NANOBIOSENSORS
Biosensors on the nano-scale size
Nanobiosensor
A device incorporating a biological sensing element either
intimately connected to or integrated within a t...
History
• The concept of biosensor was come up by Professor Leland
C Clark in 1956, who was identified as the father of th...
History ……….
• 1975- idea of utilizing bacteria as the biological element in
microbial electrodes for the measurement of a...
Two part of any biosensor
Component
Nucleic acids biosensor
• DNA biosensors are being developed as alternatives to
conventional DNA microarrays
• The complem...
ANTIBODY/ANTIGEN:
• The high specificity between an antibody and an antigen can
be utilized in this type of sensor technolo...
CELLS AND VIRUSES
• Microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi can be used as
biosensors to detect specific molecules or the...
ENZYMES
• Enzyme-based biosensors are composed of enzyme
bioreceptors that use their catalytic activity and binding
capabi...
Nanoparticle based biosensors
Acoustic wavebiosensor
Magnetic biosensor
Electrochemical biosensor
Acoustic wave biosensor
• The conjugation of antibody modified sol particles which bind
themselves on the electrode surfac...
Magnetic biosensor
• Utilize the specially designed magnetic nanoparticles.
• Mostly ferrite based materials, either used ...
Electrochemical biosensor
• To facilitate or analyze the biochemical reactions with the help of
improved electrical means....
Nanotube based sensors
• Nanocarbons such as carbon powder, carbon nanotubes, graphene
sheets and carbon capsules
• Carbon...
Con…….
• can promote the electron-transfer reactions of
proteins
• Accumulate important biomolecules (e.g.,nucleic
acids)
...
Biosensor in medical field
Glucose biosensors
• In glucose biosensors, use of nanotubes as immobilizing
surfaces for enzym...
Biosensor for determination of cholesterol
• Electrochemical biosensor for free cholesterol
monitoring
• Horseradish perox...
DNA Electrochemical Biosensor for the
Detection of HIV
• The sensor relies on the immobilization and hybridization of
the ...
Other example
• Electrochemical DNA biosensor for the detection
of TT and Hepatitis B virus
• Biosensor for avian influenz...
Biosensor assay for determination of haptoglobin
in bovine milk
• Mastitis is a disease which reduce the milk quality
• Ha...
Multiplex biosensor immunoassays
for antibiotics
• Based on multi-component antibodies and/or combined
immunoassays in ser...
Screening of Chloramphenicol Residues in
Milk
• Chloramphenicol (CAP) are baned use for food
producing animals,
• polyclon...
Analysis of b -Lactam Antibiotics
• monoclonal H1 antibody is injected across the sensor
surface
• It will bind on the tra...
Application in agriculture
• Microbiological control in Foods
• Detection of infectious disease in products
• Quality cont...
Applications of Nanobiosensors
• Biological Applications
• DNA Sensors; Genetic monitoring, disease
• Immunosensors; HIV, ...
Environmental Applications
• Detection of environmental pollution and toxicity
• Agricultural monitoring
• Ground water sc...
Future Application
Cancer Monitoring
• Nanobiosensors play a very important role for early cancer
detection in body fluids...
nanobiosensor and its application
nanobiosensor and its application
nanobiosensor and its application
nanobiosensor and its application
nanobiosensor and its application
nanobiosensor and its application
nanobiosensor and its application
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nanobiosensor and its application

details about biosensor
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Education      
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Transcripts - nanobiosensor and its application

  • 1. NANOBIOSENSORS Biosensors on the nano-scale size
  • 2. Nanobiosensor A device incorporating a biological sensing element either intimately connected to or integrated within a transducer and a nanobiosensoris a biosensor that on the nano-scale size • Recognition based on affinity between complementary structures like: enzyme-substrate, antibody-antigen , receptor-hormone complex. Selectivity and specificity depend on biological recognition systems connected to a suitable transducer.
  • 3. History • The concept of biosensor was come up by Professor Leland C Clark in 1956, who was identified as the father of the biosensor concept. • Oxygen electrode for measure the concentration of oxygen in a any liquid • 1962-the idea of oxygen electrode Clark came to reality
  • 4. History ………. • 1975- idea of utilizing bacteria as the biological element in microbial electrodes for the measurement of alcohol • 1975-first commercial biosensor (Yellow Spring Instrumental Biosensor) • 1975-first microbe based biosensor (first Immunosensor) • 1983-first surface plasmonresonance (SPR) immunosensor • 1987-Blood Glucose biosensor launchedby Medi-sense ExacTech. • 2000-nanotechnology biosensor, chip,quantumdots etc..
  • 5. Two part of any biosensor
  • 6. Component
  • 7. Nucleic acids biosensor • DNA biosensors are being developed as alternatives to conventional DNA microarrays • The complementary relationships between bases are used for DNA sequence detection • The reaction take place in the surface of the transducer
  • 8. ANTIBODY/ANTIGEN: • The high specificity between an antibody and an antigen can be utilized in this type of sensor technology. • Biosensors utilizing this specificity to detect the analyte
  • 9. CELLS AND VIRUSES • Microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi can be used as biosensors to detect specific molecules or the overall ‘‘state’’ of the surrounding environment
  • 10. ENZYMES • Enzyme-based biosensors are composed of enzyme bioreceptors that use their catalytic activity and binding capabilities for specificity biomedical nanostructures detection
  • 11. Nanoparticle based biosensors Acoustic wavebiosensor Magnetic biosensor Electrochemical biosensor
  • 12. Acoustic wave biosensor • The conjugation of antibody modified sol particles which bind themselves on the electrode surface that has been complexed with the particles of analyte conjugated in a manner that antibody molecules are immobilized over the electrode surface. • The large mass of bound sol particles of the antibody results in a change in the vibrational frequency of the quartz based sensing platform, and this change acts as the basis of detection. • In general, the preferred diameter of the sol based antibody particles is between 5 and 100 nm. • Particles of gold, platinum, cadmium sulphide, and titanium dioxide are generally preferred
  • 13. Magnetic biosensor • Utilize the specially designed magnetic nanoparticles. • Mostly ferrite based materials, either used individually or in combined form. • Useful with reference to the biomedical applications • With the incorporation of magnetic nanoparticles, the conventionally used biodetection devices have further become more sensitive and powerful. • specific isolation of magnetically labeled targets with the help of a magnetometer • Special devices such as superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUID)- for rapid detection of biological targets • SQUID uses super paramagnetic nature of magnetic nanoparticles.
  • 14. Electrochemical biosensor • To facilitate or analyze the biochemical reactions with the help of improved electrical means. • Mostly based on metallic nanoparticles. • The chemical reactions between the biomolecules can be easily and efficiently carried out with the help of metallic nanoparticles, which significantly help in achieving immobilization of one of the reactants. • This ability makes these reactions very specific and eliminates undesirable side products. • Example- 1) colloidal gold based nanoparticles have been used to enhance the immobilization of DNA on gold electrodes which has significantly increased the efficiency of an overall biosensor by further lowering the detection limit. • 2)Enzyme conjugated gold nanoparticles for the identification of glucose, xanthine, and hydrogen peroxide
  • 15. Nanotube based sensors • Nanocarbons such as carbon powder, carbon nanotubes, graphene sheets and carbon capsules • Carbon nanotubes –hollow cylinder of a unique carbon sheet with a single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) or concentric carbon sheets of different diameters forming multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) • CNT synthesis by arc-discharge, laser-ablation and chemical vapour deposition • cylindrical form of CNT- provides quantum confinement effect, possibility to increase the chemical reactivity and electronic properties of this particular carbon material • high mechanical strength and folding abilities • can enhance the electrochemical reactivity of important biomolecules
  • 16. Con……. • can promote the electron-transfer reactions of proteins • Accumulate important biomolecules (e.g.,nucleic acids) • Alleviate surface fouling effects • Remarkable sensitivity of CNT- awide range of electrochemical biosensors ranging from amperometric enzyme electrodes to DNA hybridization biosensors
  • 17. Biosensor in medical field Glucose biosensors • In glucose biosensors, use of nanotubes as immobilizing surfaces for enzyme glucose oxidaze • Use of single walled nanotubes- for enzymatic detection of glucose • Increased performance- due to the high enzyme loading and better electrical conductivities of nanotubes • Most glucose biosensors are based on a GOD because the GOD is able to identify glucose target molecules quickly and accurately through catalyzing glucose to gluconic acid and H2O2
  • 18. Biosensor for determination of cholesterol • Electrochemical biosensor for free cholesterol monitoring • Horseradish peroxidase and cholesterol oxidase are simultaneously immobilized within a polymeric film, • Which will react with cholesterol
  • 19. DNA Electrochemical Biosensor for the Detection of HIV • The sensor relies on the immobilization and hybridization of the 21- or 42-mer single-stranded oligonucleotide from the HIV-1 U5 long terminal repeat (LTR) sequence at carbon paste or strip electrode • Hybridization between the complementary sequences is determined by the enhancement of the chronopotentiometric peak of the Co(phen)3 3+ indicator
  • 20. Other example • Electrochemical DNA biosensor for the detection of TT and Hepatitis B virus • Biosensor for avian influenza virus detection • Silicon nanowire biosensor for highly sensitive and rapid detection of Dengue virus
  • 21. Biosensor assay for determination of haptoglobin in bovine milk • Mastitis is a disease which reduce the milk quality • Haptoglobin is protein molecule present in the milk • By introducing the antibody specific to the haptoglobin • Developed SPR based biosensor
  • 22. Multiplex biosensor immunoassays for antibiotics • Based on multi-component antibodies and/or combined immunoassays in serially connected flow channels • Development of multi-sulfonamide monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) • Which are immobilize in sensor surface Example Sulfonamides detection in Broiler’s blood serum
  • 23. Screening of Chloramphenicol Residues in Milk • Chloramphenicol (CAP) are baned use for food producing animals, • polyclonal antibodies against CAP to immobilized CAP on a sensor chip • It is mainly spr based biosensor • Which will give the specifity and concentration of antibiotic
  • 24. Analysis of b -Lactam Antibiotics • monoclonal H1 antibody is injected across the sensor surface • It will bind on the transducer surface • And it is mainly SPR based optical biosensor • Analysis of b-lactum necessary due it will create problem in fermentation process in milk
  • 25. Application in agriculture • Microbiological control in Foods • Detection of infectious disease in products • Quality control of marketable packaged products • Quality control of milk • Quality control of fruits • Quality control of meats
  • 26. Applications of Nanobiosensors • Biological Applications • DNA Sensors; Genetic monitoring, disease • Immunosensors; HIV, Hepatitis,other viral diseas, drug testing, environmental monitoring… • Cell-based Sensors; functional sensors, drug testing… • Point-of-care sensors; blood, urine, electrolytes, gases, steroids, drugs, hormones, proteins, other… • Bacteria Sensors; (E-coli, streptococcus, other): food industry, medicine, environmental, other. • Enzyme sensors; diabetics, drug testing,
  • 27. Environmental Applications • Detection of environmental pollution and toxicity • Agricultural monitoring • Ground water screening • Ocean monitoring
  • 28. Future Application Cancer Monitoring • Nanobiosensors play a very important role for early cancer detection in body fluids • The sensor is coated with a cancer-specific antibody or other bio recognition ligands. The capture of a cancer cell or a target protein yields electrical, optical or mechanical signal for detection