GOOD MORNING
WELCOME
TO MY
PRESENTATION
Presentation
On
Political Process of Peasant Society
Prepared and Presented By
Md. Sahed Khan
ID: 15RS JD-01M
Reg: 37769
Session: 2010-11
Course No: RS-505
Course Title: Agrar...
PREFACE
Power
 “Power is the ability of its holders to exact compliance or obedience of other
individuals to their will”...
Types of Political Culture
Parochial
Citizens remotely aware of the
presence of central
government
Subject
Where all citiz...
Historical Political Power Pattern in
Bangladesh
 The Historical Roots of Political Culture
 Populist form of political ...
CONTD…
1971-75
The
Mujib Era
1977-81
The Zia
regime
1982-91
The Ershad
regime
1991-96:
The
Bangladesh
Nationalist
Party (B...
Political Power Holding Status in Rural
Bangladesh:
Features of Power Structure
 Patron Client Relation
 Encapsulation
...
CONTD…
 Findings of The Net: BRAC (1983) Programme
 “:... resources were not reaching the poor and landless but instead ...
CONTD…
Critical Aspects of Political Culture in
Bangladesh
 Freedom of speech, Right to jobs available locally and Right...
Facts behind the Critical Aspect of
Political Culture in Bangladesh:
 Local Elites as Barriers to Development due to
 Th...
CONTD…
Presence of Mustaans/Local
Strongmen/Mafia
 Play three main inter-related roles within
local Power Structure
 Th...
Initiatives to Improve the Political
Process of Peasant Societies:
 Reorganization of the Local Government Structure
 Gr...
CONTD…
 During the late 1970s, General Ziaur Rahman’s Military Government had been conceived,
Gram Sarkar Village Governm...
In-sights Confab
 The fate of Bangladeshis depends mostly on two political parties, the Awami League and the BNP
 Before...
THANK YOU ALL
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Political process of peasant society in Bangladesh by Md Sahed Khan

Political process of peasant society in Bangladesh Historical Perspective
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Political process of peasant society in Bangladesh by Md Sahed Khan

  • 1. GOOD MORNING WELCOME TO MY PRESENTATION
  • 2. Presentation On Political Process of Peasant Society
  • 3. Prepared and Presented By Md. Sahed Khan ID: 15RS JD-01M Reg: 37769 Session: 2010-11 Course No: RS-505 Course Title: Agrarian Societies
  • 4. PREFACE Power  “Power is the ability of its holders to exact compliance or obedience of other individuals to their will” (Lukes’)  “Power refers to control over men and command over resources” (Baily) Politics  “Politics is any persistent pattern in human relationships that involves, to a significant extent, control, influence, power or authority.” (Robert Dahl)  Political Culture  "The orientation of the citizens of a nation toward politics, and their perceptions of political legitimacy and the traditions of political practice" (Rahman)
  • 5. Types of Political Culture Parochial Citizens remotely aware of the presence of central government Subject Where all citizens are heavily subjected to its decisions Participant Citizens able to influence the government in various ways Moral Political Culture Society is held to be more important than the individual. Individual Political Culture Government is seen as having a very practical orientation. Traditional Political Culture Social and family ties are prominent
  • 6. Historical Political Power Pattern in Bangladesh  The Historical Roots of Political Culture  Populist form of political ideology  Evolution of The Muslim league as a mass political party  Political Parties and their Culture 1. Awami League (formerly Awami Muslim League): established on June 23, 1949 2. The Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP): Established on Sep 1, 1978 3. Jatiyo Party 4. Jamat-E Islam  In running National affairs Dictatorship stronger rather than Democracy  Hardly anyone can dare speaking against any decision of the two party’s chairman or president even if it goes wrong (!)
  • 7. CONTD… 1971-75 The Mujib Era 1977-81 The Zia regime 1982-91 The Ershad regime 1991-96: The Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) regime 1996- 2000 The 2nd Awami League 2001-06: Coalition governmen t headed by the BNP 2006-09 The Caretaker government 2009 to 2014 The 3rd Awami League regime 2014-present The 4th Awami League regime
  • 8. Political Power Holding Status in Rural Bangladesh: Features of Power Structure  Patron Client Relation  Encapsulation  Factionalism  Major Factors Influencing Political Power Structure  Having control over resource  Personal relation with administration  Having influence over people  Controlling ability over kin-groups and religious sects  Having Education  Having good capacity in conflict management  Good relation with local M.P.  Control over Local activities
  • 9. CONTD…  Findings of The Net: BRAC (1983) Programme  “:... resources were not reaching the poor and landless but instead were being controlled and enjoyed by a small number of powerful men, who had developed good connections with the local government officers ... a small group seemed to have obtained a very disproportionate share of power.”  “…At the same time, the landless people with whom we were working frequently caught up helpless in the meshes of this invisible network which they only partially understood, had a very small amount of power indeed.”  Isn’t it a SHAMEFUL Outcome?
  • 10. CONTD… Critical Aspects of Political Culture in Bangladesh  Freedom of speech, Right to jobs available locally and Rights to justice subject to political connection  Political power originates from the Control over Land, Labor and Capital  Very poor tradition of growing leadership through democratic practices  Politicians do not practice democracy within their parties  Since immoral anti-social elements linked to political sections, law is easily violated  Judgment goes in favor of who are politically more powerful in the society  Constitutional provisions for selecting and electing party leaders is hardly followed  Patron-client relation between rich and political parties is evident  Party chiefs enjoy supreme authority, and unchallenged dictating power  Party and family have been synonymous, i.e., Mujib and Zia families
  • 11. Facts behind the Critical Aspect of Political Culture in Bangladesh:  Local Elites as Barriers to Development due to  Their control over land and tenancy relationships  Capture’ of external resources flowing into the village for use in pursuit of their own interests  Construction of patronage networks for their personal gain
  • 12. CONTD… Presence of Mustaans/Local Strongmen/Mafia  Play three main inter-related roles within local Power Structure  They form part of the political structure with village political leaders  They are active within organizations and networks of organized crime  They act as intermediaries or brokers in gate-keeping roles around access to services
  • 13. Initiatives to Improve the Political Process of Peasant Societies:  Reorganization of the Local Government Structure  Gram (Village),  Union (Collection of Villages)  Upazila (Sub-district)  Zila (District) Councils  Purpose  To democratize government at the grassroots level  To increase participation of local people in the governmental process  Giving the upazila (Sub-district) council the power  To collect revenue  Prepare own budget  Hire own employees
  • 14. CONTD…  During the late 1970s, General Ziaur Rahman’s Military Government had been conceived, Gram Sarkar Village Government’ system  “Headed by a Gram Pradhan (village head), the GS was composed of elected members representing farmers, landless laborers, artisans, freedom fighters, women and youths. GS was given the responsibility for looking after agriculture, health, family planning, law and order, etc. But having no revenues of its own GS failed to discharge most of its functions. Besides, GS was heavily used by the Zia regime for partisan political purposes ... Yet Gram Sarkar was the first attempt not only to challenge the solidarity of the landed elite but could also be considered a step towards integrating the disadvantaged groups in the process of local governance” (Zarina Khan)
  • 15. In-sights Confab  The fate of Bangladeshis depends mostly on two political parties, the Awami League and the BNP  Before the general election they present various agenda related to people's welfare, but after election they forget everything and seek only self-interest  Recent political violence in the country has claimed 60 lives including six policemen. In addition, central party office of the opposition BNP was raided by police  Corrupt Political Culture may bring Adverse Consequences. So, better keep in mind that Darkness cannot remove Darkness  Similarly, hate can not remove hatred  Finally, the real democracy and acute disparity of economy were the main spirits of the liberation war of Bangladesh. It is 44 years since Bangladesh became independent. We could not go where we wanted to go. Our all achievements are being diminished due to Hostile, Negative and Damaging Political Cultures  We have to come out from this culture if we want to start nation building politics before it gets too late to react
  • 16. THANK YOU ALL