POLLUTION OF GROUNDWATER IN GUJARAT
BY: SAGAR SHAH
CONTENTS
• INTRODUCTION OF GROUND WATER.
• GROUND WATER USAGE.
• PHYSCIO-CHEMICAL PARAMETER
• POLLUTION OF GROUND WATE...
Introduction of ground water
“Water that exists beneath the earth’s surface in underground
stream and aquifers is known ...
Ground water Usage
World:
• Groundwater is the most extracted raw material.
• Its withdrawal rates currently in the est...
The five nations with the largest estimated annual
groundwater abstractions (2010)
COUNTRY
ESTIMATED G.W
ABSTRACTION I...
Physico-chemical parameter
SR NO. PARAMETER METHOD
1 PH PH meter
2 Electrical conductivity Conductivity meter
3 Total ...
GROUNDWATER POLLUTION
CAUSE OF GROUNDWATER POLLUTION
AGRICULTURE FIELD: Pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers .
CITY DUMP...
(CONT.)
• Liquid and solid wastes from septic tanks, sewage plants, and animal
feedlots and slaughterhouses may contain ...
HOW THE GROUNDWATER POLLUTION
OC• TChe pUercRolatSing: water picks up a large amount of dissolved constituents and reache...
Land-use activities & their potential threat to groundwater quality
Land Use Activities potential to groundwater pollutio...
SCENARIO OF GROUNDWATER POLLUTION IN THE GUJARAT
• Gujarat having longest coastline in the country, sea water intrusion i...
Aquifers of Gujarat
(CONT.)
• Data available from the ministry of water resources,
concerning ground water quality scenario, reveals that 18...
(CONT.)
• Fluoride Content - Ahmedabad, Amreli, Annand, Banaskantha, Bharuch, Bhavnagar,
Dahod, Junagadh, Kutch, Mehsana...
Common Groundwater Contaminants in the Gujarat
CONTAMINANTS SOURCE DISEASE OR TOXIC
EFFECT
NITRATES SEWAGE, FERTILIZERS...
Case study
ANKLESHWAR
INDUSTRIAL AREA
•The Ankles war industrial area was developed by GIDC in Bharuch district in the ...
(cont.)
Sl. No. GW Station Name Approx. Depth (m) Type of Well Present use
1 CETP GIDC
Ankleshwar
26 m Bore well Garde...
( COBOSERNVATTI.O)N ON STATUS OF GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN ANKLESHWAR:
•PH VALUE - 6.5 TO 8.5
•TDS VALUE - 1148 mg/l and 52...
PREVENTION OF GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION
•Once groundwater gets contaminated, it may be
difficult and expansive to clean ...
PREVENTION OF GROUNDWATER
CONTAMINATION
Participation of INDUSTRY.
•minimize use of toxic / hazardous raw material.
•M...
(cont.)
Participation of COMMUNITY .
•Minimize use of household containing hazardous substances.
•Avoid draining chemic...
GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION
•Groundwater remediation is process that is use to remove the pollution from the
groundwater
•I...
(CONT.)
•Ex-situ technology : extraction of groundwater from aquifer , treat above ground and return the
treated water t...
(CONT.)
•In – situ remediation technology : Involves treatment of groundwater (in-place )without
extracting the water fr...
CONCLUSION
• The groundwater quality problems are mainly due to i) contamination by geogenic and man-made sources; and ii...
THANK YOU
Pollution of groundwater in gujarat by sagar
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Pollution of groundwater in gujarat by sagar

Pollution of groundwater in gujarat
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Environment      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Pollution of groundwater in gujarat by sagar

  • 1. POLLUTION OF GROUNDWATER IN GUJARAT BY: SAGAR SHAH
  • 2. CONTENTS • INTRODUCTION OF GROUND WATER. • GROUND WATER USAGE. • PHYSCIO-CHEMICAL PARAMETER • POLLUTION OF GROUND WATER. • SCENARIO OF GROUNDWATER POLLUTION IN THE GUJARAT. • PREVENTION OF GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION • GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION • CONCLUSION. • REFERENCE.
  • 3. Introduction of ground water “Water that exists beneath the earth’s surface in underground stream and aquifers is known as groundwater” • The one nearest the surface is the “zone of aeration”, where gaps are filled with water and air. Below this layer is the “zone of saturation”. Where gaps filled with water. • The water table is boundary between these two layers. • As the amount of ground water is increases or decreases , the water table rises or falls accordingly. • When the entire area below the ground is saturated , flooding occurs because all subsequent precipitation is forced to remain on surface.
  • 4. Ground water Usage World: • Groundwater is the most extracted raw material. • Its withdrawal rates currently in the estimated range of 982 km3/year. • Its withdrawal is used for agriculture is about 60%. • Domestic use and industry are having the equal percentage. • In many nations, more than half of the groundwater withdrawn is for domestic water supplies and globally it provides 25% to 40% of the world’s drinking water.
  • 5. The five nations with the largest estimated annual groundwater abstractions (2010) COUNTRY ESTIMATED G.W ABSTRACTION IN 2010(KM³/YR) G.W. ABSTRACTION FOR IRRIGATION (%) G.W. ABSTRACTION FOR DOMESTIC USE (%) G.W. ABSTRACTION FOR INDUSTRY (%) INDIA 251 89 9 2 CHINA 111.95 54 20 26 UNITED STATES 111.7 71 23 6 PAKISTA N 64.82 94 6 0 IRAN 63.4 87 11 2
  • 6. Physico-chemical parameter SR NO. PARAMETER METHOD 1 PH PH meter 2 Electrical conductivity Conductivity meter 3 Total hardness EDTA titration 4 Alkalinity Indicator method 5 TDS Filtration method 6 Chloride Silver nitrate method 7 Phosphate Ammonium molybdate blue method 8 Dissolved oxygen Wrinkle's method 9 BOD Wrinkle's method 10 COD Open reflux method 11 Sulphate Turbid metric method 12 Nitrate Phenol disulphonic acid method 13 Heavy metal (Cd,Mn,Ni,Zn,etc.) Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer
  • 7. GROUNDWATER POLLUTION CAUSE OF GROUNDWATER POLLUTION AGRICULTURE FIELD: Pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers . CITY DUMP: Rain can also leach pollutants from city dumps into groundwater supplies. INDUSTRY : Heavy metals such as mercury, lead, chromium, copper, and cadmium, together with household chemicals and poisons, can all be concentrated in ground-water supplies beneath dumps
  • 8. (CONT.) • Liquid and solid wastes from septic tanks, sewage plants, and animal feedlots and slaughterhouses may contain bacteria, viruses, and parasites that can contaminate ground water. • MINING AREA: Acid mine drainage from coal and metal mines can contaminate both surface and ground water. • RADIOACTIVE WASTE : It can cause the pollution of ground water due to the shallow burial of low-level solid and liquid radioactive wastes from the nuclear power industry.
  • 9. HOW THE GROUNDWATER POLLUTION OC• TChe pUercRolatSing: water picks up a large amount of dissolved constituents and reaches the aquifer system and contaminates the groundwater. pumping wells can cause or aggravate ground-water pollution Water table steepens near a dump, increasing the velocity water-table slope is reversed by pumping, changing Of ground-water flow and drawing pollutants into a well direction of the ground-water flow, and polluting the well
  • 10. Land-use activities & their potential threat to groundwater quality Land Use Activities potential to groundwater pollution Residential  Un-severed sanitation  Land & stream discharge of sewage  Sewage oxidation ponds  Sewer leakage, solid waste disposal, landfill leachate  Road & urban run-off, aerial fall out Industrial & Commercial  Process water, effluent lagoon etc.  Land & stream discharge of effluents  Tank & pipeline leakage & accidental spills.  Well disposal of effluent  Aerial fall out  Landfill disposal & solid wastes & Hazardous wastes  Poor housekeeping  Spillage & leakages during handling of material Mining  Mine drainage discharge  Process water, sludge lagoons  Solid mine tailings  Oilfield spillage at group gathering stations Rural  Cultivation with agrochemicals  Irrigation with wastewater  Soil Stalinizations  Livestock rearing Coastal areas  Salt water intrusion
  • 11. SCENARIO OF GROUNDWATER POLLUTION IN THE GUJARAT • Gujarat having longest coastline in the country, sea water intrusion into aquifers is a common problem all across Gujarat right from Kutch and Saurashtra to Vadodara and Valsad. • Aquifers in Gujarat are beset with numerous quality problems, some of which are increasing in intensity over the years. • Excessive Fluoride is another problem in groundwater of North Gujarat, some parts of Saurashtra and some pockets of South Gujarat. • Over the years, excessive amounts of Nitrate are surfacing in groundwater in various parts of the state. • In addition to all this, Gujarat has various pockets of high industrial activity where large amounts of effluents are released, sometimes directly into wells. • High amounts of toxic waste have been detected in aquifers of South and Central Gujarat.
  • 12. Aquifers of Gujarat
  • 13. (CONT.) • Data available from the ministry of water resources, concerning ground water quality scenario, reveals that 18 of Gujarat 's 26 districts have fluoride content above the permissible limit. • Nearly 70% of the districts in the state have fluoride contents beyond the permissible limit in ground water. • Gujarat ranks 5th among the 19 states in high fluoride content in ground water. • The nitrate content in ground water is also quite high in various districts of the state.
  • 14. (CONT.) • Fluoride Content - Ahmedabad, Amreli, Annand, Banaskantha, Bharuch, Bhavnagar, Dahod, Junagadh, Kutch, Mehsana, Narmada, Panchmahals, Patan, Rajkot, Sabarkantha, Surat, Surendranagar And Vadodara. • NITRATE CONTENT - Ahmedabad, Annand, Banaskantha , Gandhinagar, Jamnagar, Junagarh, Mehsana , Narmada, Rajkot, Sabarkanta , Surendranagar and Vadodara. • It should be noted that the permissible limit of fluoride and nitrate in ground water is 1.5 mg per litre.
  • 15. Common Groundwater Contaminants in the Gujarat CONTAMINANTS SOURCE DISEASE OR TOXIC EFFECT NITRATES SEWAGE, FERTILIZERS, AIR POLLUTION, LANDFILLS & INDUSTRIES. BLUE BABY (METHAMOGLOBINAMIA) PATHOGENS SEWAGE, LANDFILLS, SEPTIC TANKS & LIVESTOCK’S. TYPHOID, CHOLERA, DYSENTERY, POLIO, AND HEPATITIS TRACE METALS INDUSTRIAL & MINE DISCHARGES, FLY ASH FROM THERMAL POWER PLANTS EITHER DUE TO FALL OUT OR DISPOSAL IN ASH PONDS. TOXIC & CARCINOGENIC. INORGANIC CONSTITUENTS INORGANIC DISSOLVES-SO4, CHLORIDE. GASTROINTESTINAL PROBLEMS ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES, STREET DRAINAGES, SEWAGE LANDFILLS, INDUSTRIAL DISCHARGES, SPILLS, VEHICULAR EMISSIONS FALL OUT ETC. TOXIC & CARCINOGENIC
  • 16. Case study ANKLESHWAR INDUSTRIAL AREA •The Ankles war industrial area was developed by GIDC in Bharuch district in the year 1980. • About 1500 units engaged in various manufacturing products like dye and dye intermediates, pharmaceuticals pesticides, pulp and paper, textile, plastic, packaging, organic and inorganic chemicals and engineering. •The industrial has several industries operating within it they are: nearly 425 chemical units, 150 textiles besides 600 other industrial units. •The ANKLESHWAR industries association has provided a common effluent treatment plant (CETP) of 1.2 MLD capacities. •The common effluent treatment plant (CETP) was being jointly operated by 220 member industries and caters to the treatment of effluent wastes generated from the industries (mainly small-scale units). •The treated wastewater from CETP and industries was being discharged into an earthen drain named as Amalakhadi, which finally meets the estuarine area of river Narmada.
  • 17. (cont.) Sl. No. GW Station Name Approx. Depth (m) Type of Well Present use 1 CETP GIDC Ankleshwar 26 m Bore well Gardening and Washing • Ground Water Quality Survey : 2 Piraman School 30 m Bore well with Hand pump Washing and Bathing 3 Bharuch Naka 40m Bore well Washing and Construction work
  • 18. ( COBOSERNVATTI.O)N ON STATUS OF GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN ANKLESHWAR: •PH VALUE - 6.5 TO 8.5 •TDS VALUE - 1148 mg/l and 5270 mg/l •Alkalinity - 20 mg/l and 980 mg/l. •Chloride - 330 mg/l and as high as 2428 mg/l . •Sulphate - 26 mg/l and as high as 965 mg/l •Nitrate - 45 mg/l •fluoride - 1.0 mg/l.
  • 19. PREVENTION OF GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION •Once groundwater gets contaminated, it may be difficult and expansive to clean it up, therefore, “ The best way to deal with groundwater contamination is not to contaminate it in the first place”
  • 20. PREVENTION OF GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION Participation of INDUSTRY. •minimize use of toxic / hazardous raw material. •Maintain integrity of storage tanks ,pipeline , surface impoundment. •Adopt good engineering practice for selecting proper material for Tanks and pipes •Implement monitoring programs: leak detection and repair program, spill detection, spill control, emergency response etc. •Manage properly: waste materials , their transport and disposal. •Monitoring periodically : groundwater quality.
  • 21. (cont.) Participation of COMMUNITY . •Minimize use of household containing hazardous substances. •Avoid draining chemical , motor oil , insecticides in community area. •Reduce pesticide application. •Use proper procedures for handling chemicals( plants , pesticides , insecticides , polishing material , cleaning chemicals and detergents). •Immediately clean spills and report any leakage to concerned department.
  • 22. GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION •Groundwater remediation is process that is use to remove the pollution from the groundwater •It is divided in two technologies : (1) EX-SITU TECHNOLOGY. (2) IN- SITU TECHNOLOGY. EX – SITU TECHNOLOGY involves treatment of groundwater by de-watering the polluted aquifer (pumping out), then treating the water on surface by physical , chemical or biological technology and finally re- injecting the treated water to the aquifer. IN – SITU TECHNOLOGY involves treatment of groundwater within the aquifer ( in the sub-surface) By using thermal , chemical and biological treatment technology.
  • 23. (CONT.) •Ex-situ technology : extraction of groundwater from aquifer , treat above ground and return the treated water to the aquifer . Extraction is done by pumping groundwater from well or trench and treat them with a variety of techniques such as: •Stream stripping Involves treatment by introducing steam which extract the contaminants from the pumped out groundwater . The extracted steam (along with contamination can be recovered from condensate or treated further by incineration . •Oxygen sparging Involves introduction of oxidizing / reducing agents ( O3,H2O2,Hypoclorite) to chemically convert the toxic compound . •Bioremediation Involves treatment of pumped up groundwater by air ( biodegradation) with careful control of moistures , heat nutrient , oxygen and PH •Carbon adsorption Involves passing the contaminated pumped up groundwater through activated carbon column in which contaminants gets adsorbed.
  • 24. (CONT.) •In – situ remediation technology : Involves treatment of groundwater (in-place )without extracting the water from aquifers. There are several treatment used for in-situ groundwater treatment such as: •Air Sparging : Involves the injection of contaminant free air into the subsurface saturated zone , enabling a phase transfer of hydrocarbon from a dissolved state to a vapor phase . •Chemical oxidation : Involves reduction- oxidation reaction that chemically converts hazardous contaminants to less toxic compound to less toxic compounds . Cyanide oxidation and de – chlorination are the typical examples of chemical oxidation . •Thermal treatment : Involves increase in temperature of source zone to increase the mobility of the pollutant .The mobility facility removal of pollutant and can also the typical ex. Of contaminant
  • 25. CONCLUSION • The groundwater quality problems are mainly due to i) contamination by geogenic and man-made sources; and ii) sea water intrusion due to over-abstraction of groundwater along the coasts. • The geogenic contamination - lowering of water table and disturbing the contaminated geological structures. • The man-made contamination - large-scale urbanisation, industrialisation and agricultural activities. • Groundwater quality is being increasing threatened by agricultural, urban & industrial wastes, which leach or are injected into underlying aquifers. • In many cases, the abstraction of excessive quantities of groundwater has resulted in the drying up of wells, salt-water intrusion & drying up of rivers that receives their flows in dry seasons from groundwater. • With fast urban growth and increasing standard of living the waste generation has steeply increased in India, especially in large urban centres. Due to paucity of resources the local authorities, who are responsible for waste management are not able to adequately address the problem. • The fast industrial growth also results in generation of large quantity of wastes (solid, liquid and gaseous). Many times these wastes also do not get collected, treated and disposed. They also have the same fate as domestic wastes in the city. • A large number of industrial activities are taking place in urban areas, especially in congested, populated areas. The wastes generated by industrial activities in urban areas get mixed with domestic wastes and pollute the groundwater. • The groundwater is only source of drinking in many urban centres of the country. Thus, a large urban population is at risk of consuming polluted water. • Realising the importance of the pollution of groundwater in urban areas, CPCB has initiated groundwater quality survey in urban areas. In the first phase states were taken. Similar study was also carried out in problem areas (industrial pockets).
  • 26. THANK YOU

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