Nanomaterials-based 3d Printer Filament Electrical Characterization
Scott Merry,
Functionalize, In...
of 1

Nanomaterials-based 3d printer filament electrical characterization

Measured materials properties of chemically modified and control PLA (polylactic acid) FDM (fused deposition modeling) filaments, including volume resistivity for conductive filament, and relative permittivity (dielectric constant) for a first prototype filament material for additive manufacturing.
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Science      

Transcripts - Nanomaterials-based 3d printer filament electrical characterization

  • 1. Nanomaterials-based 3d Printer Filament Electrical Characterization Scott Merry, Functionalize, Inc., Seattle, WA 98103 Introduction In the Fused Deposition Modeling™ (FDM) method of 3d printing, polylactic acid (PLA) plastic filament is melted and squeezed out of the printer’s nozzle as it lays down one layer at a time of a 3d model designed using specialized software (Figure 1). Researchers are synthesizing nanomaterials-based PLA filaments with novel behaviors. Two properties of interest are electrical resistance and capacitance. These are characterized using: Volume Resistivity (ρ, units Ω-cm): • Low values indicate more conductive material ρ = RA / l R is resistance measured over length of filament l A is cross-sectional area of filament Relative permittivity (εr, unitless): • High values indicate better dielectric material εr = Cd / 8.85 x 10-12 A C is capacitance measured across depth d of printed flat plate of material A is area of the rectangle 8.85 x 10-12 is the permittivity of air Conclusion Volume Resistivity F-Electric™ can be used for 3d printing of entire electronic circuits, using this material where wire or conductive traces would normally be used, with unmodified PLA as the structure on which to build. Dielectric Behavior With some improvement, the dielectric filament may be a candidate for use as electromagnetic interference shielding, a capacitive touch button, or in combination with conductive filament as a 3d- printed capacitor. Future Work While F-Electric™ is already in use worldwide, researchers are fine-tuning the chemical synthesis of the dielectric prototype to further increase relative permittivity. Acknowledgements Michael Toutonghi, CEO, Functionalize, Inc. Peter Kazarinoff, Alissa Agnello, Kristine Schroeder, North Seattle College/SHINE Chris Sanders, North Seattle College/Electronics References Boylestad, R. (2007). Introductory circuit analysis (11th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson/Prentice Hall. ud Din Khan et al, “Permittivity and Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Investigations of Activated Charcoal Loaded Acrylic Coating Compositions,” Journal of Polymers, vol. 2014, Article ID 193058, 7 pages, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/193058 Method Each filament measured the industry standard of 1.75 mm diameter. Plain, Makerbot™-branded PLA filament was chosen as a control in comparison to Functionalize™ F- Electric™ for volume resistivity, and to a prototype material for relative permittivity. Resistance was measured over a 1 m length of filament taken directly from the reel. For relative permittivity, plate capacitors (Figure 2) were constructed of 3d printed 0.4 mm thick rectangles of plastic sandwiched between aluminum foil. Capacitance was measured with a portable meter. Discussion Volume Resistivity in the F-Electric™ material was significantly lower. Relative Permittivity in the prototype material was somewhat higher. Figure 2. Plate capacitor a. 3d printing design software b. 3d printer. Photo courtesy Lisa Eisner e. 3d printed materials. Photo courtesy Functionalize, Inc. c. 3d printer in action, and d. closeup of filament being extruded from nozzle. Figure 1. 3d printing

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