POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY
Outline
• Basic definitions
• The role of colonialism
• Definitional complexities
– Multinational states
– Stateless natio...
State
• An independent political unit holding sovereignty over a territory
(Canada)
• Casually referred to as “country”
• ...
Nation
• Geographers’ definition: community of people with common
ancestry, culture and territory
• Does not imply an inde...
Nation-States
• State whose territory coincides with the area
occupied by a single nation
• E.g. Iceland – all residents o...
Outline
• Basic definitions
• The role of colonialism
• Definitional complexities
– Multinational states
– Stateless natio...
Colonized regions of the world
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
1500
1550
1600
1650
1700
1750
1800
1850
1900
1950Year
Numberof...
The Scramble for Africa
• 1870s, Belgium King Leopold begins sending emissaries to
Africa to establish trade relations
• O...
Berlin Conference, 1884-85
• Belgium, France, Germany, Portugal United States, Austria–Hungary,
Belgium, Denmark, France, ...
The Scramble for Africa
http://regentsprep.org/Regents/global/themes/imperialism/africa.cfm
http://www.adiamondisforever.c...
Scramble for Africa
African language groups
http://www.nativemaps.org/?q=node/1619
Outline
• √Basic definitions
• √ The role of colonialism
• Definitional complexities
– Multinational states
– Stateless na...
Definitional complexities
• Poland is essentially a
nation-state
• Switzerland is a multi-
national state
• The territory ...
Multi-national States
• e.g. Canada – several nations within borders
of Canadian state
• United Kingdom – Scots, English, ...
• ethnic groups
(nations) occupying
territory, but not
belonging to a single
state
• Basques in Spain and
France – there i...
Kurdistan
The Kurdish Nation
25-40 million people, depending on
how it is defined
Area ≥ 190,000 km2
•Opposition to Ottoma...
Outline
• √Basic definitions
• √ The role of colonialism
• √ Definitional complexities
– Multinational states
– Stateless ...
Geographic Characteristics of States
• Size - important for resources, power,
governance, communication
– Russian Federati...
Location
• Absolute Location
– Position with respect to grid (lat/long) Gibraltar’s
absolute location is 36°09N 5°21W
• Re...
Absolute & relative location: Tanzania
tanzania.sgu.se/COUNTRY.HTM
• Colonial legacies
today
Relative Location
• Landlocked States are disadvantaged for access to ocean and
resources
• Some have land corridors to oc...
Landlocked Bolivia
• 1879-1883, Bolivia & Peru
allied against Chile: War of The
Pacific
• Chile won and took
Antofagasta, ...
Outline
• √Basic definitions
• √ The role of colonialism
• √ Definitional complexities
– Multinational states
– Stateless ...
Strategic Location of
oil resources in
Iraq/Kuwait.
Strategic Locations
• Relative locations of importance
to two or more ...
Strategic location: oil geopolitics & formation of OPEC
• 1960 - OPEC founded in Baghdad by Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Saudi Arab...
Pipeline Development: The Caspian Basin
• Push for greater energy security; reduced dependence on Middle Eastern oil and O...
Oil in Africa
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (LZW) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
US Bases opened after Sept. 11, 2001
Pipeline Development: SE Asia
• Economic development of impoverished nations
• Social, environmental, and cultural change:...
Straits of Malacca
• 1/4 of total world
commodity trade
• 1/2 of all world’s
oil shipments
• 2/3 of total
liquidfied natur...
Panama Canal
Panama Canal
• constructed by
USA after initial
failed French
attempt
• 1903 – USA
supports Panama’s
separati...
Outline
• √Basic definitions
• √ The role of colonialism
• √ Definitional complexities
– Multinational states
– Stateless ...
Capital Cities
• Seat of government. Often
centre of finances,
education, health services
• Symbol of national or state
pr...
Primate Cities
• A primate city is the largest and most
important city by far in a country.
• It dominates the urban syste...
Moving the Capital …
• To access the ocean – St.
Petersburg
• To open new territory –
Brasilia
• Due to boundary change –
...
Moving the capital:
• Ottawa (Bytown)
was selected in 1865
as a neutral site.
•small lumbering
town.
• “in the middle of
n...
Canberra
•capital of Australia
• city planned as the centre
of federal government
• separate from commercial
and economic ...
Capital cities
QuickTime™ and a TIFF (PackBits) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
Outline
• √Basic definitions
• √ The role of colonialism
• √ Definitional complexities
– Multinational states
– Stateless ...
Alliances of States - Power in Numbers
• United Nations
– military, cultural, scientific, social welfare mandates
– attemp...
United Nations
• Established in 1945 in response to World War II, and failure to avert war
• Initiated by US President FD ...
UN objectives and structure
• Objectives:
– international peace and
security
– development of friendly
relations among sta...
United Nations Membership
• Open to all “peace-loving” states
• 191 member states
• Most recent members: Switzerland and E...
Non-members
• States admitted only after General Assembly vote
• Western Sahara has not been admitted – government largely...
State alliances: military & economic
• Military
– NATO
• Economic
– NAFTA
– ASEAN
– MERCOSUR
– EU (European Union)
NATO
• North Atlantic
Treaty
Organization
• formed after
World War II
• East. European
states are recent
applicants
•Renew...
States alliances: economic
• Free-trade area: removal of member state trade restrictions;
maintenance of policies toward n...
State alliances: economic
Free trade areas
Free Trade Area
Free Trade Area
Map source: http://ucatlas.ucsc.edu/trade/subth...
State alliances: economics and conflict?
• Can we think of states as economic actors on their own? Why or
why not?
• Who a...
States alliances: economic
• Customs union: free trade amongst member states & common external
trade policies
States alliances: economic
• Common market: free trade, common external trade policy, free flow of
factors of production (...
State alliances: economic
Common market
Common Market Economic Union
Map source: http://ucatlas.ucsc.edu/trade/subtheme_tr...
States alliances: economic
• Economic union: all previous characteristics, plus shared currency &
supranational governance
State alliances: economic
Economic union
Common Market Economic Union
Map source: http://ucatlas.ucsc.edu/trade/subtheme_t...
political geography bu m waseem noonari 03337091493
political geography bu m waseem noonari 03337091493
political geography bu m waseem noonari 03337091493
political geography bu m waseem noonari 03337091493
political geography bu m waseem noonari 03337091493
political geography bu m waseem noonari 03337091493
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  • 1. POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY
  • 2. Outline • Basic definitions • The role of colonialism • Definitional complexities – Multinational states – Stateless nations • The role of absolute and relative location • Strategic location • Capital cities • Alliances of states
  • 3. State • An independent political unit holding sovereignty over a territory (Canada) • Casually referred to as “country” • United States of America: 50 theoretically independent units that chose to join together in 1 ‘State’
  • 4. Nation • Geographers’ definition: community of people with common ancestry, culture and territory • Does not imply an independent political unit • e.g. Quebec; Acadians in Eastern Canada; “First Nations” throughout Canada
  • 5. Nation-States • State whose territory coincides with the area occupied by a single nation • E.g. Iceland – all residents of the state are members of a single Icelandic nation • vs. Canada – several different nations within the boundaries of the Canadian state
  • 6. Outline • Basic definitions • The role of colonialism • Definitional complexities – Multinational states – Stateless nations • The role of absolute and relative location • Strategic location • Capital cities • Alliances of states
  • 7. Colonized regions of the world 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1500 1550 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950Year Numberofcolonies Africa Latin America Asia North America Pacific Islands
  • 8. The Scramble for Africa • 1870s, Belgium King Leopold begins sending emissaries to Africa to establish trade relations • Other European powers begin to actively acquire African territory http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/berlinconference.html http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3516965.stm
  • 9. Berlin Conference, 1884-85 • Belgium, France, Germany, Portugal United States, Austria–Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Russia, Spain, Sweden–Norway, Great Britain – Principle of possession via occupation. – Signatory powers must give notification of intent to occupy to all other signatory powers. http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/berlinconference.html http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3516965.stm
  • 10. The Scramble for Africa http://regentsprep.org/Regents/global/themes/imperialism/africa.cfm http://www.adiamondisforever.com/
  • 11. Scramble for Africa
  • 12. African language groups
  • 13. http://www.nativemaps.org/?q=node/1619
  • 14. Outline • √Basic definitions • √ The role of colonialism • Definitional complexities – Multinational states – Stateless nations • The role of absolute and relative location • Strategic location • Capital cities • Alliances of states
  • 15. Definitional complexities • Poland is essentially a nation-state • Switzerland is a multi- national state • The territory of the ‘Arab nation’ extends over several Arab states • The Kurds are a stateless nation. Some Kurds are fighting for their own state, Kurdistan.
  • 16. Multi-national States • e.g. Canada – several nations within borders of Canadian state • United Kingdom – Scots, English, Irish, Welsh are separate nations • Former Yugoslavia (will discuss later in 1050) • All Western Hemisphere states • All African states
  • 17. • ethnic groups (nations) occupying territory, but not belonging to a single state • Basques in Spain and France – there is no Basque state • Basque nationalist organizations want autonomy or independence for a Basque state Stateless Nations
  • 18. Kurdistan The Kurdish Nation 25-40 million people, depending on how it is defined Area ≥ 190,000 km2 •Opposition to Ottoman Empire in WW 1 • promised independence by UK & France (1920); but Turkey established control, internat. acknowledged 1923 •Boundaries for political, not ethnographic reasons • Kurds not recognized as a nation by Turkey, Iraq, Iran • Kurds supported USA invasion of Iraq 2003 Area claimed by Kurdish nationalist groups; Kurdistan nationalist flag
  • 19. Outline • √Basic definitions • √ The role of colonialism • √ Definitional complexities – Multinational states – Stateless nations • The role of absolute and relative location • Strategic location • Capital cities • Alliances of states
  • 20. Geographic Characteristics of States • Size - important for resources, power, governance, communication – Russian Federation- 17,075,000 km2 Nauru - 20 km2 • Shape - for governance/transport • Location - Absolute & Relative
  • 21. Location • Absolute Location – Position with respect to grid (lat/long) Gibraltar’s absolute location is 36°09N 5°21W • Relative Location – Position with respect to other states and regions. Gibraltar’s relative location is crucial as a British colony at the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea.
  • 22. Absolute & relative location: Tanzania tanzania.sgu.se/COUNTRY.HTM • Colonial legacies today
  • 23. Relative Location • Landlocked States are disadvantaged for access to ocean and resources • Some have land corridors to ocean (e.g. Democratic Rep of Congo)
  • 24. Landlocked Bolivia • 1879-1883, Bolivia & Peru allied against Chile: War of The Pacific • Chile won and took Antofagasta, Tarapaca, Arica coastal areas – rich in nitrates • Bolivia lost access to Pacific and became landlocked • Bolivian Navy still practices on Lake Titicaca
  • 25. Outline • √Basic definitions • √ The role of colonialism • √ Definitional complexities – Multinational states – Stateless nations • √ The role of absolute and relative location • Strategic location • Capital cities • Alliances of states
  • 26. Strategic Location of oil resources in Iraq/Kuwait. Strategic Locations • Relative locations of importance to two or more states • Military or economic significance • differs over time – e.g. results of change from wind to coal to petroleum as fuel for shipping • many Straits are good examples -- Malacca, Bosphorus, Bering Strait, Strait of Hormuz, Strait of Gibraltar • Canals – Suez, Panama
  • 27. Strategic location: oil geopolitics & formation of OPEC • 1960 - OPEC founded in Baghdad by Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela to win better return for oil producers whose output is controlled by Western multinationals. • 1973 - An Arab oil embargo during Arab-Israeli war disrupts oil flows and triggers panic buying. • OPEC countries wrest pricing fully from Western multinationals in first "Oil Shock" and prices soar from around $2.50 a barrel in January 1973 to $11.50 by 1974.
  • 28. Pipeline Development: The Caspian Basin • Push for greater energy security; reduced dependence on Middle Eastern oil and OPEC • Russia, a non-OPEC nation, attempting to garner foreign investment – Massive devaluation of the ruble, IMF loans; sell resources to garner foreign currency • Major exploration efforts by US and European petroleum companies after 1989 collapse of communism – Potential for conflict with break-away republics: self-determination, economic development and emerging nations
  • 29. Oil in Africa
  • 30. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (LZW) decompressor are needed to see this picture. US Bases opened after Sept. 11, 2001
  • 31. Pipeline Development: SE Asia • Economic development of impoverished nations • Social, environmental, and cultural change: ‘modernization’ and resistance to it e.g. Kra isthmus, Thailand
  • 32. Straits of Malacca • 1/4 of total world commodity trade • 1/2 of all world’s oil shipments • 2/3 of total liquidfied natural gas QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 33. Panama Canal Panama Canal • constructed by USA after initial failed French attempt • 1903 – USA supports Panama’s separation from Colombia; gains control over strip bordering canal “Panama Canal Zone” • 31 Dec 1999- sovereignty over Canal Zone given to Panama
  • 34. Outline • √Basic definitions • √ The role of colonialism • √ Definitional complexities – Multinational states – Stateless nations • √ The role of absolute and relative location • √ Strategic location • Capital cities • Alliances of states
  • 35. Capital Cities • Seat of government. Often centre of finances, education, health services • Symbol of national or state pride • May be oldest & largest city in state, centre of most activities – Primate City London is the Primate City of the United Kingdom
  • 36. Primate Cities • A primate city is the largest and most important city by far in a country. • It dominates the urban system of its country. • Examples: Paris, London, Mexico City, Seoul • Toronto and New York are not primate cities.
  • 37. Moving the Capital … • To access the ocean – St. Petersburg • To open new territory – Brasilia • Due to boundary change – Bonn; Berlin • To choose a ‘neutral’ site – Washington, Canberra • To lessen the dominance of a primate city – Ankara (vs. Istanbul) • To change attitudes – all of the above Brasilia
  • 38. Moving the capital: • Ottawa (Bytown) was selected in 1865 as a neutral site. •small lumbering town. • “in the middle of nowhere” and on the boundary between Lower and Upper Canada. •More distant from the US and therefore less subject to attack. What would be an equivalent choice today for a new capital for
  • 39. Canberra •capital of Australia • city planned as the centre of federal government • separate from commercial and economic activity in Sydney and Melbourne • deliberately situated in area of mild climate
  • 40. Capital cities QuickTime™ and a TIFF (PackBits) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 41. Outline • √Basic definitions • √ The role of colonialism • √ Definitional complexities – Multinational states – Stateless nations • √ The role of absolute and relative location • √ Strategic location • √ Capital cities • Alliances of states
  • 42. Alliances of States - Power in Numbers • United Nations – military, cultural, scientific, social welfare mandates – attempts to be universal – sponsors many agencies for common good of all people • NAFTA - Canada, US and Mexico for economic reasons • NATO - military alliance by western Europe, Canada and US
  • 43. United Nations • Established in 1945 in response to World War II, and failure to avert war • Initiated by US President FD Roosevelt • has always involved states, not ‘nations’ (as understood by geographers)
  • 44. UN objectives and structure • Objectives: – international peace and security – development of friendly relations among states – cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, and humanitarian problems • UN Structure: – All states members of General Assembly – Secretary-General appointed by GA – 15 states are members of Security Council – 5 permanent SC members – Russia, USA, UK, France, China Potentials and pitfalls of objectives and structure?
  • 45. United Nations Membership • Open to all “peace-loving” states • 191 member states • Most recent members: Switzerland and East Timor (both Sept. 2002) • Observers (no voting rights) include Holy See (Vatican) and Palestinian Authority
  • 46. Non-members • States admitted only after General Assembly vote • Western Sahara has not been admitted – government largely in exile • Taiwan (Chinese Taipei) expelled in 1971; replaced by People’s Republic of China • Taiwan has applied for readmission on several occasions, vetoed by PR China • Stateless nations cannot be members
  • 47. State alliances: military & economic • Military – NATO • Economic – NAFTA – ASEAN – MERCOSUR – EU (European Union)
  • 48. NATO • North Atlantic Treaty Organization • formed after World War II • East. European states are recent applicants •Renewed interest in alliance with USA request to invade Iraq
  • 49. States alliances: economic • Free-trade area: removal of member state trade restrictions; maintenance of policies toward non-members
  • 50. State alliances: economic Free trade areas Free Trade Area Free Trade Area Map source: http://ucatlas.ucsc.edu/trade/subtheme_trade_blocs.php
  • 51. State alliances: economics and conflict? • Can we think of states as economic actors on their own? Why or why not? • Who are key actors in state alliances and conflicts? Where are some key sites of action?
  • 52. States alliances: economic • Customs union: free trade amongst member states & common external trade policies
  • 53. States alliances: economic • Common market: free trade, common external trade policy, free flow of factors of production (capital, labour)
  • 54. State alliances: economic Common market Common Market Economic Union Map source: http://ucatlas.ucsc.edu/trade/subtheme_trade_blocs.php
  • 55. States alliances: economic • Economic union: all previous characteristics, plus shared currency & supranational governance
  • 56. State alliances: economic Economic union Common Market Economic Union Map source: http://ucatlas.ucsc.edu/trade/subtheme_trade_blocs.php

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