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# Population genetics and the hardy answers

Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Source: www.slideshare.net

#### Transcripts - Population genetics and the hardy answers

• 1. POPULATION GENETICS AND THE HARDY-WEINBERG LAW ANSWERS TO SAMPLE QUESTIONSRemember the basic formulas:p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 and p + q = 1p = frequency of the dominant allele in the populationq = frequency of the recessive allele in the populationp2 = percentage of homozygous dominant individualsq2 = percentage of homozygous recessive individuals2pq = percentage of heterozygous individuals 1. PROBLEM #1. You have sampled a population in which you know that the percentage of the homozygous recessive genotype (aa) is 36%. Using that 36%, calculate the following: A. The frequency of the "aa" genotype. Answer: 36%, as given in the problem itself. B. The frequency of the "a" allele. Answer: The frequency of aa is 36%, which means that q2 = 0.36, by definition. If q2 = 0.36, then q = 0.6, again by definition. Since q equals the frequency of the a allele, then the frequency is 60%. C. The frequency of the "A" allele. Answer: Since q = 0.6, and p + q = 1, then p = 0.4; the frequency of A is by definition equal to p, so the answer is 40%. D. The frequencies of the genotypes "AA" and "Aa." Answer: The frequency of AA is equal to p2, and the frequency of Aa is equal to 2pq. So, using the information above, the frequency of AA is 16% (i.e. p2 is 0.4 x 0.4 = 0.16) and Aa is 48% (2pq = 2 x 0.4 x 0.6 = 0.48). E. The frequencies of the two possible phenotypes if "A" is completely dominant over "a." Answers: Because "A" is totally dominate over "a", the dominant phenotype will show if either the homozygous "AA" or heterozygous "Aa" genotypes occur. The recessive phenotype is controlled by the homozygous aa genotype. Therefore, the frequency of the dominant phenotype equals the sum of the frequencies of AA and Aa, and the recessive phenotype is simply the frequency of aa. Therefore, the dominant frequency is 64% and, in the first part of this question above, you have already shown that the recessive frequency is 36%. 2. PROBLEM #2. Sickle-cell anemia is an interesting genetic disease. Normal homozygous individials (SS) have normal blood cells that are easily infected with the malarial parasite. Thus, many of these individuals become very ill from the parasite and many die. Individuals homozygous for the sickle-cell trait (ss) have red blood cells that readily collapse when deoxygenated. Although malaria cannot grow in these red blood cells, individuals often die because of the genetic defect. However, individuals with the heterozygous condition (Ss) have some sickling of red blood cells,