Natural Gas to Olefins
By
The Crackers
December 6th
, 2012
CHE 4070 – Senior Design 1
Final Report
Salman Almutawa
Mohamme...
Table of Contents
ManagementSummary
-Brief processdescription
-Economics
-Assumptions
-Recommendations
ProjectDefinition
-...
Management Summary
Overthe last three monthswe have workedonthe design,economics,andfeasibilityof buildingan
olefinsplantt...
Some of the otherassumptionswe have made include:
-Feedis75/25 mass percentmix of ethane/propane
-Crackerproductsare based...
Project Definition
Recentadvancesindrillingtechnologyhave openedmanyoil andnatural gasreservesthatwere
previouslythoughtin...
BusinessOpportunity
Ethylene iscurrentlythe largestproducedpetrochemical inthe world. Withthe openingof these new
gas rese...
exchangersandmanyoptionsof howto setup the heatexchangernetworkthatneedtobe researched.
As we continue tomodifythe design,...
Process Description
Feed
The feedforthe plant will consistof amixture of ethane andpropane fromNorthDakota. This mixture
w...
𝐶𝐻3 𝐶𝐻3 → 2𝐶𝐻3 • Eqn 2
𝐶𝐻3 • + 𝐶𝐻3 𝐶𝐻3 → 𝐶𝐻4 + 𝐶𝐻3 𝐶𝐻2 • Eqn 3
𝐶𝐻3 𝐶𝐻2 • → 𝐶𝐻2 = 𝐶𝐻2 + 𝐻 • Eqn 4
Equation2 showshowthe hea...
Figure 2 – Dehydrationsystem
Fractionation
The fractionationsystembeginsinthe middle of the dehydrationsystem (seefigure2a...
Figure 3 – Compression,expansionanddemethanizer
The H2 splitter(T104 figure 4 below) iswhatwill be usedtoseparate the meth...
Figure 5 – Deethanizer,C2splitter,andC3 splitter
Economics
Capital
Our currentcapital estimate isprobablyabout50%-75% less...
Equipment Millions of Dollars
Pumps $4.93
Compressor $18.52
Furnace/ Crackers $21.93
Heat Exchangers $3.28
Vessels $0.54
C...
NPV0 $18,837.68
NPV20 $3,967.39
IRR 36.6%
PBP (approx) (yrs) 3.3
MARR 12%
Table 5 – NPV and IRR basedontriple capital cost...
References
[1] "ProductsPipelines - Mid-continentoperations,"KinderMorgan,2012. [Online].Available:
http://www.kindermorga...
Appendix
Flowsheet– see embeddedAspen+simulation. The detailedFlowsheethasbeenbrokenupinthe
earlierportionof the report.
F...
Table 6 belowshowsthe masspercentconversionforour thermal cracker. For thisproject,we usedthe
60% ethane columnandthe 75% ...
of 17

Natural Gas to Olefins final.[1]

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Transcripts - Natural Gas to Olefins final.[1]

  • 1. Natural Gas to Olefins By The Crackers December 6th , 2012 CHE 4070 – Senior Design 1 Final Report Salman Almutawa Mohammed Alzain Scott Chase Travis Wells
  • 2. Table of Contents ManagementSummary -Brief processdescription -Economics -Assumptions -Recommendations ProjectDefinition -Assumptions -Material balance -Businessopportunity -Issues -Future work ProcessDescription -Feed -Cracker -Reactions -Quench -Dehydration -Fractionation Economics -Capital -Sensitivities References Appendices
  • 3. Management Summary Overthe last three monthswe have workedonthe design,economics,andfeasibilityof buildingan olefinsplantthatwill utilize NorthDakotanatural gasliquids(NGLs) asa feedstock. The objective isto designaplantthat will have a 1.5 billionpoundperyearproductioncapacity. Thisreportcontainsthe lastthree monthsof work summarizedbysectiontodate. Processdescription Thisplantwill use NorthDakotaethane andpropane as a feedstockina 75/25 mass percentmix respectively. Uponenteringthe plant,the feedisdilutedwith500°F steamand sentthrougha furnace cracker. Thiscracker will notuse a catalystdue to the productionof heavyundesirablebyproductsand produce ethylene,propylene,methane,andhydrogenasitsmainproducts. Afterthe cracker,the productswill be sentthrougha quenchtowerforcoolingandto stop the reaction. The quenchsystem will completelysaturate the productstreamwithwater,thereforerequiringadehydrationsystem. The dehydrationsystemforthe plantwill use athree phase separatortoremove mostof the waterand a molecularsieve (akamole sieve) systemtoremove the smallerremainingportionof water. After dehydration,the productsare sentthroughanextensivefractionationsystemthatwill separatethe variouscomponents. The final productsof the fractionationsystemare ethane,propane, ethylene, propylene,hydrogen,methane,andC4+ heavybyproducts. Ethyleneandpropylene will be the main productssold,hydrogencanalsobe soldif a consumerisnearbythat can use it,methane can be burned withinthe planttoreduce utilitycosts,andthe heavybyproductcanbe soldas condensate orgasoline additives. The ethane andpropane will be recycledbacktothe cracker forconversionintoolefins. Economics Currentlywe knowourcapital cost is50%-75% lowerthanwhatit shouldactuallybe. Thisisdue to an incomplete design,estimations,andlackof heatintegration. The sectionlaterinthe reportgoesfurther indetail aboutthe economicassumptionsandcostingestimates. Ourcapital cost to date is $421.24 Milliondollars. With thiscapital cost,the NPV0is$19,371.92 millionwithanIRRof 58.7% on a twenty yearperiod. Because of the lowcapital cost and highIRR,sensitivitieswereruntoverifythe economics of the project. Atthree timesthe capital costwhichis $1.262 billion dollars,ourNPV0is $18,837.68 million,IRRis36.6% and paybackperiodis 3.62 yearsat full capacityproduction. The highIRR can be attributedtothe lowcost of the feedstockandthatethylenesellsfordouble whatethanecosts. Assumptions The firstand largestassumptionwe have made isthatwe can deliverourproductbyrailcar once it has beenproduced. Ideally,the locationof the plantwouldbe inanareawhere there ismore industry presentandcloserto potential customersorlargermeansof shipping. KinderMorgancurrentlyhasa pipelinethatrunsfromCanada, throughNorth Dakota,and endsaroundChicago. Unfortunatelythe flowof thispipelinewill be reversedinthe nearfuture toaccommodate the heavyoil sandsinCanada [1].
  • 4. Some of the otherassumptionswe have made include: -Feedis75/25 mass percentmix of ethane/propane -Crackerproductsare basedoff of table 6 inthe appendix -We have a customerfor the hydrogenbyproduct -We have customersthat will purchase the olefinproducts -Many of the heatexchangerswere modeledasheatersorcoolers,whichincreasesutilitycost -Aspen+simulationsare reasonablyaccurate andvalid Recommendations We recommendthatthisprojectkeepsmovingtowardafinal productbasedoff of the sensitivities,IRR, and paybackperiod. We are usinga proventechnologythatwill have littlesurprisesandalow maintenance costsbecause there will be noexpensive catalysttoreplace. The largestissue withmoving forwardfromwhere we are now isplacingthe plantinNorth Dakota. This isan isolatedregionwithno majorpetrochemical plantsnearby. Thisleavesalarge shippingcosttous andmakesit harderto sell useful byproducts. As thisprojectproceedsintothe comingmonths,we willbeginworkon: -Findinganewlocationforthe plant -Furtherandmore detailedeconomicreview -Heatintegrationtosave onutilitycosts -Optimizationof unitoperations -Designarefrigerationsystem
  • 5. Project Definition Recentadvancesindrillingtechnologyhave openedmanyoil andnatural gasreservesthatwere previouslythoughtinaccessible oreconomicallyunfeasible. NorthDakotahas seenalarge growth inthe productionof natural gas overthe last decade significantlyincreasingthe amountof Natural GasLiquids (NGLs) available onthe market. Withthisincrease of potentialfeedstocks,we have takenonthe projectof designingaplantthat will convertthe NGLsto olefinsforfurtheruse inthe petrochemical industry. Our goalsfor designingthisplantare:  Successfullydesignaplantthatwill convertNGLsto olefinswitha1.5 billionlb/yr capacitywithethylene andpropylenebeingthe primaryproductsusingNorthDakota feedstocks.  Place the plantinNorth Dakotaand sendproductsout by railroad.  Use ethane andpropane as a feedstockfromthe NorthDakotareserves.  Designthe plantto produce highpurity(99.8%) ethylene andpropylene for petrochemical usessuchaspolymerizationforplastics. Thisplantwill use the traditional approachtomanufacturingolefinsbyasteamcrackingreactor, a quenchsystem, dehydration, andanextensivefractionationsystem. Material Balance (lb/hr) Ethane Propane Ethylene Propylene Methane H2 Heavies Feed 180000 60000 - - - - - Main Products - - 166561 21624 - - - By- products - - - - 24937 19563 7315 Recycle 125489 31335 - - - - - Table 1 – Material balance fromAspen+simulation Cracker DehydrationQuench FractionationProducts
  • 6. BusinessOpportunity Ethylene iscurrentlythe largestproducedpetrochemical inthe world. Withthe openingof these new gas reserves,producingethylenefromethane ischeapandeasy. Ethylene isan importantprecursorfor manyproducts including plastics,polymers,ethylene glycol,andethylenedichloride. Propyleneisalsoa largelyusedproductandisalso an importantprecursorformanyproducts [2]. Manufacturingethyleneandpropylene from ethane andpropane canbe veryprofitable whenthe marketconditionsare good. Currentlythe price forethane is $0.22 per poundandthe price for ethylene is$0.55 perpound [3]. Thisgivesusa profitmarginof $0.33 perpound,whichisclose to what we will alsosee forthe propane topropylene marginof $.0.235 perpound [4]. The byproductsfromthe plantare also profitable if aconsumerisfoundfor them. Hydrogengaswill be producedat a rate of 19563lb/hr and can be soldforup to $1.40 perpound. The methane producedwill be usedto helpcut downonour utilitycost. Also,sellingthe heavybyproductsasgasoline additives couldalsoturn a small profit. Issues The largestissue nowisthe locationof the plant. The locationinNorthDakota waschosenso an ample feedstockwasavailable. However,thisleavesushavingtoshipoutthe product. One possible alternative locationwouldbynearConway,Kansas. Currently,OneOKisbuildingaNGL pipeline from NorthDakota to Wyomingwhere iswill tie intotheircurrent OverlandPassPipeline(OPPL) andendin Conway. Atthis time itisunknownhowConwayshipstheirfractionatedproductsorwhere theygo. Researchisstill goingonto findan alternativelocation. Withourlocationbeingso remote itisdifficult to findconsumersthatmayuse ourbyproducts. If no one is foundtouse the hydrogenitwill be usedto heatthe furnaces. The same scenarioappliestoourheavybyproducts. Issueswiththe plantare constantlychanging. Rightnow we have notworkedon anyheat integrationso our utilitycostsare veryhighand a refrigerationsystemhasnotyetbeendeveloped. The dehydration systemchangesslightlywitheachmodificationtothe plant. The currentmodel we are workingwith differsgreatlyfromthe model thisreportisbasedoff of. Ourcurrentmodel requiresthe use of a molecularsieve system, where the versionusedforthisreportdoesnot. A molecularsievesystemwas pricedintothe capital because itwill be usedinfuture simulations. Future Work We still have alotof work for thisprojectfornextsemester. First,we willbe researchinganew location possibilityforourplantthatwill allowustomake a profitfromour byproductsandreduce shipping costs onour mainproducts. Optimally,thiswouldeitherbe inthe gulf coast regionoraroundChicago and the Great Lakesregion. Basedonhow we will be movingourproducts,we will be modifyingour plantto make the appropriate changestoour products. If anotherplantisclose bythat can use our productsas vapor,we can save moneyoncompressionandliquefyingourproducts. The nextbigstepwill be workingonthe heatexchangernetworkandoptimizingourplant. All of the towersneedtobe thoroughlygone throughandsizedproperly. There will alsobe manyheat
  • 7. exchangersandmanyoptionsof howto setup the heatexchangernetworkthatneedtobe researched. As we continue tomodifythe design,we will alsobe updatingoureconomicinformation alongwith keepingtrackof currentfeedandproduct prices. The lastpart of our worknextsemesterwill be looking intoenvironmental issuesandregulations. We wantour plantto meetall EPA regulationsanddonot wantto modifyourequipmentafterinstallation.
  • 8. Process Description Feed The feedforthe plant will consistof amixture of ethane andpropane fromNorthDakota. This mixture will be a 75/25 mass percentmix of ethane andpropane respectivelythatwill be diluteddownbysteam uponenteringthe plant. The steamservestwopurposes. First,itpreheatsthe reactantsbeforethe cracker to cut downon the cracker dutyand increase yield. Second,itdilutesthe reactantstreamto allowforbetterconversionintoethylene andpropylene. Ethane and propane thatwasunconvertedis recycledbackintothe cracker by streamsH104-O and H103-O respectively(see figure 1). Cracker The cracker technologychosenwill be afurnace withtube bundlesinside whichthe feedwill flow through. Due to the extremelyfastreactiontime of 0.2-0.5seconds [5],the feedwill have averyhigh velocityasittravelsthroughthe cracker. The furnace cracker, R101, was chosenovercatalyst technologies due tothe lowercapital costs,proveneffectiveness,andlessundesirable byproducts. The catalystsresearchedhada 5% increase inyieldof productsanda lowerreactiontemperature [6],but alsohad an increase inundesirable byproducts. Figure 1 – Feed,cracker,andquenchtower Reactions The main reactiontakingplace inside the crackeristhe conversionof analkane intoanalkene. Equation 1 belowshowsthe basicreactionforthe feedalkane. 𝐶 𝑛 𝐻2𝑛+2 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡 → 𝐶 𝑛 𝐻2𝑛 + 𝐻2 Eqn 1 The reactionin equation1takesplace inan environmentvoidof oxygentoreduce byproductsandthe riskof combustion. The actual kineticsbehindequation1is extremelycomplex. Equations2-4below summarize the basicmechanismforethane beingconvertedtoethylene [7].
  • 9. 𝐶𝐻3 𝐶𝐻3 → 2𝐶𝐻3 • Eqn 2 𝐶𝐻3 • + 𝐶𝐻3 𝐶𝐻3 → 𝐶𝐻4 + 𝐶𝐻3 𝐶𝐻2 • Eqn 3 𝐶𝐻3 𝐶𝐻2 • → 𝐶𝐻2 = 𝐶𝐻2 + 𝐻 • Eqn 4 Equation2 showshowthe heatfromthe furnace causestwofree radicalstoform fromethane. In equation 3,these radicalsthenreactwithanotherethane moleculetoformmethane molecule andan ethane radical. Inequation 4 the ethane radical decomposes intoanethyleneandhydrogenradical. Thisis the basicform of howethane iscracked. Many otherside reactionsoccurduringthisprocess givingrise tobyproductsandin some casescoke [7]. QuenchTower An extremely large quenchsystemisrequiredtocool the productsafterthe cracker to stopthe reaction. Leftuncooled,the productswill continue toreactand polymerize intoheavierbyproducts. The quench systemwill be alarge towerinwhichcool water will enter the topandflow downtrayspast the vapor productswhichenterat the bottomand rise to the top. Thiscounter-flow coolingprocesswill effectivelycool ourproductstreamfrom1292°F downto 204°F. Anoil quenchsystemwasavoideddue to the lowamountof heavybyproductsproducedbyourcracker and the increasedcapital cost. Dehydration The water quenchsystemwill cool downourproductstream butwill alsocompletelysaturate itwith watervapor. Thiswaterhas to be removedbefore enteringthe cryogenicfractionationsystemwhere it wouldfreeze andclogthe towers. The firstandmainpart of the dehydrationsystemisa three phase separator(D101) whichremoves99.9%of the waterinthe streamreducingthe watercontentto80ppb. Due to our large flowrate,the concentrationof waterneedstobe below 100ppb to avoidfreezingin the towers. Currentlywe achieve thiswiththe simulationthatthe reportisbasedoff of. However,later modelsdonotget below100ppbfrom the three phase separatoralone. The secondpartof the dehydrationsystemwill achievethis. Byusingmolecularsieve,the productstreamcanbe almost completelydehydratedandreadyforfractionation. The molecularsievesystemwill have fourbeds (S101) that can be run in parallel. Onlytwoof the fourbedswill actuallybe usedatone time,while the othertwo will be regeneratingthe molecularsieve tobe usedagain.
  • 10. Figure 2 – Dehydrationsystem Fractionation The fractionationsystembeginsinthe middle of the dehydrationsystem (seefigure2above). Afterthe maintowerremovesmostof the water,the liquidproductsare fedtoa depropanizer (T101) which performsthe splitbetweenC3moleculesandC4 molecules. The vapor C1-C3 phase thentravels throughthe molecularsieve andgoesthroughacompressor (C101) whichbringsthe pressure from 15psia to 900psia (see figure 3). Thislarge pressure increase causes alarge temperature increase,which isloweredthroughaseriesof heatexchangers (H102). The vapor and liquidfractionsare separatedinaflashdrum(D104) and each fractionisthentakesa large pressure dropwhichwill alsodropthe temperature. The vaporisexpandedthroughanexpander (C102) whichwe can utilize the expansionenergyforcompressionlateron. The liquidportionis decreasedinpressure byavalve (V101) so it isthe same pressure as the vaporstream. Bothstreams are thenfedtothe demethanizer(T103in figure 3). The demethanizersplitshydrogenandmethane fromthe C2and C3 moleculesata frigidtemperatureof -208°F. Currently,the towerconsistsof 40 theoretical trays,akettle reboiler,andapartial condenser. The vapor streamis sentto a H2 splitterwhichwillseparate the methane fromthe hydrogen,andthe liquidstreamgoestothe deethanizerforfurtherfractionation.
  • 11. Figure 3 – Compression,expansionanddemethanizer The H2 splitter(T104 figure 4 below) iswhatwill be usedtoseparate the methane fromthe hydrogen. Thistowerconsistsof 12 trays and onlya condenser. A reboilerisnotrequireddue tothe low temperature of -226°F to liquefymethane. The liquidmethane will be ranthroughheatexchangersand eventuallyburnedtoproduce steamandolefins. The vaporhydrogenstreamisat96% mole purity and can be soldif a customerisfound. If not,thissectionmaybe removedfromthe final plans. Figure 4 – H2 splitter The final portionof the fractionationsystemisrepresentedinfigure 5below. T105 is the deethanizer whichseparatesthe C2 moleculesfromthe C3molecules. The C2 streamisthensentto the C2 splitter (T106), whichseparatesunconvertedethane fromthe productethylene. Ethane isrecycledbacktothe cracker and the final ethylene productisshippedoutforuse. The C3 streamfromthe deethanizeris sentto the C3 splitter(T107),whichperformsthe verydifficultsplitof propane andpropylene. Inorder for T107 to performthissplit,isrequires125 theoretical traysandisabout198.5 feettall. Again, propane isrecycledandpropylene isshippedoutforuse.
  • 12. Figure 5 – Deethanizer,C2splitter,andC3 splitter Economics Capital Our currentcapital estimate isprobablyabout50%-75% lessthan whatit will actuallybe. Due tothe constantchangesin the processas we continue todesignandresearchit,costsfluctuate frequently. Many assumptionswere made while doingthe capital costof the plant. Below isalistof what assumptionswere made tobase the capital costfrom: -Pumpshave notbeen sized,soapump cost of 10% wasaddedin -Notall the heat exchangerswere abletobe sizeddue tothe lack of a refrigerationsystem -Towershave notbeen fully optimized -Plantisbasedoff of one furnace cracker, whichwill change nextsemester -Only one quenchtowerinthe design,will change nextsemester -Noheatintegrationyetsoutilitycostsare veryhigh -OSBLis about10% of the ISBL cost The overall capital costat this pointis$421.24 milliondollars. Thisisall the pricedequipmentdelivered and installed. Fordetailsof equipment costsee file 5inthe appendix.
  • 13. Equipment Millions of Dollars Pumps $4.93 Compressor $18.52 Furnace/ Crackers $21.93 Heat Exchangers $3.28 Vessels $0.54 Catalyst $0.00 Towers & Trays $5.25 TOTAL ISBL FOB $54.17 Delivery $5.45 Equipment Installation $323.03 Installed ISBL $380.82 Installed OSBL $38.08 Table 2 – Capital cost summary Basedon the capital cost fromabove,table 3 below illustratesthe NPV,IRRandpayback periodforthis project. NPV0 $19,371.92 NPV20 $4,494.75 IRR 58.7% PBP (approx.) (yrs.) 1.4 MARR 12% Table 3 – NPV,IRR,and paybackperiod (Millionsof dollars) Sensitivities We knowthatour current capital cost fromabove islow for a few reasons. Mainly,we have notpriced all the equipmentandwe are notfar enoughintothe projectto have designedall the equipment. For thisreason,we ran twosensitivityanalysesbased ontwice andthree timesthe fixedcapital coststated above. Table 4 and 5 belowshowhowdoublingandtriplingthe capitol costaffectsthe NPV andIRR. NPV0 $15,283.52 NPV20 $3,336.98 IRR 39.8% PBP (approx) (yrs) 2.8 MARR 12% Table 4 – NPV and IRR basedondouble capital cost (Millionsof dollars)
  • 14. NPV0 $18,837.68 NPV20 $3,967.39 IRR 36.6% PBP (approx) (yrs) 3.3 MARR 12% Table 5 – NPV and IRR basedontriple capital cost (Millionsof dollars) Basedoff of the sensitivities,capital costdoesaffectthe IRRand NPV,butnotas drastic as expected. Thisis believedtobe due tothe current low price of natural gas and feedstock. Thisisalso supported by the fact that manyothercompaniesare buildingolefins plantsorhave nearfuture plansof doingso [8].
  • 15. References [1] "ProductsPipelines - Mid-continentoperations,"KinderMorgan,2012. [Online].Available: http://www.kindermorgan.com/business/products_pipelines/cochin_open_season.cfm.[Accessed 20 11 2012]. [2] "FlintHillsResources,"ChemicalsandBiofuelsProductions,[Online].Available: http://www.fhr.com/about/default.aspx.[Accessed03 11 2012]. [3] D. Lippe,"US,Canada flushwithpropane atwinter'send;marketstoadjust," TheOil & gasjournal, p. 116, 5 11 2012. [4] J. Fahey, Heating costson the rise this winter, Telegraph- Herald,2012. [5] O. W. K.S. L. Kneil,Ethylene- Keystoneto the Petrochemical Industry,New York:Marcel Dekker Inc.,1980. [6] N.K. Ibrahim,"Scribd,"[Online].Available:http://www.scribd.com/doc/56377886/24/Comparison- between-thermal-and-catalytic-cracking.pdf.[Accessed12 9 2012]. [7] R. M. Rioux,"The PennsylvaniaState University,"[Online].Available: http://www.research.psu.edu/events/expired-events/naturalgas/presentations/Rioux.pdf. [Accessed04 9 2012]. [8] S. Jenkins,"Shalegasushersinethylene feedshifts:growthinNorthAmericanethane crackinghas widereffectsforthe CPI,while somecompanieslooktoharnessmethane forethylene," Chemical Engineering, p.17, October2012. [9] A. LIQUIDE, "Gas Encyclopaedia,"AIRLIQUIDE,2009. [Online].Available: http://encyclopedia.airliquide.com/encyclopedia.asp?GasID=41&LanguageID=11&CountryID=17. [10] "EPA,"1994. [Online].Available:http://www.epa.gov/chemfact/s_toluen.txt. [11] "OEHHA,"2007. [Online].Available:http://oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/pdf/71432.pdf. [12] ChemicalBook, 2008.[Online].Available: http://www.chemicalbook.com/ProductChemicalPropertiesCB5678167_EN.htm.
  • 16. Appendix Flowsheet– see embeddedAspen+simulation. The detailedFlowsheethasbeenbrokenupinthe earlierportionof the report. File 1 – Aspen+simulationwhichreportwasbasedfrom Material Balance Belowisan embeddedExcel file containingthe detailedmaterialbalance reportfromAspen+. Detailed Material Balance.xlsx File 2 – Detailedmaterial balance Physical Properties The file belowcontainsresearchedphysical propertiesforthe keycomponentsinthe olefinsplant. physical properties.docx File 3 – Physical Properties
  • 17. Table 6 belowshowsthe masspercentconversionforour thermal cracker. For thisproject,we usedthe 60% ethane columnandthe 75% propane column. Table 6 – Cracker conversionsinmasspercent Economics The Excel file belowcontainsall oursizingdataandcosts,cash flow,sensitivities,andeconomics. 4070-project-cracker s.xlsx File 4 – DetailedEconomics File 5 below containsthe detailedequipmentlistandcosts. Detailed Equipment.xlsx File 5 – Detailedequipmentlistandcosts

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