Miami Beach.
Looking at the decrepit husk that remains today,
it’s hard to imagine such a grand vision. The once-ma
jestic structure, unique in purpose and design, sits aban
doned in isolation behind a chain-link fence, a canvas
for graffiti artists and a playground for the acrobatic and
free-running activity known as parkour.
Now, though, a dedicated and determined group of
Preservation, is tantalizingly close to breathing new life
into the stadium after five years of effort. They have a
bold plan to not only restore it to the luster of its heyday,
but also to turn it into the centerpiece of a new public
space with a park, restaurant, and maritime museum
where people will come not just when there are events,
but every day.
“The Marine Stadium needs to kind of resume its
place as a community gathering place for people. The
architecture is certainly an important part of it, but we
want it to work,” Don Worth, co-founder of the Friends
26 preservation | spring 2013
• Miami Marine
Don Worth, and
National Trust board
member and architect
(from left) came
together in 2008 to
form Friends of Miami
Marine Stadium and
develop a plan for
the restoration and
operation of this
masterpiece of Miami
• The seldom-seen
concrete pilings and
beams that support a
seating area perched
above the water have
become a hangout
for graffiti artists and
an impromptu hiding
spot when the police
arrive to chase away
• Supported by
columns with elements
that pierce up
through openings in
the seating area, the
cantilevered roof is a
marvel of engineering
designed not only to
shade spectators from
the harsh subtropical
sun but also to be
of sails on Biscayne
Bay and water rippling
in the wind.
• The floating roof is
formed of a series of
and elegance from
what could have
otherwise been a
The finished structure exuded
dynamic tension, poised above the water
like a diver ready to spring into the air.
ping at the bulkhead beneath their seats, but remain
shielded from the sun and cooled by breezes blowing
in from the bay.
Total cost: $960,000.
THE FINISHED STRUCTURE was greater than anyone
had imagined and stands, today, in the pantheon of Mi
ami Midcentury Modern–style projects now known as
MiMo—alongside Enrique Gutierrez’s fabulous “float
ing” Bacardi Building tower, with its Spanish-tile mu
rals, and Morris Lapidus’ Fontainebleau hotel, with its
Baroque curves and breathtakingly spacious interiors.
Randall C. Robinson Jr., who coined the term MiMo
along with Teri D’Amico, ranks the stadium among
stellar examples of the style.
“This is perhaps Miami’s last still-standing great
work of engineering from that period,” Robinson says.
“And what’s special about it is that it was not only a
marvel of engineering, but it was done in such a way
that was very aesthetically pleasing.”
backing of his firm, Candela stood fast. Finally, city of
ficials relented, with a caveat: It had to cost less than $1
million to build, or Candela’s firm had to redesign it at
its own cost.
The result was a one-of-a-kind Midcentury Mod
ern gem filled with artistic symbolism. Exposed con
crete reflected the raw beauty of the surrounding site.
Candela slid the lowest third of the structure over the
water to highlight the coming together of land and bay
and because it seemed “somewhat contrarian to cel
ebrate water sports from the land.” Gaining support
from galvanized rebar, the roof unfolds as a series of
twisted geometric waves—structure-strengthening
“hyperbolic paraboloids” in architectural parlance—
that seem to billow like sails in the wind. Longer than
a football field, the 65-foot overhang is braced by noth
ing more than eight columns at the very rear, achiev
ing Candela’s goal of “a flying roof that seemed held
At the time of its construction, the 326-foot-long
roof was the longest span of cantilevered concrete in
the world. The engineer used at least three types of
concrete between the thickest 10- to 12-inch portion
at the back of the stadium and the 6-inch-thick edge
above the water.
The finished structure exuded dynamic tension,
poised above the water like a diver ready to spring
into the air. Spectators could hear the water lap
spring 2013 | preservation 29
Set on Virginia Key, an island between the main
land and Key Biscayne that’s better known as the
home of the Miami Seaquarium, the stadium offers
spectacular views of Miami’s skyline. It quickly
realized its attention-getting purpose.
“You have to remember,” says local historian Paul
George, “in '64 when it opened there weren’t any
[Miami] Dolphins. And the [University of Miami]
Hurricanes were a mediocre football team. There
weren’t a lot of things competing with it in the com
munity in terms of activities. So that was going to be
a unique new venue.”
The original concept of the stadium as a place
for watching boat races expanded rapidly, and the
events hosted there made the stadium as much a
part of South Florida’s history as its architectural
It was where Sammy Davis Jr. famously hugged
• The award-winning
Mailman Center was
completed in the early
1970s, and stands
with Candela’s other
as prime examples
of Miami Modern
he man perhaps best-known for designing the Miami Marine Stadium comes from
a long line of doctors. His father, grandfather, and a brother all chose medicine. Hilario
Candela chose architecture.
“I was always taken emotionally by visual things,” he says, and his mother’s influence
guided him to find fulfillment as an architect, even though she wasn’t one herself. “She
had a perception of space which for a non-trained person was rather unique. And she got
me interested in that.”
He got his training at Georgia Tech, a decision brought on by political turmoil that closed
the University of Havana. That came in the last of his native Cuba’s pre-Castro years, and
he returned to the island after graduation to join the architectural firm SACMAG, which was formed by two boyhood
friends. When Fidel Castro seized power in 1959, the firm was put in charge of building Havana’s National Theater.
Candela assisted, his first public project.
In 1960, he went into exile in Miami, where he joined Pancoast, Ferendino, Grafton, Skeels Burnham. His
first project was to oversee the construction of the first of Miami-Dade College’s buildings. It was a prophetic
assignment. After that, he designed every building on the school’s three campuses built over the next 30 years. All
bear his signature angularity, sweeping open spaces and exposed concrete, along with his characteristic devotion
to the surrounding environment and sense of place.
During those three decades he also rose to become the senior
partner and design director at the firm, eventually known as Spillis
Candela and Partners, providing the artistic vision for every one
of its projects and leaving an enduring imprint on South Florida’s
Some of the structures that he was responsible for designing
• The majestic yet austere Mailman Center for Child Development
at the University of Miami’s Miller School of Medicine, with its
dramatically arcing face swooping skyward, anchored by a solid
• The former Florida Power Light Company headquarters
in southwest Miami-Dade County, a 634,818 square-foot
• NOAA’s Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory,
near the Marine Stadium, notable for its interconnected
concrete modules fitted together like giant Legos.
• American Express Southern Regional Operations Center in
Plantation, Fla., a solidly modular building with the imposing
presence of a fortress, softened with the clean appeal of an
Candela’s Architecture of Environment and Place
30 preservation | spring 2013
Richard Nixon and where a diverse parade of
musicians including Arthur Fiedler and the Boston
Pops, Jimmy Buffett, Ray Charles, The Who, and
Basia soothed, serenaded, and flat-out rocked crowds
from a floating stage. (Buffett’s boisterous concert
drew an overflow audience that spilled out of the
stands and filled boats packed into the basin.)
“Fight Doctor” Angelo Dundee hosted many a
fight night there, and the “Cuban Bomber,” local phe
nom Frankie Otero, lost his North American Boxing
Federation Super Featherweight title to Jose Luis
“Maestrito” Lopez in a split decision in May of 1972.
Hollywood used it as a backdrop for the 1967 Elvis
movie Clambake, a typically hip-twisting musical
romp featuring Presley as a rich kid trying to make
it incognito as a water-skiing instructor at a Miami
hotel and managing at the film’s climax to win the
all-important powerboat race.
Facing the dawn sky, the marine stadium also
became one of the most popular local sites for Easter
sunrise masses, and indelibly etched in the memo
ries of the Cuban exile community as the locale for
the annual “Our Lady of Charity” celebration.
“It was spectacular, because the Virgin Mary
would come across the water like it did in Cuba
many years ago, and thousands of people waved,”
Miami Mayor Tomás Regalado recalls. “Everybody
knew that the place to be in September was the Ma
rine Stadium to honor the patron saint of Cuba.”
By 1992, the events were but memories. The
stadium, a largely forgotten relic of a bygone time.
“The conventional wisdom is that when [Hurri
cane] Andrew came that was it for the stadium. The
reality is, it was abandoned before then,” says Paul
George. “I went there with a friend of mine in the
summer of '86, and there was a powerboat race, and
we were among the few people there. I had the sense
then that the place was close to being abandoned.
People had just moved on to other interests.”
The city seized Andrew as an opportunity. It
• Situated to face the
dawn sky, the Miami
Marine Stadium hosted
sunrise church services
on Easter and other
important holy days.
ONLINE: For a slide show of behind-the-scenes
images from our photo shoot, visit
condemned the stadium as unsafe—falsely, as a later
study would prove.
“The city alleged it was damaged by Hurricane
Andrew,” Worth says. “It never was. And they wanted
to use that as the excuse to demolish the stadium.”
The reason, he posits, is simple.
“This is waterfront property in Miami. This is
ridiculously valuable land,” Worth says. “Aside from
[the fact that] any government would be challenged
to run a very complicated facility like this, you have
developers whispering. And that still continues: ‘We
can take this decrepit site and turn it into a great
source of tax revenue.’ And developers have a lot of
sway around here.”
In the summer of 2007, the city asked contractors
to develop a plan for eliminating the stadium. The
threat that the stadium would be razed sparked an
immediate reaction. By the following February the
stadium Friends had formed.
“When we started this project, nobody thought
we had a chance,” Worth says. “People looked upon
us as a well-meaning group, but ultimately naïve and
way overmatched for the task at hand.”
• Renderings for
the restored Miami
Marine Stadium are
designed to illustrate
the variety of
possible uses for the
property. A proposed
park setting could
provide a venue for
and soccer games
to a staging area for
LLike the stadium itself, though, the group
exceeded expectations. The members com
missioned engineering studies that disproved
the city’s contention that the hurricane had
damaged the structure. They won a historic
landmark designation from the city. And they
earned the support of the National Trust, which
named the stadium to its 2009 list of America’s
11 Most Endangered Historic Places and desig
nated it as a National Treasure in 2012. In 2010,
the World Monuments Fund added the stadium
to its Watch list.
The Miami Marines, as they refer to them
selves, also found that the stadium occupied a
special place in the community’s sentiments
and gained the support of local leaders, in
cluding Miami-Dade County Mayor Carlos
Gimenez and Miami Mayor Tomás Regalado,
who made restoring the stadium a priority of
“It’s something that the city should be proud
of, and it’s been an eyesore for 20 years,” Regala
do says. “To me, the Marine Stadium is Miami.
And there’s nothing more I would like to do as
mayor than to have that venue working for all
the residents to enjoy.”
To make that happen, though, the Miami Ma
rines estimate it will take $37 million to restore
the stadium, conduct ongoing maintenance, and
construct a neighboring multipurpose building.
Another $40 million to $45 million will be nec
essary to convert the site into a full-fledged Miami Ma
rine Park. According to the agreement they’ve signed
with the city, they only have until May 2014 to do it.
They’ve already raised or identified $10 million: the
National Trust Community Investment Corporation
is helping to structure $4 million to $5 million in fed
eral historic tax credits, $3 million is expected from a
county historic preservation bond fund, and another
$2 million has been pledged by an anonymous corpo
rate donor. They also expect to get another $1 million
to $2 million from the state of Florida to repair the
They have a variety of strategies for raising the rest.
Worth says they hope that selling the naming rights
for the stadium will bring in as much as $20 million.
Considering that prices for naming the nearby Ameri
can Airlines Arena, science museum, and performing
arts center went for $30 million or more each, Worth
says, $15 million to $20 million for the iconic marine
stadium seems possible.
After that, they’ll be looking at “raising money
at different levels,” Worth says, from both large and
32 preservation | spring 2013
One idea being considered is to create naming-
rights opportunities for aspects of the stadium, such as
the seating—contributors could have their names per
manently placed on the seats for something like $2,000
each. It might not sound like much, but with more than
6,000 seats in all, such an effort could bring in a least
Despite the tight deadline and the daunting total
the group needs to raise, Worth remains cautiously
“Up until now we’ve been the little engine that
could,” he says.
But hurdles remain.
The Miami Marines have had talks with the orga
nization behind the Miami Heat’s operations about
running the stadium. But the Miami City Commission
and the Miami Sports and Exhibition Authority must
still approve its final operating plan, which includes
multiple components aimed at making the stadium a
vibrant, and profitable, attraction.
The group’s vision for the site includes what Worth
calls a multipurpose “flex-park” available for use for
everything from soccer games to a staging area for
rowing competitions or a transition location for tri
athletes between the swimming and cycling portions
of a race.
At the opposite end of the stadium, says FMMS co-
founder and National Trust Board of Trustees Vice-
Chair Jorge Hernandez, the group’s plan calls for a
new building to house a welcome center, restaurants,
and a maritime museum displaying innovations in the
“It will have an educational component, as well,”
Hernandez says. “Kids will go there, and there will
be, for example, classes on safe boating, classes on the
ecology of the bay—and it will pull people there when
there aren’t events.”
If they are successful, the marine stadium will serve
as an example for others—of thinking beyond restora
tion, or mere preservation, to rebirth.
• Primary supports
for the stadium are
grounded in Virginia
Key’s sandy shore.
columns provide the
only structural support
for the massive
• Miami Marine
Stadium hosted the
1975 Champion Spark
• The press box and
lighting platform was
beneath the stadium’s
CarlosHarrisonis a frequent contributor to Preservation and a Miami native who saw
boat races, concerts, and at least one Our Lady of Charity mass at the marine stadium. He
hopes that someday his kids will get to do the same.
spring 2013 | preservation 33
back story|GLORIA ESTEFAN
Making History Sing
ince coming to the
United States at only 18
months old, Grammy-
winning crossover super
star and businesswoman Gloria
Estefan has been committed
to celebrating history and her
own Cuban-American heritage.
Preservation caught up with the
singer, and new National Trust
board member, to find out why
saving places is important to her.
by Gwendolyn Purdom
Q: Why is historic preservation
something that you feel passionate
A: We, the Cuban community, have tried
to transplant our culture here in Miami,
and as we became part of the city, it was
important for [my husband] Emilio and me
to be a part of its growth in the business
community—and culturally, as well.
I always used to come to the beach with
my grandfather—every day, practically. So
when we first made some money I thought
that it was important to invest in Miami
Beach, because you can’t re-create that
jewel that we have there.
So we started buying different properties
on Miami Beach. The first building that we
bought was an old apartment building from
the 1930s; we restored that. We bought the
Cardozo Hotel; we restored that.
It’s right up my alley, especially now
that we’re trying to preserve another
jewel: the Miami Marine Stadium, where
we actually performed at one point. It’s a
beautiful, one-of-a-kind stadium that was
built by a young Cuban architect. We’re
committed to that because it’s part of our
personal history and the history of Miami.
I think it can be a spectacular place to do
even classical concerts because it’s right
there on the water, and the acoustics and
everything would be so perfect.
Q: What do you think it is about
historic places that make them so
A: I’m a big believer in energy, and I think
when you leave a place, things that have
happened there are ingrained spiritually
and energy-wise in that place.
As human beings it gives us a sense of
connection, of roots, of being able to point
to something and show our children and
teach them. Some historic places have
some pain involved because most human
life does, but the fact that it has survived
is a nice metaphor for humanity in general.
Q: What was it about the specific
historic properties you’ve bought
and restored in Miami that drew you
A: Some of them hold a very personal
memory. I have a picture of me with my
dad, who passed away in 1980; we’re on
the beach, and behind me is the Cardozo
Hotel. And that day, I was about 3 years
old—and this is family history, this hap-
pened way before we bought the place—
but I turned to my dad and said, “Daddy,
one day I’m going to buy you that hotel.”
Q: What are you currently
A: I’m actually working on an American
standards record, which falls right in line
with this stuff because to me music [needs]
that kind of cultural preservation, as well.
It’s very close to my heart. We are trying
to do something unique but [also] trying to
stay true to the style and the spirit of these
songs that have stood the test of time.
They’re songs that don’t go away and never
will because they touch people regardless
of the fact that they were created many
Q: Sounds pretty similar to
For more from our interview with GLORIA ESTEFAN, visit
88 preservation | SPRING 2013
Estefan, who’s bought and restored
several historic properties with her
husband Emilio, joined the National
Trust board in October.