Native Plants Are
For the Birds!
Plants Matter!
Plants matter
because
they harness
the energy
that supports
life.
Photosynthesis drawing
Sunlight
CO2
Water
Food
O2
All plants
are not
equal in
their
ability to
support
food
webs
Example:
The Food
Web
supported
by a Willow
tree
Plants that
evolved within
our local food
webs share the
food they make
with local
animals better
than plants that
evolved...
Specialization in the
natural world, especially
food specialization, is the
rule rather than the
exception
Specialization
always starts
with plants
Remember,
plants =life
Plants
don’t want
to be eaten!
Plants
defend
their tissues
with
distasteful
chemicals
But insects
do eat
plants…
how?
90% of the insects that eat plants
can develop and reproduce only
on the plants with which they
share an evolutionary hist...
Monarch Butterflies specialize on Milkweeds
Monarchs’ Eastern Migration
Demise Continues
We have
replaced our
native plant
communities
with plants
from Asia and
Europe.
Native vs Exotic
EXOTIC SPECIES (ALIEN)
• INTRODUCED BY HUMANS, EITHER
DELIBERATELY OR ACCIDENTALLY
Privet
Kudzu
Japanese
...
Exotic:
Crape
Myrtle
3 spp.
http://photos.runic.com/photos/oaktree2.jp
White Oak
557spp
Benefits of Native Plants
• PROMOTE BIODIVERSITY
• RESTORE REGIONAL
LANDSCAPES
• CREATE A SENSE OF PLACE
• INTEGRAL PART O...
Natives for Butterflies, Insects,
Birds
NATIVE PLANTS
NEEDED FOR ALL
STAGES OF LIFE CYCLE
• Caterpillar/larvae
feed on lea...
A chickadee pair brings
390-570 caterpillars to the
nest per day (Brewer 1961);
Chickadees feed their
young for 16 days be...
Icteridae (blackbirds & orioles)
Fringillidae (finches)
Ploceidae (weaver finches)
Passeridae (Old World Sparrows)
Podicip...
No
insects…no
baby birds!
What is “Bird Friendly?”
 Provide water year-round
 Install native plants - Select a variety of native plants to
offer y...
Consider Habitat Niches
 Woodland (illustration
at right) – deciduous
or coniferous trees
 aquatic —lakes,
ponds, swamps...
Southern Deciduous Forest Ecology
Plant
Densely
Plant in
Layers
Create
Edges
No Place for Birds Here!
What about Fruit eaters?
The relationship between birds and
plants is also specialized!
Summer
Berries
Fall Berries Late Winter
Berries
High sugar ...
Summer Berries: High Sugar
Cedar Waxwing on
American Elderberry
Fall Berries: High in Fat
Cedar
Waxwing
on Eastern
Red Cedar
Winter berries: High sugar
post-freeze
Bohemian Waxwing &
Winterberry Holly
Autumn olive
Are berries from introduced plants good for birds?
The nutritional differences between
invasive berries and natives is huge!
Smith et al.
2007, 2013
Native %Fat
Northern bay...
Exotics Out of Sync
 Most (all??) non-native berry producers
are phenologically out of sync with the
needs of our birds
...
“Truth-squadding” Studies
Several recent studies indicate some urban
bird species numbers are increasing due to
exotic hon...
Native Plants for Birds
Seven Important Plant
Groups
•Conifers
•Grasses and legumes
•Nectar producers
•Summer fruits
•Autumn fruits
•Winter fruits...
Grasses
Switchgrass
(Panicum virgatum)
Little
Bluestem
Schizachyrium scoparium
Early Nectar:
Wild columbine
(Aquilegia canadensis)
Early Spring nectar
*birds, butterflies,
hummingbirds
Summer-Fall
Nectar
Coral Honeysuckle
(Lonicera sempervirens)
Long bloom period
*Hummingbirds, bees,
butterflies (nectar)
Summer Nectar
Cardinal flower
(Lobelia cardinalis)
Summer
*Hummingbirds
Summer Fruit
Highbush Blueberry
(Vaccinium corymbosum)
Spring, early summer berries
*bees, birds, mammals
Summer Fruit
Black Cherry
Prunus serotina
Summer fruit eaten by
47 bird species
Also important
caterpillar host plant
(400...
Summer Fruit
Serviceberry
Amelanchior sp
Also host plant for
Red-spotted purple
and Striped
hairstreak
Elderberry
Sambucus nigra
High sugar
summer berries
Summer Fruit
Summer Fruit
Beautyberry
(Callicarpa
americana)
Blooms spring
Berries - late summer
(high sugar)
Fall Fruit
Eastern Red Cedar
Juniperus virginiana
Important high fat winter
fruit
Nesting and shelter tree
Fall Fruit
Spicebush
Lindera benzoin
Late summer berries full
of protein & fat
Spicebush Swallowtail
host plant
Need both ...
Fall Fruit
Dogwoods
(Cornus alternifolia, amomum,
drummondii, florida, )
*birds, butterlies, mammals
Fall & Winter Fruit
Viburnums
(Viburnum acerifolium, cassinoides,
dentatum, nudum, rudifolium, trilobum)
Winter Fruit
Sumac
Rhus spp.
Tolerant of many soils
Fruit high in Vitamin C
Brilliant fall foliage
Winter Fruit
Winterberry
(Ilex verticillata)
*bees, butterflies, birds
Winter Fruit
American holly
(Ilex opaca)
*birds, butterflies, mammals, bees
Winter Fruit
Red or Black
Chokeberry
(Aronia arbutifolia)
Winter berries
Acorns
Red and White Oaks
Quercas ssp.
Caterpillars in spring
Acorns in fall
Seeds
Purple coneflower
(Echinacea purpurea)
Blooms all summer
*birds, bees,
butterflies,
hummingbirds
Leave the seed head...
Seeds
Sunflowers (perennial)
(Helianthus spp)
Many types, sizes and
requirements
*birds and bees
H. mollisH. maximillianaH...
Seeds: Silphiums
Seeds
Sweetshrub
(Calycanthus floridus)
Blooms in spring
Seeds in Fall
“Like it or not, gardeners have become
important players in the management of
our nation’s wildlife. It is now within the
...
Where to Get Native
Plants
• Overhill Gardens in Vonore, TN
• Reflection Riding Spring and Fall plant sales
• Sunlight Gar...
Learn More
Join the Tennessee Valley Chapter of Wild
Ones
Come to our free educational meetings
www.tennesseevalley.wildon...
Native Plants Are For the Birds!
Native Plants Are For the Birds!
Native Plants Are For the Birds!
Native Plants Are For the Birds!
Native Plants Are For the Birds!
Native Plants Are For the Birds!
Native Plants Are For the Birds!
Native Plants Are For the Birds!
Native Plants Are For the Birds!
Native Plants Are For the Birds!
Native Plants Are For the Birds!
Native Plants Are For the Birds!
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Native Plants Are For the Birds!

As described by the Cornell Bird Lab, putting up a feeder is an easy way to attract birds. But if you want to attract a wider variety of species, prefer your backyard birds to get a more natural diet, or wish to satisfy more than birds' nutritional needs, consider landscaping your yard—even just a part of it—to be more bird-friendly. Even a small yard can provide vital habitat. All it takes is a little time and effort, all the easier if you already enjoy gardening. The rewards are beautiful birds that add color and music to your life year-round. Many homeowners diligently follow the advice of providing water, bird feeders, and nesting boxes but don't know where to begin to provide natural food, shelter and nesting. I've done some investigating of the best native plants (because that's what our birds evolved with) to support the birds indigenous to this area. The list is attached. And if you aren't convinced that native plants are the best food source, you should read recent research that counters the one or two studies showing that certain urban birds like Cardinals increase in number where there are invasions of exotic honeysuckles. Not surprisingly, these exotic fruit-bearing shrubs and vines nutrition is out of sync with the seasonal needs of our native birds. Furthermore, in the case of Cardinals, the bright coloration of males, which otherwise signals good health to females may be getting less reliable for cardinals in urban areas, because of the novel food sources available in town. Exotic plants also provide poorer nesting sites and may open the brood to predation, according to many scientific studies.
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Environment      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Native Plants Are For the Birds!

  • 1. Native Plants Are For the Birds!
  • 2. Plants Matter!
  • 3. Plants matter because they harness the energy that supports life.
  • 4. Photosynthesis drawing Sunlight CO2 Water Food O2
  • 5. All plants are not equal in their ability to support food webs
  • 6. Example: The Food Web supported by a Willow tree
  • 7. Plants that evolved within our local food webs share the food they make with local animals better than plants that evolved elsewhere. It’s called “specialization” Try to locate the Juniper hairstreak caterpillar!
  • 8. Specialization in the natural world, especially food specialization, is the rule rather than the exception
  • 9. Specialization always starts with plants
  • 10. Remember, plants =life
  • 11. Plants don’t want to be eaten!
  • 12. Plants defend their tissues with distasteful chemicals
  • 13. But insects do eat plants… how?
  • 14. 90% of the insects that eat plants can develop and reproduce only on the plants with which they share an evolutionary history. (Forister et al. 2014) They specialize!
  • 15. Monarch Butterflies specialize on Milkweeds
  • 16. Monarchs’ Eastern Migration Demise Continues
  • 17. We have replaced our native plant communities with plants from Asia and Europe.
  • 18. Native vs Exotic EXOTIC SPECIES (ALIEN) • INTRODUCED BY HUMANS, EITHER DELIBERATELY OR ACCIDENTALLY Privet Kudzu Japanese flowering cherry
  • 19. Exotic: Crape Myrtle 3 spp.
  • 20. http://photos.runic.com/photos/oaktree2.jp White Oak 557spp
  • 21. Benefits of Native Plants • PROMOTE BIODIVERSITY • RESTORE REGIONAL LANDSCAPES • CREATE A SENSE OF PLACE • INTEGRAL PART OF HEALTHY ECOSYSTEM • PROVIDE FOOD AND SHELTER FOR NATIVE WILDLIFE
  • 22. Natives for Butterflies, Insects, Birds NATIVE PLANTS NEEDED FOR ALL STAGES OF LIFE CYCLE • Caterpillar/larvae feed on leaves • Adult needs plant nectar • Birds feed heavily on caterpillars during brooding
  • 23. A chickadee pair brings 390-570 caterpillars to the nest per day (Brewer 1961); Chickadees feed their young for 16 days before they fledge.
  • 24. Icteridae (blackbirds & orioles) Fringillidae (finches) Ploceidae (weaver finches) Passeridae (Old World Sparrows) Podicipedidae (grebes) Ardeidae (herons) Threskiornithidae (ibises & spoonbills) Anatidae (ducks, geese & swans) Accipitridae (hawks, kites & eagles) Falconidae (falcons) Phasianidae (turkeys & grouse) Odontophoridae (new world quail) Rallidae (rails, gallinules & coots) Aramidae (limpkins) Gruidae (cranes) Charadriidae (plovers) Recurvirostridae (avocets & stilts) Jacanidae (Jacana) Scolopacidae (sandpipers & phalaropes) Laridae (gulls & terns) Columbidae (pigeons & doves) Cuculidae (cuckoos & roadrunners) Tytonidae (barn owls) Strigidae (owls) Caprimulgidae (goatsuckers) Apodidae (swifts) Trochilidae (hummingbirds) Trogonidae (trogons) Alcedinidae (kingfishers) Picidae (woodpeckers) Tyrannidae (tyrant flycatchers) Laniidae (shrikes) Vireonidae (vireos) Corvidae (crows & jays) Alaudidae (larks) Hirundinidae (swallows) Paridae (titmice) Remizidae (verdins) Aegithalidae (bushtit) Sittidae (nuthatches) Certhiidae (creepers) Troglodytidae (wrens) Pycnonotidae (bulbul) Regulidae (kinglets) Sylviidae (Old World warblers) Muscicapidae (old world flycatchers) Timaliidae (babblers) Turdidae (thrushes) Mimidae (mockingbirds & thrashers) Sturnidae (starlings) introduced Prunellidae (accentors) Motacillidae (pipits & wagtails) Bombycillidae (waxwings) Ptilogonatidae (silky-flycatcher) Peucedramidae (olive warbler) Parulidae (wood warblers) Coerebidae (bananaquits) Thraupidae (tanagers) Emberizidae (sparrows& buntings) Cardinalidae (cardinals & grosbeaks) Birds that eat insects
  • 25. No insects…no baby birds!
  • 26. What is “Bird Friendly?”  Provide water year-round  Install native plants - Select a variety of native plants to offer year-round food in the form of seeds, berries, nuts, and nectar. Try to recreate the plant ecosystem native to your area. Evergreen trees and shrubs provide excellent cover through all seasons, if they are part of your local ecosystem  Eliminate insecticides in your yard  Keep dead trees - Dead trees provide cavity-dwelling places for birds to raise young and as a source to collect insects for food. Many species will also seek shelter from bad weather inside these hollowed out trees.  Put out nesting boxes  Build a brush pile in a corner of your yard  Offer food in feeders  Remove invasive plants from your wildlife habitat - Many invasive plants outcompete the native species favored by birds, insects and other wildlife.  Reduce your lawn area - Lawns have little value to birds or other wildlife, and they require more energy for mowing, applying fertilizers and watering.
  • 27. Consider Habitat Niches  Woodland (illustration at right) – deciduous or coniferous trees  aquatic —lakes, ponds, swamps, marshes, oceans, and shorelines  scrub-shrub —short woody plants and bushes  open —grasslands, agricultural fields, and tundra.
  • 28. Southern Deciduous Forest Ecology
  • 29. Plant Densely Plant in Layers Create Edges
  • 30. No Place for Birds Here!
  • 31. What about Fruit eaters?
  • 32. The relationship between birds and plants is also specialized! Summer Berries Fall Berries Late Winter Berries High sugar High fat High sugar post freeze
  • 33. Summer Berries: High Sugar Cedar Waxwing on American Elderberry
  • 34. Fall Berries: High in Fat Cedar Waxwing on Eastern Red Cedar
  • 35. Winter berries: High sugar post-freeze Bohemian Waxwing & Winterberry Holly
  • 36. Autumn olive Are berries from introduced plants good for birds?
  • 37. The nutritional differences between invasive berries and natives is huge! Smith et al. 2007, 2013 Native %Fat Northern bayberry (Myrica pensylvanica 50.3% Arrowwood (Viburnum dentatum) 48.7% Spicebush (Lindera benzoin) 48.0% Gray dogwood (Cornus racemosa) 34.9% Virginia Creeper (Parthenocisus quinquefolia) 23.6% Non-native Multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora) 0.9% Bush Honeysuckles (Lonicera spp.) 0.7% European Buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica) 0.5% Russian Olive (Elaeagnus umbellate) 2.1% Oriental Bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus) 2.6%
  • 38. Exotics Out of Sync  Most (all??) non-native berry producers are phenologically out of sync with the needs of our birds  They produce high sugar berries in the fall instead of the summer  Some are poisonous to North American birds such as Nandina or cathartic like European Buckthorn
  • 39. “Truth-squadding” Studies Several recent studies indicate some urban bird species numbers are increasing due to exotic honeysuckle and privet invasion BUT:  Other species are disappearing  Cardinal male vigor is decreasing because of lower fat and protein of berries despite bright plumage signaling good health  Higher nest depredation
  • 40. Native Plants for Birds
  • 41. Seven Important Plant Groups •Conifers •Grasses and legumes •Nectar producers •Summer fruits •Autumn fruits •Winter fruits •Nuts and acorns Cornell Lab of Ornithology
  • 42. Grasses Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)
  • 43. Little Bluestem Schizachyrium scoparium
  • 44. Early Nectar: Wild columbine (Aquilegia canadensis) Early Spring nectar *birds, butterflies, hummingbirds
  • 45. Summer-Fall Nectar Coral Honeysuckle (Lonicera sempervirens) Long bloom period *Hummingbirds, bees, butterflies (nectar)
  • 46. Summer Nectar Cardinal flower (Lobelia cardinalis) Summer *Hummingbirds
  • 47. Summer Fruit Highbush Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) Spring, early summer berries *bees, birds, mammals
  • 48. Summer Fruit Black Cherry Prunus serotina Summer fruit eaten by 47 bird species Also important caterpillar host plant (400+ species)
  • 49. Summer Fruit Serviceberry Amelanchior sp Also host plant for Red-spotted purple and Striped hairstreak
  • 50. Elderberry Sambucus nigra High sugar summer berries Summer Fruit
  • 51. Summer Fruit Beautyberry (Callicarpa americana) Blooms spring Berries - late summer (high sugar)
  • 52. Fall Fruit Eastern Red Cedar Juniperus virginiana Important high fat winter fruit Nesting and shelter tree
  • 53. Fall Fruit Spicebush Lindera benzoin Late summer berries full of protein & fat Spicebush Swallowtail host plant Need both male and female plant for berries
  • 54. Fall Fruit Dogwoods (Cornus alternifolia, amomum, drummondii, florida, ) *birds, butterlies, mammals
  • 55. Fall & Winter Fruit Viburnums (Viburnum acerifolium, cassinoides, dentatum, nudum, rudifolium, trilobum)
  • 56. Winter Fruit Sumac Rhus spp. Tolerant of many soils Fruit high in Vitamin C Brilliant fall foliage
  • 57. Winter Fruit Winterberry (Ilex verticillata) *bees, butterflies, birds
  • 58. Winter Fruit American holly (Ilex opaca) *birds, butterflies, mammals, bees
  • 59. Winter Fruit Red or Black Chokeberry (Aronia arbutifolia) Winter berries
  • 60. Acorns Red and White Oaks Quercas ssp. Caterpillars in spring Acorns in fall
  • 61. Seeds Purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) Blooms all summer *birds, bees, butterflies, hummingbirds Leave the seed heads for the birds!
  • 62. Seeds Sunflowers (perennial) (Helianthus spp) Many types, sizes and requirements *birds and bees H. mollisH. maximillianaH. dowellianus
  • 63. Seeds: Silphiums
  • 64. Seeds Sweetshrub (Calycanthus floridus) Blooms in spring Seeds in Fall
  • 65. “Like it or not, gardeners have become important players in the management of our nation’s wildlife. It is now within the power of individual gardeners to do something that we all dream of doing: to make a difference.” Doug Tallamy “Bringing Nature Home”
  • 66. Where to Get Native Plants • Overhill Gardens in Vonore, TN • Reflection Riding Spring and Fall plant sales • Sunlight Gardens in Andersonville , TN – mail order • Trailhead Nursery – by appointment and last Saturday of the month (Lone Oak, TN) • Specialty Seed Catalogs • Trails and Trilliums – Sewanee (April 11-12) • Dancing Fern – Sequatchie http://tennesseevalley.wildones.org/resources/where- to-buy-native-plants/
  • 67. Learn More Join the Tennessee Valley Chapter of Wild Ones Come to our free educational meetings www.tennesseevalley.wildones.org

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