Price Analytics
online course script (without examples)
Scandinavian Institute of Business Analytics SCANBA
http://online....
Pricing Techniques
In this course, we will follow Lars and his company Lars
Coffee Mugs. Lars manufactures three lines of ...
Creaming Pricing
In creaming pricing, we set prices high during the introduction of a
new product or service by targeting ...
Demand-Based Pricing In demand-based pricing, we set prices to maximize profit, based on
consumer demand for the product o...
Everyday Low Pricing Everyday-low-pricing sets prices consistently low to attract price-sensitive
customers and increase s...
Going Rate Pricing
In going rate pricing, companies align their prices with those of competitors
and adopt a so-called mar...
Markup / Cost Plus Pricing
In markup / cost plus pricing, we simply add an arbitrary percentage, such as
twenty percent, t...
Penetration Pricing
In penetration pricing, companies set prices very low, lower than many of its
competitors, to attract ...
Prestige Pricing
Prestige pricing sets prices high to signal high quality or status. Prestige pricing
is also known as ima...
Target-Return Pricing
Target-return pricing calculates price to achieve a company-defined return on
investment. The techni...
Tiered Pricing
Tiered pricing, also known as good-better-best pricing or price lining, sets
different price points for dif...
Value-in-Use Pricing
Value-in-use pricing, also called value-based pricing, sets prices based on the
product or service’s ...
Variant Pricing
The variant pricing technique sets different prices for different versions, or
variants, of products and s...
Summary
Here we summarize the pricing techniques:
Creaming Pricing : Set prices high during new product or service introdu...
Pricing Assessment
In the previous section, Lars considered various pricing techniques based on
the market and his product...
Break-even Analysis
Organizations use break-even analysis to predict the quantity we must sell
before a new product or ser...
Break-even Analysis Process
The chart shows the break-even analysis technique.
Fixed cost for a project is defined as all ...
Net Present Value Capital Budgeting Model
In this section, we address net present value capital budgeting, or NPV, which a...
Net Present Value Capital Budgeting Model (continued)
The net present value technique assesses whether a project is
worthy...
NPV Analysis Process
The chart shows an overview of the process.
At first, we identify the required initial investment
The...
Internal Rate of Return Capital Budgeting Model
The internal rate of return model is similar to the NPV method. The intern...
IRR Analysis Process
The chart shows an overview of the process.
We start by estimating the initial investment required to...
Profitable Pricing
We can incorporate consumer demand into our pricing
approach to increase product and service profitabil...
Price Elasticity
The price elasticity of a product or service is the rate at which the percentage of the change in quantit...
Gather the Demand Data
We can gather the demand data using three different approaches.
Surveys. We can conduct market surv...
Optimal Pricing
We define the optimal price as the price yielding maximum profit. Once we know a product or service's
dema...
Price Discrimination
We sometimes face situations where different types of
people place different values on our products a...
Pass the exam at the end of the online course and receive your certificate from
Scandinavian Institute of Business Analyti...
Anti-Crisis Analytics: Business Analytics That Helps Before, During, and After a Crisis
http://www.amazon.com/Anti-Crisis-...
of 29

'Price Analytics' by Scandinavian Institute of Business Analtycs SCANBA

Illustrated script to an online course by Scandinavian Institute of Business Analytics SCANBA. SCANBA produced high quality, easy to understand, professional level course that is right for you, as a person interested in business education.
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Business      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - 'Price Analytics' by Scandinavian Institute of Business Analtycs SCANBA

  • 1. Price Analytics online course script (without examples) Scandinavian Institute of Business Analytics SCANBA http://online.scanba.org/courses/price-analytics
  • 2. Pricing Techniques In this course, we will follow Lars and his company Lars Coffee Mugs. Lars manufactures three lines of thermal coffee mugs: high efficiency thermal coffee mugs, easy grip coffee mugs, and compact eco mugs. On behalf of Lars, we will study different pricing techniques, pricing assessment methods, concept of profitable pricing, and learn price discrimination. In this section, we will walk through a series of pricing techniques that Lars can potentially use: Creaming Pricing, Demand-Based Pricing, Everyday Low Pricing, Going Rate Pricing, Markup / Cost Plus Pricing, Penetration Pricing, Prestige Pricing, Target-Return , Pricing, Tiered Pricing, Value-in-Use Pricing, Variant Pricing
  • 3. Creaming Pricing In creaming pricing, we set prices high during the introduction of a new product or service by targeting the top one to five percent of the market. The “cream" of the market represents individuals who value the product or service highly and show low sensitivity to price Advantages: The high prices used in creaming pricing results in higher initial revenue during the launch of the new product or service. Companies use the revenue to offset the significant cost required to develop new products and services. Disadvantages: Creaming pricing only works if consumers cannot purchase the same product or service from another company for less. If competitors sell similar products and services, consumers will purchase the lower-price versions instead, and the creaming pricing technique will fail.
  • 4. Demand-Based Pricing In demand-based pricing, we set prices to maximize profit, based on consumer demand for the product or service. Economics tells us that for most goods, demand increases as we decrease price, and vice versa Applications. Demand-based pricing works well for situations where companies have the freedom to adjust prices to market demand. Demand-based pricing works especially well when companies can change prices quickly based on market demand. Advantages. Demand-based pricing represents an effective method to maximize long-term profit. Use of demand-based pricing resulting in vast bodies of knowledge about the subject. Furthermore, the technique is rooted in sound economic theory, lending confidence in the approach. Disadvantages. We must know the demand curve for the product or service to apply demand- based pricing. To construct the demand curve, we find out the quantity sold at different price points. Obtaining the data for the demand curve could prove time-consuming and expensive.
  • 5. Everyday Low Pricing Everyday-low-pricing sets prices consistently low to attract price-sensitive customers and increase sales quantities. The technique avoids deep discounts and sales promotions. To execute an everyday-low-pricing approach, companies must achieve a competitive advantage in low cost operations. Everyday-low-pricing works well for consumer packaged goods with well-known brands Advantages. Everyday low pricing tends to smooth out the demand for products. Without everyday low pricing, companies face peaks of demand during sales promotions. The peaks of demand strain the supply chain to keep up, forcing manufacturing factories to work overtime. Once the promotion ends, demand wanes. The manufacturing inefficiencies from the rapidly varying demand can cause costs to increase. Disadvantages. Everyday low pricing avoids deep discounts and sales promotions to keep manufacturing costs down, contributing to lower prices. However, many companies rely on sales promotions to boost revenues in certain situations, such as slow sales cycles. The companies might also find themselves responding to consumer expectations for sales promotions at certain times, such as the end of year holiday season.
  • 6. Going Rate Pricing In going rate pricing, companies align their prices with those of competitors and adopt a so-called market price. Companies thus charge identical, or nearly so, prices for similar goods. For example, adjacent gas stations of different brands often post very similar prices, often within a few pennies of each other. Going rate pricing is also common in concentrated industries, where a few companies dominate the market. Smaller companies believe that they must align their prices with the leaders to survive Advantages. Proponents of going rate pricing state that the technique “reflects the collective wisdom of the industry" where each company applies uniform pricing throughout the industry. Smaller companies benefit from the approach by avoiding potential price wars that could occur if they set significantly different prices than those of the larger firms. Disadvantages. Problems arise in the theory behind the approach as well as the execution. The theory of the "collective wisdom of the industry" is flawed, because the industry could be wrong. Going rate pricing also threatens to violate antitrust laws. For example in most countries, the antitrust low forbids two gas station owners from meeting to set a price that both will charge.
  • 7. Markup / Cost Plus Pricing In markup / cost plus pricing, we simply add an arbitrary percentage, such as twenty percent, to the unit cost to arrive at the final price. The technique is popular for near-commodity products like frozen pizza because higher profit margins could attract additional competitors, and services like building contractors and attorneys, who add a percentage to their costs to arrive at their billing fees. Advantages. The markup/ cost plus pricing technique is fast and easy to calculate. Disadvantages. The technique fails to incorporate customer demand in the price. Perhaps customers are willing to pay much more for the product or service than the company is charging using markup/ cost plus. Therefore, the technique is not likely to result in the highest profit. In addition, the actual markup percentage is arbitrary, and might not reflect the cost of capital or project risk.
  • 8. Penetration Pricing In penetration pricing, companies set prices very low, lower than many of its competitors, to attract new customers and expand market share. Advantages. Penetration pricing can increase sales volume and market share quickly. Once customers purchase from the company offering the lowest price, they can be reluctant to switch to a competitor's version, even if prices begin to rise. Disadvantages. Penetration pricing will not yield maximum profitability in the short term, due to the low prices involved. The technique might also result in a price war, where competitors undercut the company's low price with an even lower one.
  • 9. Prestige Pricing Prestige pricing sets prices high to signal high quality or status. Prestige pricing is also known as image pricing, perceived value pricing, or premium pricing. Advantages. Prestige pricing's high prices can result in high revenue for the organization. Disadvantages. Prestige pricing demands strong brand equity and highly differentiated products and services. Unknown or poorly regarded brands rarely can command the high pricing premiums.
  • 10. Target-Return Pricing Target-return pricing calculates price to achieve a company-defined return on investment. The technique is similar to the markup/ cost plus technique, but substitutes the target return in place of an arbitrary percentage. Companies selling industrial products to businesses often set prices according to the target-return technique, like safety equipment, industrial supplies, and so on. Advantages. Target-return pricing is quick and easy to calculate, and has been used for many years. Disadvantages. Similar to markup/ cost plus techniques, target-return pricing rarely results in the highest possible profit, because it fails to incorporate market demand. Companies with unique products or services will likely generate higher profits by applying demand-based methods. In addition, target-return pricing calculations are dependent on the assumptions we make for our sales forecast.
  • 11. Tiered Pricing Tiered pricing, also known as good-better-best pricing or price lining, sets different price points for different levels of features or quality for the same type of product or service. Customers can self-select the level most suited to them from the three levels offered. Advantages. Tiered pricing makes it easier for customers to select the particular product or service that suits their needs. Many will gravitate toward certain tiers. Tiered pricing also makes it easier for retailers to explain the inherent value of the different tier options. By making the options clear, customers face lower uncertainty in what they can expect. Disadvantages. Tiered pricing for complex products and services can require skilled retail salespeople to explain the value of the different levels.
  • 12. Value-in-Use Pricing Value-in-use pricing, also called value-based pricing, sets prices based on the product or service’s value to the customer. We price the products or services to make customers indifferent as to whether to use their existing products or services, or switch to a new offering. For example, a ceramic coating manufacturer sells its product as an alternative to house paint, guaranteeing that its product will last twenty five years, compared to only three to five years for traditional house paint. Advantages. Value-in-use pricing captures the value customers place on products and services. The technique separates the notion of price and cost. The separation allows companies to gain profitability from products and services that provide real value to customers. Disadvantages. In order to execute value-in-use pricing, companies must understand the benefits that customers realize from the product or service and explain it to the customer in monetary terms.
  • 13. Variant Pricing The variant pricing technique sets different prices for different versions, or variants, of products and services. Variant pricing works because different market segments have different priorities and evaluation criteria. For example, automobile makers sell different cars variants to different market segments using variant pricing. Advantages. Variant pricing allows us to capture the value different market segments place on their particular needs. For example, some customers will pay ten times the amount to ship a package from one location to another, just to get it there earlier. The special variants often face little competition, allowing great freedom in pricing. Disadvantages. Variant pricing requires companies to understand their market and the segments within it. Companies must conduct market research to determine the segments interested in their products and services, and the amounts the segments are willing to spend for the different variants. Companies must also stock additional products and services to accommodate the needs of those segments.
  • 14. Summary Here we summarize the pricing techniques: Creaming Pricing : Set prices high during new product or service introduction Demand-Based Pricing : Set prices to maximize profit, based on consumer demand Everyday Low Pricing : Set prices consistently low to attract price-sensitive customers Going Rate Pricing : Set prices to align with those of competitors Markup/ Cost Plus Pricing : Set prices by adding percentage to unit cost Penetration Pricing : Set prices low to attract new customers and expand share Prestige Pricing : Set prices high to signal high quality or status Target-Return Pricing : Set prices to achieve company- defined return on investment Tiered Pricing : Set prices at different price points for different levels of features Value-in-Use Pricing : Set prices based on product or service's value to the customer Variant Pricing : Set different prices for different variants, for different segments
  • 15. Pricing Assessment In the previous section, Lars considered various pricing techniques based on the market and his product. Before moving forward with the technique, we must assess how the technique will affect financial goals of the Lars Coffee Mug company. In this section, we review three popular models to assess the impact of pricing on organizational goals. First, we cover break-even analysis, which estimates the quantity of units we must sell before we turn a profit. Second, we address net present value capital budgeting, which assesses if new proposed projects will meet organizational goals for return on investment based on the projects’ expected revenue stream. Third, we review internal rate of return capital budgeting, which determines the rate of return expected on new projects.
  • 16. Break-even Analysis Organizations use break-even analysis to predict the quantity we must sell before a new product or service becomes profitable. The break-even point is defined as the point at which revenue from a proposed new product or service equals its costs. We use break-even to calculate if the proposed price will meet organizational revenue goals in certain time-periods. If the price is too low, the break-even time will be too long, and organizations will not move forward with the project. Advantages. The break-even model is simple to compute and is widely used. The model can quickly indicate if a proposed price will meet, for example, a one-year break-even objective. Disadvantages. The break-even model makes some strong assumptions and ignores several important factors. It assumes that sales prices are constant at all levels of output. It also assumes that all products produced are immediately sold. In addition, the model can only apply to a single product or single mix of products. Projects involving radically new processes or technologies often take longer than the common one-year threshold. Therefore, dogmatic use of the break-even model can yield an excessive short-term focus.
  • 17. Break-even Analysis Process The chart shows the break-even analysis technique. Fixed cost for a project is defined as all costs assigned to a project that stay constant as production volume increases. Typical examples include insurance, property taxes, and depreciation. We make the assumption here that the production increases stay within reasonable limits and do not require significant additional resources such as new machinery or new buildings. Variable cost is defined as costs that vary according to volume, such as parts and materials per unit, as well as direct labor expended per unit Unit cost is the cost to produce each unit. The unit cost is defined as the fixed cost divided by the unit sales, or quantity of units forecast to be sold, added to the variable cost At the stage named “Select price to assess” we can test several prices before we find one that meets the organization’s break-even criteria. Finally, we calculate the break-even volume using the following formula. In some cases, we will need to cycle through the process multiple times, each time testing new prices, until we find a price that provides us with in an acceptable break-even.
  • 18. Net Present Value Capital Budgeting Model In this section, we address net present value capital budgeting, or NPV, which assesses if proposed projects will meet organizational goals for return on investment, or ROl, based on the projects’ expected revenue stream. Because the expected revenue stream is dependent on price, the net present value capital budgeting model can be viewed as a tool to validate price selection. Because of its versatility, net present value capital budgeting analysis can be used to virtually any new product or service. Different projects will have different cash flows. Cash flows are the revenues that projects make over time, with a certain amount being made in the first year, another amount in the second year, and so forth. We calculate revenue by multiplying price by quantity, so price is an important component of cash flow. Capital budgeting analysis techniques determine if the cash flows associated with a project warrant investment in it. Advantages. The net present value capital budgeting technique is straightforward to execute and the technique is very popular. Disadvantages. The simplistic approaches of capital budgeting techniques ignore possible threats and make significant assumptions. For example, the approaches do not take into account future competitive environments. The approaches are also highly dependent on the accuracy of cash flow calculations.
  • 19. Net Present Value Capital Budgeting Model (continued) The net present value technique assesses whether a project is worthy of investment by calculating the sum of its cash flows discounted to reflect the time value of money. The time value of money is the value of money acknowledging the effects of compounding interest over a period of time. The interest rate here is designated as the discount rate. The discount rate is typically the rate of return the organization could make with an investment of equivalent risk. Net present values greater than zero indicate that the investment generates a greater rate of return than the discount rate, and should therefore be pursued. NPVs less than zero should be avoided, because the rate of return is less than the discount rate.
  • 20. NPV Analysis Process The chart shows an overview of the process. At first, we identify the required initial investment Then we select the price we wish to test. As with the break-even technique, we might test several prices before we find one that meets our goals. Next, based on historical company sales, or of sales of similar units from other companies, we forecast the number of units we expect to sell each year throughout the unit's lifetime After that, we multiply the price by the units we expect to sell each year to arrive at the expected cash flow for each year. For example, if the unit price is ten euro, and we expect to sell hundred units, then the annual cash flow would be ten euro times one hundred units, or one thousand euro. Finally, we calculate the net present value using the formula.
  • 21. Internal Rate of Return Capital Budgeting Model The internal rate of return model is similar to the NPV method. The internal rate of return model, or IRR, also uses a sum of discounted cash flows to decide whether to invest in a project. In fact, the internal rate of return model uses the same equation as that for NPV. However, instead of determining if NPV is greater than zero, we set NPV to zero and solve for the interest rate. Like with the NPV capital budgeting method, companies can apply the internal rate of return model to test the financial feasibility of new product and services, or enhancements to existing ones, based on our price we wish to test. In the model the resulting interest rate is called the internal rate of return. The internal rate of return is compared to the company’s cost of capital, sometimes called the hurdle rate. The hurdle rate is defined by the company, and is often equal to the interest rate of the companies’ loans. If the internal rate of return is greater than the hurdle rate, the project is financially justified. If not, then the company should not move forward with the project Advantages. The principal advantage of the internal rate of return method over the net present value approach is the calculation of the actual rate of return in the IRR method. The NPV approach only returns a go/no-go decision. Disadvantages. In addition to the disadvantages of the NPV model, the internal rate of return approach is a bit more difficult to calculate. Although, spreadsheet tools can make the process easier.
  • 22. IRR Analysis Process The chart shows an overview of the process. We start by estimating the initial investment required to launch the project, just as we did with the net present value capital budgeting process. Next, we select a price we wish to test. Then, we examine the sales history for previous similar products, as well as that of relevant competitive products in the marketplace, to forecast the quantity of units we expect to sell each year. After that, we multiply the price we wish to assess by the quantity of units we expect to sell to obtain the expected cash flow for each year. Finally, to calculate the internal rate of return, we apply the net present value equation. We set NPV to zero and solve for the internal rate of return.
  • 23. Profitable Pricing We can incorporate consumer demand into our pricing approach to increase product and service profitability. Economics tells us that consumers generally purchase less of a product or service when we charge more for it. Exceptions exist. Some products, such as luxury electronics, jewelry, and perfumes, can show the opposite behavior.
  • 24. Price Elasticity The price elasticity of a product or service is the rate at which the percentage of the change in quantity demanded varies with respect to the percentage change in price. Because consumers generally purchase fewer goods and services as prices increase, elasticity is often a negative number. Nevertheless, we customarily express elasticity as a positive amount for convenience (i.e., we express it as the absolute value of the negative amount). Elastic demand situations are situations where the elasticity is greater than 1. In elastic demand, the quantity demanded depends a great deal on the price in the short term. For example, consumers tend to purchase more non-perishable consumer packaged goods, such as frozen vegetables at lower prices than they do at higher prices. They feel they can "stock up" at the lower prices in the short term. In the long term, they do not continue to buy because there is a limit to the amount of frozen vegetables they want to own, even at very low prices. If elasticity is less than 1 then the demand is called inelastic. In inelastic demand, the quantity demanded depends little on the price in the short term. For example, consumers tend to purchase about the same quantity of gasoline regardless of price in the short term. Consumers feel they have little choice because they need the gasoline to commute to work or perform other required tasks. We use caution by saying "in the short term” to recognize long-term changes in behavior. For example, consumers can purchase fuel-efficient cars or start commuting to work on gas-sipping motorcycles in the long term.
  • 25. Gather the Demand Data We can gather the demand data using three different approaches. Surveys. We can conduct market surveys, asking customers how many units they would purchase at certain prices. We will need to specify the buying motivation to ensure we gather relevant data. Analysis. We can statistically analyze past sales data to determine how demand changed as we changed prices. For example, a company can examine how the quantity demanded changes during sales promotions launched in the past Experiments. We can conduct market experiments. In the experiments, we nudge prices up and down and observe the results. For example, we can track how sales vary in relation to discounts and price hikes.
  • 26. Optimal Pricing We define the optimal price as the price yielding maximum profit. Once we know a product or service's demand curve, we can find its optimal price. We discuss optimal pricing by examining the impact the demand curve has on the optimal price. For each point on the demand curve, we can calculate the resulting revenue and cost. Once we know revenue and cost, we can calculate profits ! Profit is equal revenue subtracted cost.
  • 27. Price Discrimination We sometimes face situations where different types of people place different values on our products and services. We can apply price discrimination to capture the extra value some segments find in our offerings. Unlike the variant pricing technique, which charges different prices for different variants tailored to each segment, price discrimination charges different prices for identical items. Here are examples of price discriminations. Channel Pricing. Companies can vary prices by distribution channel. For example, we can charge two euro for a bag of chips at a supermarket, and charge four euro for the same bag at convenience store next door. In channel pricing, we target the value some customers place on convenience. Demographic Pricing. Organizations can vary prices by demographic attributes of individuals. For example, ski resorts offer lower prices to senior citizens to encourage that demographic group to enjoy their facilities. Geographic Pricing. Companies can vary prices by location or geography. For example, baseball stadiums charge increased prices for seats near home plate. Automobile manufacturers offer the same vehicles at different net prices, based on the state where customers purchase the vehicle, due to different state tax rates. Occupational Pricing. Organizations can vary prices according to customer occupations. For example, clothing retailers offer employee discounts as a benefit to employees. Quantity Pricing and Two-Part Pricing. Companies can vary prices according to the quantity customers purchase. For example, fast food restaurant McDonalds applies quantity pricing encouraging customers to "supersize” their orders, for a lower price per amount of food. Cellular phone providers employ two-part pricing, charging a fixed rate per month for basic service, and then a per-minute rate for extra usage. Temporal Pricing. Companies offer different prices depending the time the product or service is offered. For example, some museums offer free admission once per month, such as the first Tuesday. Companies manufacturing seasonal items, such as snow-blowers, reduce prices during the off-season to stimulate sales. Price discrimination advantages. Price discrimination matches the prices of products and services with the perceived value of customers, which is the intent of efficient pricing methods. In economic terms, we would describe this situation as "extracting the full buyer surplus." Price discrimination benefits customers, in that they receive the value they sought. Price discrimination benefits companies in that it increases profits. Price discrimination Disadvantages: There are number of it! Reservation Prices. Organizations can find difficulty in discovering buyers’ reservation prices. The reservation price is the maximum price customers will pay. Without knowing how different people value the product or service, we cannot assign the appropriate price. Arbitrage. When companies sell the same product at different prices, some enterprising individuals will seek to profit by buying the product at the lowest price and re- selling it at a higher price, known as arbitrage. Legalities. In most countries, antitrust laws prohibit charging different prices to different customers with the Intent to harm competitors. For example, a company cannot charge different prices to two or more purchasers within a reasonably close time period where the practice could harm competitors. Ethical. Legalities aside, some individuals consider the practice of price discrimination unfair, because it treats different people differently. Customers may complain about paying the full rate when certain classes of individuals enjoy a lower rate.
  • 28. Pass the exam at the end of the online course and receive your certificate from Scandinavian Institute of Business Analytics SCANBA 1. Please, correctly answer at least 6 of 10 exam questions 2. Send the course title and the answers to online@scanba.org Please provide your name as you want it to appear on the certificate and your email. To receive your SCANBA Certificate:
  • 29. Anti-Crisis Analytics: Business Analytics That Helps Before, During, and After a Crisis http://www.amazon.com/Anti-Crisis-Analytics-Business-Before-During/dp/151200930X/ Evolution forces companies to search for new means of competition. Information technology, management science, and process knowledge are no longer enough to differentiate your business and stay competitive. Business executives often suffer from poor forecasts, insufficient data, and misleading advice that directs them towards imprudent decisions. Eventually, they find their businesses unprepared for yet another crisis and they ultimately fail. This book is about business analytics - a new competitive advantage for companies. In it, Kuandykov describes the methods that will help your business stay ahead of its rivals, foresee future crises, survive them, and move on after them. The book is written in a plain language and is aimed at a broad audience. Readers will enjoy its fresh view on business analytics methods, its real world examples, and its useful hints and ideas for their work. The book is sure to be an invaluable resource for a broad range of business disciplines.

Related Documents