Population Policy
Of
South Africa
PRESENTERS :
AYANTIKA
BINAYAK
SAMEER
SHATRUGHAN
FLOW OF PRESENTATION:
 DEMOGRAPHIC SCENARIO
 NEED FOR AN EXPLICIT POPULATION POLICY
 PAST POLICY AND PLANNING
 THE CUR...
08/20/15
DEMOGRAPHIC SCENARIO
 The population of South Africa -53,139,528
 0.73% of the total world population.
 Rank 2...
WHY SOUTH AFRICA NEEDS AN EXPLICIT
POPULATION POLICY ?
• Number of major population issues -major being the long
history o...
PAST POLICY AND PLANNING CONTEXTS FOR
POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT
 Apartheid ideology :enacted in 1948
 -Prohibition of M...
THE CURRENT POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT
PARADIGM
 Focus on Sustainable human development- Population as the driving force ...
POPULATION POLICY GOALS, OBJECTIVES
 VISION OF THE POLICY- is to contribute towards the establishment of a society that
p...
MAJOR NATIONAL POPULATION CONCERNS-MAJOR NATIONAL POPULATION CONCERNS-
1.the pressure of the interaction of population, pr...
OBJECTIVES OF THE POLICY
 1.the systematic integration of population factors into all policies, plans,
programmes and str...
Fertility
 CBR- 37.2(1970-75) 31.2 (1985-90) 21(2013)
 TFR- 2.41 (2012)
 considerable gap between preferred and actual ...
Contraceptive use
 major portion modern contraceptive methods
 racial and gender variations regarding choice of method
...
Contraception and fertility planning
guided by South Africa’s constitutional and legal framework, with its emphasis on hu...
08/20/15 14
Mortality and Morbidity
 CDR- 17.49 (2015)
 LEB- 61.2 year (2014)
 IMR- 40.97 (2015)
 <5 mortality rate- 4...
Causes of death among children
 three quarters of deaths among African infants were due to perinatal causes,
diarrhoeal a...
Causes of death among adults
 TB, flu and pneumonia emerged as the leading killers overall. TB accounted for
8.8 per cent...
CAMPAIGN ON ACCELERATED REDUCTION OF MATERNAL,
NEWBORN AND CHILD MORTALITY IN AFRICA(CARRMA)
  to trigger concerted and i...
HEALTH PROMOTION- National Health Plan(1994)
 The principal tenets of the policy on health promotion include the followin...
The health sector has adopted a 10 Point Plan for 2009-2014, which consists of the following priorities: 
i. Provision of...
Policy - Strategic Plan for Maternal, Newborn, Child and Women’s
Health (MNCWH) and Nutrition in South Africa
Goal:
 To r...
INDICATOR CURRENT
STATUS
TARGET YEAR
Maternal
Mortality Ratio
310 per 100,000
live births (2008)
270 per 100,000
live birt...
ABORTION POLICY:
Abortion in South Africa was legal only under very limited circumstances until 1 
February 1997, when the...
1. Historical Background: South African Migration policy
before 1994:
      Before 1994  the  Govt. Of  S.A had  announced...
2. Migration to South Africa post-1994
After 1994 the pattern of migration the government of S. Africa changed
dramaticall...
NET MIGRATION IN SOUTH AFRICA: 1990-2000
Year Immigratio
n
Emigration Net
Migration
1990 14661 4694 9967
1991 12245 4153 8...
27
Immigration:-
•International migration important for development of a country. Both sending and
receiving countries ben...
Refugee Protection
• South Africa is a signatory to UN and OAU Conventions on the protection of refugees
• It is important...
Purpose of the Migration Policy
• In developing a migration policy, it is important for South Africa to clearly define wha...
08/20/15
THANK YOU
Population policy south africa
Population policy south africa
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Population policy south africa

policy of south africa
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Healthcare      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Population policy south africa

  • 1. Population Policy Of South Africa PRESENTERS : AYANTIKA BINAYAK SAMEER SHATRUGHAN
  • 2. FLOW OF PRESENTATION:  DEMOGRAPHIC SCENARIO  NEED FOR AN EXPLICIT POPULATION POLICY  PAST POLICY AND PLANNING  THE CURRENT PARADIGM  FERTILITY & CONTRACEPTION  MORTALITY & MORBIDITY  (MNCWH) & NUTRITION  ABORTION POLICY  GOALS & OBJECTIVES
  • 3. 08/20/15 DEMOGRAPHIC SCENARIO  The population of South Africa -53,139,528  0.73% of the total world population.  Rank 25  Growth rate 1.34%  Birth rate 19.61 births/1,000 population  Death rate 16.99 deaths/1,000 population  Life expectancy 61 years -male 59 years -female 63 years  Fertility rate 2.4 children born/woman  Infant mortality rate 43.78 deaths/1,000  High dependency ratio i.e. 54%.
  • 4. WHY SOUTH AFRICA NEEDS AN EXPLICIT POPULATION POLICY ? • Number of major population issues -major being the long history of apartheid. • Inequities based on race & quality of life.  Racial segregation of blacks and whites.  Bring about changes in population trends. • Remove flaws in past policies. • To set out various interconnected programmes for the many social and economic problems facing the country.
  • 5. PAST POLICY AND PLANNING CONTEXTS FOR POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT  Apartheid ideology :enacted in 1948  -Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act  -Immorality Amendment Act  Restricted movement and resettlement of the population, especially blacks;  -restricting the access to educational and employment opportunities  -restricting their access to water resources and water-resourced arable land  Reducing the country's rate of population growth by reducing the fertility by coercive means;  Population Development Programme (PDP) was established in 1984 – -Achieve a TFR=2.1 by 2010. -Fertility reduction through family planning and by intervening other areas that have impact on fertility level.
  • 6. THE CURRENT POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT PARADIGM  Focus on Sustainable human development- Population as the driving force + ultimate beneficiary  Improving education and health conditions;  promoting sexual and reproductive health (including family planning) and reproductive rights;  Changes in various development indicators - increasing levels of income, education and the empowerment of women => better health, declining fertility and mortality rates, migration from rural area.  Establishing factual bases for understanding and anticipating the interrelationships of population, socio-economic and environmental variables, and for improving programme development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.
  • 7. POPULATION POLICY GOALS, OBJECTIVES  VISION OF THE POLICY- is to contribute towards the establishment of a society that provides a high and equitable quality of life for all South Africans  GOAL OF THE POLICY- to bring about changes in the determinants of the country's population trends, so that these trends are consistent with the achievement of sustainable human development.
  • 8. MAJOR NATIONAL POPULATION CONCERNS-MAJOR NATIONAL POPULATION CONCERNS- 1.the pressure of the interaction of population, production and consumption patterns on the environment; 2.the high incidence and severity of poverty in both rural and urban areas; 3.inequities in access to resources, infrastructure and social services, particularly in rural areas, and implications for redistribution and growth and the alleviation of poverty; 4.the reduced human development potential influenced by the high incidence of unplanned and unwanted pregnancies and teenage pregnancies; 5.the high rates of infant and maternal mortality, linked to high-risk child bearing; and high rates of premature mortality attributable to preventable causes 6.the rising incidence of sexually transmitted diseases, especially HIV/AIDS, and the projected socio-economic impact of AIDS;
  • 9. OBJECTIVES OF THE POLICY  1.the systematic integration of population factors into all policies, plans, programmes and strategies at all levels and within all sectors and institutions of government;  2. developing and implementing a coordinated, multi- sectoral, interdisciplinary and integrated approach in designing and executing programmes and interventions that impact on major national population concerns;  3. making available reliable and up-to-date information on the population and human development situation in the country in order to inform policy making and programme design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation at all levels and in all sectors.
  • 10. Fertility  CBR- 37.2(1970-75) 31.2 (1985-90) 21(2013)  TFR- 2.41 (2012)  considerable gap between preferred and actual family size  CPR- 60-65%(DHS 2003)  Large differentials geographically  Negative correlation between age at marriage and fertility level doesn’t seem to hold- marriage losing its importance for child bearing  financial and economic considerations , age(eg, younger gen women more likely to be involved in decision making about the family size) , children's educational needs  Unintended pregnancies- 39% (among 49.1 mn pregnancies in 2008)
  • 11. Contraceptive use  major portion modern contraceptive methods  racial and gender variations regarding choice of method  majority of women use contraceptive injection  Males- mainly urban habitation ( if don’t use- main reason is reliance on partners for FP)  factors, including developmental, psychological, interpersonal, social, cultural and economic, influence youth reproductive health behaviour and protection
  • 12. Contraception and fertility planning guided by South Africa’s constitutional and legal framework, with its emphasis on human rights, the key elements of which are given below. Different categories of cross-border migrants are granted differential rights to access free public health care services. Asylum seekers and refugees are governed by the Refugee Act (1998); other cross-border migrants are governed by the Immigration Act (2002). Clause 27 in the Bill of Rights (in the South African Constitution, 1996) states that everyone has the right to have access to health care services. The National Health Act (2003) and the Constitution assures everyone in the country, regardless of immigration status, access to care in life-threatening circumstances. The Refugees Act 130 (1998) states that refugees should have access to the same basic health services that are available to all South Africans (there is ambiguity in relation to asylum seekers). The 2007 Financial Directive1 from the DOH confirms that refugees and asylum seekers, with or without a permit, have the same right as South Africans to access free basic health care and ART in the public sector. Other documented cross-border migrants (such as those with visitor, work or study permits) should be charged a ‘foreign fee’ at the point of use. However, in terms of undocumented migrants the legislation is unclear and they are only covered if they are refugees or asylum seekers, as per the 2007 directive.
  • 13. 08/20/15 14 Mortality and Morbidity  CDR- 17.49 (2015)  LEB- 61.2 year (2014)  IMR- 40.97 (2015)  <5 mortality rate- 45 per 1000 LB (2014)
  • 14. Causes of death among children  three quarters of deaths among African infants were due to perinatal causes, diarrhoeal and respiratory diseases.  Measles- another leading cause of child mortality and morbidity  leading notifiable causes of child mortality and morbidity in South Africa are malaria, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever (which is strongly associated with contaminated drinking water, poor sanitation, and overcrowding), meningococcal disease, and cholera. Acute respiratory infections, likewise, are a major cause of childhood mortality. Diarrhoeal diseases, respiratory infections and allergies outnumber all diseases in both ambulatory facilities and hospital admissions.
  • 15. Causes of death among adults  TB, flu and pneumonia emerged as the leading killers overall. TB accounted for 8.8 per cent of all deaths and flu and pneumonia 5.2 per cent.  HIV/AIDS was the third most common cause at 5.1 per cent  increasing deaths from diabetes and hypertensive diseases emerged as a concern.  TB was the leading cause of death in six provinces, except in the Western Cape, where it was diabetes; the Northern Cape, where it was HIV; and Limpopo, where flu and pneumonia were the top killers.  Sex, age, residence
  • 16. CAMPAIGN ON ACCELERATED REDUCTION OF MATERNAL, NEWBORN AND CHILD MORTALITY IN AFRICA(CARRMA)   to trigger concerted and increased action towards improving maternal and  newborn health and survival across the continent. As such, CARMMA is not a  new initiative; rather, it is derived from the key priority areas enshrined in the  AU Policy Framework for the promotion of Sexual and Reproductive Health  and Rights in Africa (2005) and the Maputo Plan of Action (2006).  availability and use of universally accessible quality health services, including  those related to sexual and reproductive health that are critical for the reduction  of maternal mortality. The focus is not to develop new strategies and plans, but  to ensure coordination and effective implementation of existing ones.  CARMMA aims to renew and strengthen efforts to save the lives of women  who should not have to die while giving life. CARMMA believes in ensuring  accountability: every single loss of a mother’s or child’s life should be  reported.
  • 17. HEALTH PROMOTION- National Health Plan(1994)  The principal tenets of the policy on health promotion include the following:  Health promotion is central to the success of primary health care.  Within primary health care the role of health promotion should encompass  responsibility for community participation, community development,  intersectoral development, education, mass media campaigns and disease  prevention and health promotion in specific areas such as women's health,  HIV/AIDS, adolescent health etc.  Health promotion requires the skills of a multi-disciplinary team of workers  from many different sectors e.g. teachers, drama specialists, workers,  community organizers, advertisers, health workers etc.
  • 18. The health sector has adopted a 10 Point Plan for 2009-2014, which consists of the following priorities:  i. Provision of Strategic leadership and creation of a Social Compact for better health outcomes;  ii. Implementation of a National Health Insurance Plan (NHI);  iii. Improving Quality of Health Services;  iv. Overhauling the health care system and improve its management;  v. Improving Human Resources Planning, Development and Management;  vi. Revitalization of physical infrastructure;  vii. Accelerated implementation of HIV & AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections National Strategic  Plan 2007-11 and increase focus on TB and other communicable diseases;  viii. Mass mobilization for better health for the population;  ix. Review of the Drug Policy;  x. Strengthening Research and Development THE 10 POINT PLAN (2009-14)
  • 19. Policy - Strategic Plan for Maternal, Newborn, Child and Women’s Health (MNCWH) and Nutrition in South Africa Goal:  To reduce the maternal mortality ratio and neonatal, infant and child mortality rates by at least 10% by  2016 · To empower women, and to ensure universal access to reproductive health services · To improve the nutritional status of all mothers and children. Strategies: Strategy 1: Address inequity and social determinants of health Strategy 2: Develop a comprehensive and coordinated framework for MNCWH & Nutrition service  delivery Strategy 3: Strengthen community-based MNCWH & Nutrition interventions Strategy 4: Strengthen provision of MNCWH & Nutrition services at PHC and district levels Strategy 5: Strengthen delivery of MNCWH & Nutrition services at district hospital level Strategy 6: Strengthen the capacity of the health system to support the provision of MNCWH &  Nutrition services Strategy 7: Strengthen human resource capacity for delivery of MNCWH & Nutrition services Strategy 8: Strengthen systems for monitoring and evaluation of MNCWH & Nutrition interventions  and outcomes
  • 20. INDICATOR CURRENT STATUS TARGET YEAR Maternal Mortality Ratio 310 per 100,000 live births (2008) 270 per 100,000 live births 2014 Neonatal mortality rate 14 per 1000 per live births 12 per 1000 live births 2014 Infant mortality rate 40 per 1000 live births 36 per 1000 live births 2014 Under-5 mortality rate 56 per 1000 live births 50 per 1000 live births 2014
  • 21. ABORTION POLICY: Abortion in South Africa was legal only under very limited circumstances until 1  February 1997, when the Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act (Act 92 of 1996) came  into force, providing ABORTION on demand for a variety of cases. Under the new policy, women have the right to abortion on request during the first 12  weeks of gestation, to protect the health and well-being of the mother or fetus and for  reasons of rape/incest between 13-20 weeks (with approval of one physician), and after the  20th  week if mother or fetus is at risk of harm (approved by two physicians or one physician  and a midwife) An amendment of the CTOP in 2008 increased access to abortion care by further  decentralizing control of facility licensing to the provincial level and expanding provider  cadres to include trained nurses   National Abortion Care Programme (NACP) in 1998, which expanded high-quality  abortion care services to public clinics and health centers Decline in Abortion-Related Mortality  By the 2005-2007 period, annual abortion-related deaths accounted for only 3.3% of all  maternal deaths which was  32.69 deaths per 1,000 abortions in 1994
  • 22. 1. Historical Background: South African Migration policy before 1994:       Before 1994  the  Govt. Of  S.A had  announced  a policy related to” Aliens control act ” and  it`s  aim  was  to  control  the  entry  of Aliens  into  the    country.  The Aliens  Control Act stated unambiguously that a person could only immigrate to South Africa if  that persons habits of life is suited to the requirements of South Africa. The foreign  worker appointed under the agreement   as  contact base  for  limited two year and after  end of their decided month again send their country          Foreign workers were not allowed to bring in their families while in South    Africa  and  their  movement  was  restricted  to  the  area  of  work.  These  workers  were  undocumented migrants and severely restricted and without a doubt a source of cheap  labour for the mines and farms. Migration Policy In South Africa
  • 23. 2. Migration to South Africa post-1994 After 1994 the pattern of migration the government of S. Africa changed dramatically and by 1995 the New South African government had lifted most of the aforementioned restrictions. In 1994, the Department of Home Affairs (DHA) announced that unskilled or semi-skilled immigrants would not be permitted to work in SA. Currently, the largest number of migrants entering South Africa is from other African countries whether they are refugees as defined by the UN Refugee Convention, forced or economic migrants or simply job-seekers. As South Africa is perceived by many to be economically prosperous, at a time when European asylum policies are becoming more and more restrictive, South Africa is viewed almost as the only answer.
  • 24. NET MIGRATION IN SOUTH AFRICA: 1990-2000 Year Immigratio n Emigration Net Migration 1990 14661 4694 9967 1991 12245 4153 8092 1992 9262 4181 5081 1993 9996 8152 1844 1994 6398 10235 -3837 Year Immigratio n Emigration Net Migration 1995 5064 8725 -3661 1996 5351 10347 -4996 1997 4188 8943 -4755 1998 4371 8276 -3905 1999 3669 8487 -4818 2000 3028 10280 -7252 Before 1994: After-1994
  • 25. 27 Immigration:- •International migration important for development of a country. Both sending and receiving countries benefit from migration. SA to take into account skilled, semi-skilled and other categories of migrants. At the moment the focus is more on skilled migration and no provision for low and semi-skilled migration and yet it is an important use these areas are sometimes seen as areas of concern with potential to create tensions between citizens and non- citizens Emigration:-Need to look at the skills base that SA is loosing to other countries as this will assist in developing a balanced migration policy taking into account both gains (brain gain from immigrants, remittances from S. African living abroad) and losses (through brain drain, lost revenue)
  • 26. Refugee Protection • South Africa is a signatory to UN and OAU Conventions on the protection of refugees • It is important to note that there is no way of reversing these commitments but for the country to improve on these. • In this regard, some of the proposal on the African National Congress Peace and Stability document proposing reducing rights for asylum seekers are concerning and need to be in line with the International Relations sections which recognises the value SA plays in regional, continental and global stages • Current practice and proposals to limit rights of asylum seekers concerning
  • 27. Purpose of the Migration Policy • In developing a migration policy, it is important for South Africa to clearly define what the country wants to achieve with it. • For instance, questions related to this include: is it aimed only at international migration or includes local migration? • Our understand is that Migration Policy will help to guide the SA government to manage international migration into South Africa but also address issues related to emigration by South Africans.
  • 28. 08/20/15 THANK YOU

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