National Aeronautics and Space Administration
FY 2016 PRESIDENT’S BUDGET REQUEST SUMMARY
BUD-1
Fiscal Year
Actual Enacted ...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
FY 2016 PRESIDENT’S BUDGET REQUEST SUMMARY
BUD-2
Fiscal Year
Actual Enacted ...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
FY 2016 PRESIDENT’S BUDGET REQUEST SUMMARY
BUD-3
Fiscal Year
Actual Enacted ...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
FY 2016 PRESIDENT’S BUDGET REQUEST SUMMARY
BUD-4
Fiscal Year
Actual Enacted ...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
FY 2016 PRESIDENT’S BUDGET REQUEST SUMMARY
BUD-5
Fiscal Year
Actual Enacted ...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
FY 2016 PRESIDENT’S BUDGET REQUEST SUMMARY
BUD-6
Fiscal Year
Actual Enacted ...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
FY 2016 PRESIDENT’S BUDGET REQUEST SUMMARY
BUD-7
Fiscal Year
Actual Enacted ...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TOC-1
Overview
Agency Summary
MESSAGE FROM THE ADMINISTRAT...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TOC-2
Planetary Science
PLANETARY SCIENCE RESEARCH ..........
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TOC-3
Heliophysics
HELIOPHYSICS RESEARCH ....................
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TOC-4
Human Exploration and Operations.......................
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TOC-5
Education..............................................
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TOC-6
Supporting Data
Funds Distribution by Installation.....
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
FY 2016 BUDGET REQUEST EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
SUM-1
Overview
Agency Summary
MESSA...
FY 2016 Budget Request Executive Summary
MESSAGE FROM THE ADMINISTRATOR
SUM-2
I am delighted to present President Obama’s ...
FY 2016 Budget Request Executive Summary
MESSAGE FROM THE ADMINISTRATOR
SUM-3
This budget supports all of these activities...
FY 2016 Budget Request Executive Summary
BUDGET HIGHLIGHTS
SUM-4
The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 challenged...
FY 2016 Budget Request Executive Summary
BUDGET HIGHLIGHTS
SUM-5
80% JCL respectively. The Agency will determine the Explo...
FY 2016 Budget Request Executive Summary
BUDGET HIGHLIGHTS
SUM-6
continues to develop and test solutions that strengthen t...
FY 2016 Budget Request Executive Summary
BUDGET HIGHLIGHTS
SUM-7
measurements that are compatible with the existing 42-yea...
FY 2016 Budget Request Executive Summary
BUDGET HIGHLIGHTS
SUM-8
SPACE TECHNOLOGY GROWS CAPABILITIES, REDUCES COSTS, AND D...
FY 2016 Budget Request Executive Summary
BUDGET HIGHLIGHTS
SUM-9
EXPANDING HUMAN EXPLORATION OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM
The work ...
FY 2016 Budget Request Executive Summary
BUDGET HIGHLIGHTS
SUM-10
NASA’S UNIQUE ASSETS MADE AVAILABLE TO SUPPORT THE NATIO...
FY 2016 Budget Request Executive Summary
BUDGET HIGHLIGHTS
SUM-11
facilities required by the missions. NASA will decommiss...
FY 2016 Budget Request Executive Summary
NOTES ON THE BUDGET
SUM-12
NASA’S WORKFORCE
NASA’s workforce continues to be one ...
FY 2016 Budget Request Executive Summary
NOTES ON THE BUDGET
SUM-13
This digital service team will build on the success of...
FY 2016 Budget Request Executive Summary
EXPLANATION OF BUDGET TABLES AND SCHEDULES
SUM-14
NASA presents the FY 2016 budge...
FY 2016 Budget Request Executive Summary
EXPLANATION OF BUDGET TABLES AND SCHEDULES
SUM-15
EXPLANATION OF PROJECT SCHEDULE...
FY 2016 Budget Request Executive Summary
EXPLANATION OF BUDGET TABLES AND SCHEDULES
SUM-16
Formulation
NASA places signifi...
FY 2016 Budget Request Executive Summary
EXPLANATION OF BUDGET TABLES AND SCHEDULES
SUM-17
Implementation
Implementation o...
FY 2016 Budget Request Executive Summary
EXPLANATION OF BUDGET TABLES AND SCHEDULES
SUM-18
Other Common Terms for Mission ...
FY 2016 Budget Request Executive Summary
EXPLANATION OF BUDGET TABLES AND SCHEDULES
SUM-19
For further details, go to:
 N...
SCIENCE
SCMD-1
Actual Enacted Request Notional
Budget Authority (in $ millions) FY 2014 FY 2015 FY 2016 FY 2017 FY 2018 FY...
SCIENCE
SCMD-2
Planetary Science
PLANETARY SCIENCE RESEARCH .................................................................
SCIENCE
SCMD-3
Heliophysics
HELIOPHYSICS RESEARCH ...........................................................................
SCIENCE
SCMD-4
FY 2016 Budget
Actual Enacted Request Notional
Budget Authority (in $ millions) FY 2014 FY 2015 FY 2016 FY ...
SCIENCE
SCMD-5
observatories and probes, as well as technology development and proposals for theoretical and suborbital
su...
SCIENCE
SCMD-6
Elevation Satellite (ICESat)-2 experienced past cost and schedule growth, but are still holding closely to
...
SCIENCE
SCMD-7
activity. The HMI observations may also help answer a question asked since the time of Galileo: why
does th...
SCIENCE
SCMD-8
 Complete the ongoing program. All legacy Earth Science missions identified in the 2007 ESAS
Decadal [Jaso...
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Nasa fy 2016_budget_estimates

Orçamento da NASA para 2016 em detalhe.
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Science      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Nasa fy 2016_budget_estimates

  • 1. National Aeronautics and Space Administration FY 2016 PRESIDENT’S BUDGET REQUEST SUMMARY BUD-1 Fiscal Year Actual Enacted Request Notional Budget Authority ($ in millions) 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 NASA Total 17,646.5 18,010.2 18,529.1 18,807.0 19,089.2 19,375.5 19,666.1 Science 5,148.2 5,244.7 5,288.6 5,367.9 5,488.4 5,530.2 5,613.1 Earth Science 1,824.9 -- 1,947.3 1,966.7 1,988.0 2,009.3 2,027.4 Planetary Science 1,345.7 -- 1,361.2 1,420.2 1,458.1 1,502.4 1,527.8 Astrophysics 678.3 -- 709.1 726.5 769.5 1,005.5 1,138.3 James Webb Space Telescope 658.2 645.4 620.0 569.4 534.9 305.0 197.5 Heliophysics 641.0 -- 651.0 685.2 697.9 708.1 722.1 Aeronautics 566.0 651.0 571.4 580.0 588.7 597.5 606.4 Space Technology 576.0 596.0 724.8 735.7 746.7 757.9 769.3 Exploration 4,113.2 4,356.7 4,505.9 4,482.2 4,298.7 4,264.7 4,205.4 Exploration Systems Development 3,115.2 3,245.3 2,862.9 2,895.7 2,971.7 3,096.2 3,127.1 Commercial Spaceflight 696.0 805.0 1,243.8 1,184.8 731.9 173.1 1.1 Exploration Research and Development 302.0 306.4 399.2 401.7 595.1 995.4 1,077.2 Space Operations 3,774.0 3,827.8 4,003.7 4,191.2 4,504.9 4,670.8 4,864.3 International Space Station 2,964.1 -- 3,105.6 3,273.9 3,641.0 3,826.0 4,038.3 Space and Flight Support 809.9 -- 898.1 917.3 863.8 844.8 826.1 Education 116.6 119.0 88.9 90.2 91.6 93.0 94.4 Safety, Security, and Mission Services 2,793.0 2,758.9 2,843.1 2,885.7 2,929.1 2,973.0 3,017.5 Center Management and Operations 2,041.5 -- 2,075.2 2,105.0 2,136.6 2,168.6 2,201.0 Agency Management and Operations 751.5 -- 767.9 780.7 792.5 804.4 816.5 Construction and Environmental Compliance and Restoration 522.0 419.1 465.3 436.1 442.6 449.3 456.0 Construction of Facilities 455.9 -- 374.8 344.3 349.3 354.6 359.9 Environmental Compliance and Restoration 66.1 -- 90.5 91.8 93.3 94.7 96.1 Inspector General 37.5 37.0 37.4 38.0 38.5 39.1 39.7 NASA Total 17,646.5 18,010.2 18,529.1 18,807.0 19,089.2 19,375.5 19,666.1 FY 2014 reflects funding amounts specified in the June 2014 Operating Plan per P.L. 113-76. FY 2015 reflects only funding amounts specified in P.L. 113-235, the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015. For projects in development, NASA's tentatively planned FY 2015 funding level is shown. FY 2015 funding levels are subject to change pending finalization of the FY 2015 operating plan. The totals for the Exploration and Space Operations accounts in this document supersede the figures in the draft appropriations language.
  • 2. National Aeronautics and Space Administration FY 2016 PRESIDENT’S BUDGET REQUEST SUMMARY BUD-2 Fiscal Year Actual Enacted Request Notional 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 NASA Total 17,646.5 18,010.2 18,529.1 18,807.0 19,089.2 19,375.5 19,666.1 Science 5,148.2 5,244.7 5,288.6 5,367.9 5,448.4 5,530.2 5,613.1 Earth Science 1,824.9 -- 1,947.3 1,966.7 1,988.0 2,009.3 2,027.4 Earth Science Research 456.7 -- 485.3 471.0 480.4 475.2 470.6 Earth Science Research and Analysis 334.6 -- 348.4 329.8 329.8 323.4 322.5 Computing and Management 122.1 -- 136.9 141.2 150.5 151.9 148.1 Earth Systematic Missions 837.2 -- 895.2 919.7 948.6 994.1 1,004.8 Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 182.2 126.5 127.4 102.4 66.6 14.2 14.2 Soil Moisture Active and Passive 65.4 74.9 15.9 11.3 11.3 11.3 11.5 GRACE Follow-On 87.8 73.4 66.3 38.7 21.1 11.1 12.1 Surface Water and Ocean Topography 59.2 -- 78.3 96.9 131.4 126.3 80.5 Other Missions and Data Analysis 442.6 -- 607.4 670.5 718.3 831.2 886.5 Earth System Science Pathfinder 257.4 -- 267.7 272.8 255.4 238.7 244.8 Venture Class Missions 163.1 -- 185.2 200.1 200.6 190.0 192.6 Other Missions and Data Analysis 94.3 -- 82.5 72.7 54.8 48.7 52.1 Earth Science Multi-Mission Operations 179.0 -- 190.7 192.5 193.7 192.4 195.8 Earth Science Technology 59.6 -- 60.7 62.1 61.5 61.2 62.7 Applied Sciences 35.0 -- 47.6 48.7 48.4 47.6 48.8
  • 3. National Aeronautics and Space Administration FY 2016 PRESIDENT’S BUDGET REQUEST SUMMARY BUD-3 Fiscal Year Actual Enacted Request Notional 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Planetary Science 1,345.7 -- 1,361.2 1,420.2 1,458.1 1,502.4 1,527.8 Planetary Science Research 221.8 -- 276.3 282.0 292.0 291.7 285.7 Planetary Science Research and Analysis 130.0 -- 162.5 164.0 166.7 170.6 170.6 Directorate Management 4.0 -- 7.1 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4 Near Earth Object Observations 40.5 -- 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 Other Missions and Data Analysis 47.3 -- 56.7 60.6 67.9 63.7 57.7 Lunar Quest Program 11.4 -- -- -- -- -- -- Discovery 297.4 -- 156.1 201.6 277.2 337.4 344.9 InSight 203.3 170.0 92.1 13.3 8.7 9.0 9.0 Other Missions and Data Analysis 94.1 -- 64.0 188.4 268.5 328.4 335.9 New Frontiers 231.6 -- 259.0 124.0 81.5 85.7 137.8 Origins-Spectral Interpretation-Resource Identification-Security- Regolith Explorer 207.3 216.8 189.7 44.0 38.1 43.1 27.7 Other Missions and Data Analysis 24.3 -- 69.3 80.0 43.4 42.6 110.1 Mars Exploration 288.0 -- 411.9 539.3 561.3 531.5 464.2 Outer Planets 152.4 -- 116.2 117.7 81.6 87.6 110.5 Jupiter Europa 80.0 100.0 30.0 30.0 50.0 75.0 100.0 Technology 143.1 -- 141.7 155.5 164.4 168.5 184.7 Astrophysics 678.3 -- 709.1 726.5 769.5 1,005.5 1,138.3 Astrophysics Research 145.2 -- 187.7 228.1 226.9 229.1 253.2 Astrophysics Research and Analysis 63.3 -- 72.3 73.7 73.0 73.0 73.0 Balloon Project 32.9 -- 34.2 34.3 37.3 37.4 37.4 Other Missions and Data Analysis 49.1 -- 81.1 120.1 116.6 118.7 142.8 Cosmic Origins 224.2 -- 199.3 200.4 199.1 207.9 244.5 Hubble Space Telescope 98.3 -- 97.1 93.5 97.7 89.3 89.3 Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy 84.4 -- 85.2 85.1 86.2 89.1 91.0 Other Missions and Data Analysis 41.5 -- 17.0 21.7 15.3 29.5 64.2 Physics of the Cosmos 112.6 -- 107.6 81.9 86.9 96.0 106.6 Exoplanet Exploration 106.7 -- 64.2 67.8 148.4 302.2 365.7 Astrophysics Explorer 89.6 -- 150.3 148.2 108.1 170.4 168.3 Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite 35.9 80.1 88.0 82.6 17.8 9.1 2.5 Other Missions and Data Analysis 53.7 -- 62.4 65.6 90.3 161.3 165.8
  • 4. National Aeronautics and Space Administration FY 2016 PRESIDENT’S BUDGET REQUEST SUMMARY BUD-4 Fiscal Year Actual Enacted Request Notional 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 James Webb Space Telescope 658.2 645.4 620.0 569.4 534.9 305.0 197.5 Heliophysics 641.0 -- 651.0 685.2 697.9 708.1 722.1 Heliophysics Research 185.1 -- 158.5 168.5 202.1 207.6 208.4 Heliophysics Research and Analysis 33.5 -- 34.0 33.9 48.9 53.9 53.9 Sounding Rockets 53.4 -- 48.3 53.3 59.0 61.1 63.1 Research Range 21.8 -- 21.6 21.7 21.7 21.7 21.7 Other Missions and Data Analysis 76.4 -- 54.6 59.6 72.5 71.0 69.7 Living with a Star 212.5 -- 343.0 387.3 399.9 212.6 103.3 Solar Probe Plus 121.4 179.2 230.4 226.5 323.7 100.4 25.2 Solar Orbiter Collaboration 39.4 31.5 62.9 112.2 19.3 42.8 2.3 Other Missions and Data Analysis 51.7 -- 49.7 48.7 56.9 69.4 75.9 Solar Terrestrial Probes 143.3 -- 50.5 37.6 41.8 133.3 189.2 Magnetospheric Multiscale 120.9 52.4 30.1 17.5 10.8 - - Other Missions and Data Analysis 22.4 -- 20.4 20.1 31.0 133.3 189.2 Heliophysics Explorer Program 100.2 -- 98.9 91.9 54.1 154.5 221.3 ICON 59.8 61.0 49.8 48.0 9.0 4.5 1.3 Other Missions and Data Analysis 40.4 -- 49.2 43.9 45.1 150.1 220.0 Aeronautics 566.0 651.0 571.4 580.0 588.7 597.5 606.4 Aeronautics 566.0 651.0 571.4 580.0 588.7 597.5 606.4 Airspace Operations and Safety Program -- -- 142.4 153.2 159.6 160.0 163.0 Advanced Air Vehicles Program -- -- 240.9 243.2 241.2 231.0 232.8 Integrated Aviation Systems Program -- -- 96.0 85.6 89.0 101.6 104.8 Transformative Aeronautics Concepts Program -- -- 92.1 98.0 98.9 104.9 105.8 Aviation Safety 80.0 -- -- -- -- -- -- Airspace Systems 91.8 -- -- -- -- -- -- Fundamental Aeronautics 168.0 -- -- -- -- -- -- Aeronautics Test 77.0 -- -- -- -- -- -- Integrated Systems Research 126.5 -- -- -- -- -- -- Aeronautics Strategy and Management 22.7 -- -- -- -- -- -- Space Technology 576.0 596.0 724.8 735.7 746.7 757.9 769.3 Space Technology 576.0 596.0 724.8 735.7 746.7 757.9 769.3 Agency Technology and Innovation 30.6 -- 33.0 33.0 33.2 33.2 33.2 SBIR and STTR 175.0 -- 200.9 213.0 213.2 213.5 213.8 Space Technology Research and Development 370.4 -- 491.0 489.7 500.3 511.2 522.4
  • 5. National Aeronautics and Space Administration FY 2016 PRESIDENT’S BUDGET REQUEST SUMMARY BUD-5 Fiscal Year Actual Enacted Request Notional 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Exploration 4,113.2 4,356.7 4,505.9 4,482.2 4,298.7 4,264.7 4,205.4 Exploration Systems Development 3,115.2 3,245.3 2,862.9 2,895.7 2,971.7 3,096.2 3,127.1 Orion Program 1,197.0 1,194.0 1,096.3 1,119.8 1,122.9 1,126.7 1,138.0 Crew Vehicle 1,165.8 -- 1,085.8 1,109.3 1,112.4 1,116.2 1,127.5 Orion Program Integration and Support 31.2 -- 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 Space Launch System 1,600.0 1700.0 1,356.5 1,343.6 1,407.6 1,516.5 1,531.6 Launch Vehicle Development 1,557.7 -- 1,303.5 1,247.1 1,313.9 1,424.4 1,436.4 SLS Program Integration and Support 42.3 -- 53.0 96.5 93.7 92.1 95.2 Exploration Ground Systems 318.2 351.3 410.1 432.3 441.2 453.0 457.5 Exploration Ground Systems Development 315.8 -- 390.9 417.1 425.9 437.7 442.1 EGS Program Integration and Support 2.4 -- 19.1 15.3 15.3 15.3 15.4 Commercial Spaceflight 696.0 805.0 1,243.8 1,184.8 731.9 173.1 1.1 Exploration Research and Development 302.0 306.4 399.2 401.7 595.1 995.4 1,077.2 Human Research Program 149.4 -- 167.8 170.3 178.2 178.2 180.0 Advanced Exploration Systems 152.7 -- 231.4 231.4 416.9 817.2 897.2 Space Operations 3,774.0 3,827.8 4,003.7 4,191.2 4,504.9 4,670.8 4,864.3 International Space Station 2,964.1 -- 3,105.6 3,273.9 3,641.0 3,826.0 4,038.3 International Space Station Program 2,964.1 -- 3,105.6 3,273.9 3,641.0 3,826.0 4,038.3 ISS Systems Operations and Maintenance 1,236.1 -- 1,106.1 1,194.5 1,327.7 1,321.3 1,327.6 ISS Research 330.7 -- 394.0 362.3 364.2 370.6 376.8 ISS Crew and Cargo Transportation 1,397.3 -- 1,605.5 1,717.1 1,949.1 2,134.1 2,333.9 Space and Flight Support 809.9 -- 898.1 917.3 863.8 844.8 826.1 21st Century Space Launch Complex 39.6 -- 23.3 11.8 -- -- -- Space Communications and Navigation 538.5 -- 632.4 659.7 616.6 597.6 576.4 Space Communications Networks 477.0 -- 539.7 543.8 504.7 463.4 425.9 Space Communications Support 61.5 -- 92.7 115.9 111.9 134.2 150.5 Human Space Flight Operations 106.5 -- 108.5 110.2 110.5 110.5 111.6 Launch Services 80.9 -- 86.7 88.0 89.1 89.1 90.0 Rocket Propulsion Test 44.4 -- 47.2 47.6 47.6 47.6 48.0
  • 6. National Aeronautics and Space Administration FY 2016 PRESIDENT’S BUDGET REQUEST SUMMARY BUD-6 Fiscal Year Actual Enacted Request Notional 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Education 116.6 119.0 88.9 90.2 91.6 93.0 94.4 Education 116.6 119.0 88.9 90.2 91.6 93.0 94.4 Aerospace Research and Career Development 58.0 58.0 33.0 33.0 33.0 33.0 33.0 National Space Grant College and Fellowship Project 40.0 40.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 Experimental Project to Stimulate Competitive Research 18.0 18.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 STEM Education and Accountability 58.6 -- 55.9 57.2 58.6 60.0 61.4 Minority University Research Education Project 30.0 -- 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.9 30.0 STEM Education and Accountability 28.6 -- 25.9 27.2 28.6 29.1 31.4 Cross Agency Support 2,793.0 2,758.9 2,843.1 2,885.7 2,929.1 2,973.0 3,017.5 Center Management and Operations 2,041.5 -- 2,075.2 2,105.0 2,136.6 2,168.6 2,201.0 Center Management and Operations 2,041.5 -- 2,075.2 2,105.0 2,136.6 2,168.6 2,201.0 Center Institutional Capabilities 1,591.9 -- 1,627.4 1,644.1 1,667.5 1,692.0 1,714.4 Center Programmatic Capabilities 449.6 -- 447.8 460.9 469.1 476.6 486.6 Agency Management and Operations 751.5 -- 767.9 780.7 792.5 804.4 816.5 Agency Management 384.0 -- 395.4 402.6 408.7 414.8 421.0 Safety and Mission Success 179.0 -- 166.6 169.1 171.7 174.3 177.0 Safety and Mission Assurance 48.7 -- 50.1 50.8 51.6 52.4 53.2 Chief Engineer 87.0 -- 83.4 84.7 86.0 87.3 88.6 Chief Health and Medical Officer 4.2 -- 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.4 4.5 Independent Verification and Validation 39.1 -- 28.9 29.3 29.8 30.2 30.7 Agency IT Services 161.5 -- 179.0 181.7 184.4 187.2 190.0 IT Management 14.9 -- 13.2 18.2 19.2 20.3 21.4 Applications 55.5 -- 60.6 59.4 61.7 64.1 66.1 Infrastructure 91.1 -- 105.2 104.1 103.5 102.8 102.5 Strategic Capabilities Assets Program 27.0 -- 26.9 27.3 27.7 28.1 28.5
  • 7. National Aeronautics and Space Administration FY 2016 PRESIDENT’S BUDGET REQUEST SUMMARY BUD-7 Fiscal Year Actual Enacted Request Notional 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Construction and Environmental Compliance and Restoration 522.0 419.1 465.3 436.1 442.6 449.3 456.0 Construction of Facilities 455.9 -- 374.8 344.3 349.3 354.6 359.9 Institutional CoF 283.4 -- 338.6 344.3 349.3 354.6 359.9 Science CoF 3.0 -- -- -- -- -- -- Exploration CoF 139.3 -- 10.0 -- -- -- -- Space Operations CoF 30.2 -- 26.2 -- -- -- -- Environmental Compliance and Restoration 66.1 -- 90.5 91.8 93.3 94.7 96.1 Inspector General 37.5 37.0 37.4 38.0 38.5 39.1 39.7 NASA Total 17,646.5 18,010.2 18,529.1 18,807.0 19,089.2 19,375.5 19,666.1 FY 2014 reflects funding amounts specified in the June 2014 Operating Plan per P.L. 113-76. FY 2015 reflects only funding amounts specified in P.L. 113-235, the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015. For projects in development, NASA's tentatively planned FY 2015 funding level is shown. FY 2015 funding levels are subject to change pending finalization of the FY 2015 operating plan. The totals for the Exploration and Space Operations accounts in this document supersede the figures in the draft appropriations language.
  • 8. National Aeronautics and Space Administration TABLE OF CONTENTS TOC-1 Overview Agency Summary MESSAGE FROM THE ADMINISTRATOR ............................................................SUM-2 BUDGET HIGHLIGHTS..........................................................................................SUM-4 NOTES ON THE BUDGET ...................................................................................SUM-12 EXPLANATION OF BUDGET TABLES AND SCHEDULES ..................................SUM-14 Science............................................................................. SCMD-4 Earth Science EARTH SCIENCE RESEARCH .................................................................................ES-2 EARTH SYSTEMATIC MISSIONS...........................................................................ES-12 Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat-2) [Development] .................................. ES-14 Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) [Development] ................................................ ES-20 GRACE Follow-On [Development] .................................................................................... ES-26 Surface Water and Ocean Topography Mission [Formulation] ......................................... ES-31 Other Missions and Data Analysis .................................................................................... ES-36 EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE PATHFINDER.............................................................ES-54 Venture Class Missions ..................................................................................................... ES-55 Other Missions and Data Analysis .................................................................................... ES-63 EARTH SCIENCE MULTI-MISSION OPERATIONS ................................................ES-67 EARTH SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY..........................................................................ES-72 APPLIED SCIENCES ..............................................................................................ES-77
  • 9. National Aeronautics and Space Administration TABLE OF CONTENTS TOC-2 Planetary Science PLANETARY SCIENCE RESEARCH ........................................................................PS-2 Other Missions and Data Analysis ...................................................................................... PS-6 DISCOVERY .............................................................................................................PS-9 InSight [Development] ....................................................................................................... PS-13 Other Missions and Data Analysis .................................................................................... PS-19 NEW FRONTIERS...................................................................................................PS-23 Origins-Spectral Interpretation-Resource Identification-Security-Regolith Explorer [Development].................................................................................................................... PS-25 Other Missions and Data Analysis .................................................................................... PS-32 MARS EXPLORATION............................................................................................PS-35 Other Missions and Data Analysis .................................................................................... PS-38 OUTER PLANETS...................................................................................................PS-45 TECHNOLOGY .......................................................................................................PS-50 Astrophysics ASTROPHYSICS RESEARCH.......................................................................... ASTRO-2 Other Missions and Data Analysis .............................................................................. ASTRO-8 COSMIC ORIGINS .......................................................................................... ASTRO-11 Hubble Space Telescope Operations [Operations]................................................... ASTRO-12 Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) [Operations]................. ASTRO-15 Other Missions and Data Analysis ............................................................................ ASTRO-18 PHYSICS OF THE COSMOS .......................................................................... ASTRO-21 Other Missions and Data Analysis ............................................................................ ASTRO-23 EXOPLANET EXPLORATION......................................................................... ASTRO-27 Other Missions and Data Analysis ............................................................................ ASTRO-28 ASTROPHYSICS EXPLORER ........................................................................ ASTRO-32 Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) [Development] .................................. ASTRO-35 Other Missions and Data Analysis ....................................................................ASTRO-40 James Webb Space Telescope JAMES WEBB SPACE TELESCOPE [DEVELOPMENT]...................................................JWST-2
  • 10. National Aeronautics and Space Administration TABLE OF CONTENTS TOC-3 Heliophysics HELIOPHYSICS RESEARCH .............................................................................HELIO-2 Other Missions and Data Analysis ................................................................................ HELIO-8 LIVING WITH A STAR .......................................................................................HELIO-13 Solar Probe Plus [Development] .................................................................................HELIO-14 Solar Orbiter Collaboration [Development]..................................................................HELIO-20 Other Missions and Data Analysis ..............................................................................HELIO-26 SOLAR TERRESTRIAL PROBES .....................................................................HELIO-30 Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) [Development]......................................................HELIO-31 Other Missions and Data Analysis ..............................................................................HELIO-37 HELIOPHYSICS EXPLORER PROGRAM.........................................................HELIO-40 Ionospheric Connection Explorer [Development]........................................................HELIO-42 Other Missions and Data Analysis ..............................................................................HELIO-47 Aeronautics ......................................................................AERO-2 AIRSPACE OPERATIONS AND SAFETY PROGRAM ........................................ AERO-9 ADVANCED AIR VEHICLES PROGRAM ...........................................................AERO-18 INTEGRATED AVIATION SYSTEMS PROGRAM ..............................................AERO-29 TRANSFORMATIVE AERONAUTICS CONCEPTS PROGRAM ........................... AERO-36 Space Technology ........................................................... TECH-2 AGENCY TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION......................................................TECH-7 SBIR AND STTR ................................................................................................TECH-10 SPACE TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT .......................................TECH-17
  • 11. National Aeronautics and Space Administration TABLE OF CONTENTS TOC-4 Human Exploration and Operations................................. HEO-2 Exploration ..........................................................................EXP-2 Exploration Systems Development ORION PROGRAM ................................................................................................ EXP-7 Crew Vehicle Development [Formulation] .........................................................................EXP-9 SPACE LAUNCH SYSTEM .................................................................................. EXP-18 Launch Vehicle Development [Development] .................................................................EXP-20 EXPLORATION GROUND SYSTEMS.................................................................. EXP-29 Exploration Ground Systems Development [Development] ............................................EXP-31 Commercial Spaceflight COMMERCIAL CREW ......................................................................................... EXP-39 Exploration Research and Development HUMAN RESEARCH PROGRAM......................................................................... EXP-45 ADVANCED EXPLORATION SYSTEMS.............................................................. EXP-52 Space Operations..................................................................SO-2 International Space Station INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION PROGRAM..................................................... SO-6 ISS Systems Operations and Maintenance.........................................................................SO-8 ISS Research.....................................................................................................................SO-13 ISS Crew and Cargo Transportation .................................................................................SO-23 Space and Flight Support (SFS) 21ST CENTURY SPACE LAUNCH COMPLEX....................................................... SO-29 SPACE COMMUNICATIONS AND NAVIGATION .................................................. SO-35 SN Ground Segment Sustainment (SGSS) [Development] ..............................................SO-37 Space Communications Networks ....................................................................................SO-44 Space Communications Support.......................................................................................SO-51 HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT OPERATIONS................................................................ SO-56 LAUNCH SERVICES.............................................................................................. SO-63 ROCKET PROPULSION TEST .............................................................................. SO-70
  • 12. National Aeronautics and Space Administration TABLE OF CONTENTS TOC-5 Education..........................................................................EDUC-2 AEROSPACE RESEARCH AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT .............................. EDUC-6 National Space Grant College and Fellowship Project ..................................................EDUC-7 Experimental Project To Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR).........................EDUC-12 STEM EDUCATION AND ACCOUNTABILITY....................................................EDUC-17 Minority University Research Education Project ..........................................................EDUC-18 STEM Education and Accountability Projects ..............................................................EDUC-25 Safety, Security, and Mission Services..........................SSMS-2 Center Management and Operations ..........................................................SSMS-5 Agency Management and Operations.......................................................SSMS-10 AGENCY MANAGEMENT..................................................................................SSMS-13 SAFETY AND MISSION SUCCESS ...................................................................SSMS-16 AGENCY IT SERVICES (AITS) ..........................................................................SSMS-23 STRATEGIC CAPABILITIES ASSET PROGRAM...............................................SSMS-28 HEADQUARTERS BUDGET BY OFFICE...........................................................SSMS-31 HEADQUARTERS TRAVEL BUDGET BY OFFICE ............................................SSMS-33 HEADQUARTERS WORKFORCE BY OFFICE ..................................................SSMS-34 Construction and Environmental Compliance and Restoration .......................................................................CECR-2 Construction of Facilities.............................................................................CECR-6 INSTITUTIONAL COF ......................................................................................... CECR-7 EXPLORATION COF..........................................................................................CECR-16 SPACE OPERATIONS COF...............................................................................CECR-19 ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE AND RESTORATION .........................CECR-23 Inspector General................................................................... IG-2
  • 13. National Aeronautics and Space Administration TABLE OF CONTENTS TOC-6 Supporting Data Funds Distribution by Installation.................................................................... SD-2 Civil Service Full Time Equivalent Distribution............................................... SD-5 Working Capital Fund........................................................................................ SD-7 Budget by Object Class................................................................................... SD-10 Status of Unobligated Funds .......................................................................... SD-12 Reimbursable Estimates ................................................................................. SD-13 Enhanced Use Leasing.................................................................................... SD-14 National Historic Preservation Act................................................................. SD-17 Budget for Microgravity Science.................................................................... SD-19 Budget for Safety Oversight ........................................................................... SD-21 Physicians’ Comparability Allowance............................................................ SD-23 Budget for Public Relations............................................................................ SD-26 Consulting Services ........................................................................................ SD-27 E-Gov Initiatives and Benefits ........................................................................ SD-28 Cost and Schedule Performance Summary .......................MP-1 Basic Research .....................................................................BR-1 Proposed Appropriations Language.................................PAL-1 Reference.............................................................................REF-1
  • 14. National Aeronautics and Space Administration FY 2016 BUDGET REQUEST EXECUTIVE SUMMARY SUM-1 Overview Agency Summary MESSAGE FROM THE ADMINISTRATOR ............................................................SUM-2 BUDGET HIGHLIGHTS..........................................................................................SUM-4 NOTES ON THE BUDGET ...................................................................................SUM-12 EXPLANATION OF BUDGET TABLES AND SCHEDULES ..................................SUM-14
  • 15. FY 2016 Budget Request Executive Summary MESSAGE FROM THE ADMINISTRATOR SUM-2 I am delighted to present President Obama’s FY2016 budget request for NASA. NASA innovation helps drive our journey to reach new heights, reveal the unknown, and benefit all of humanity and our nation’s space program is well positioned to continue the United States’ world leadership in exploration. President Obama’s strong investment in NASA has spurred innovation and economic growth and enabled breakthroughs in science and technology. Space is good for the economy. It’s good for our future and it helps unify the entire world. Our ambitious journey out into the Solar System, this time to stay, drives much of what we do. Robotic explorers are visiting asteroids and planets, and rovers are roaming the surface of Mars – paving the way for human explorers to arrive there in the coming decades. Technology drives exploration and right now NASA is working on the challenge of sending humans to Mars by working on breakthroughs in propulsion, radiation shielding and landing large payloads among many other cutting-edge technologies. At the same time, NASA is working on technologies such as advanced solar arrays, laser communication, and green propellant that will benefit US industry and other government agencies, as well as NASA. The Orion spacecraft in which humans will travel deeper into the solar system has achieved a major milestone with its first flight to deep space. It will fly again on the Space Launch System (SLS), the world’s most powerful rocket, which has moved from concept to development. Our mission to redirect an asteroid to cis-lunar space will test new capabilities in the proving ground of deep space and bring us closer to a mission to the Red Planet using Orion and the SLS. The future is unfolding right now in low Earth orbit aboard the International Space Station, where astronauts are helping us learn how to live and work in space for the long term and demonstrating new technologies in the unique environment of microgravity. Commercial partners are proving our faith in this investment and after successfully beginning cargo transport to the station are now hard at work on the capabilities to once again launch astronauts from American soil in the coming years. Their innovation creates good jobs, lowers the cost of access to space, and frees up NASA to focus on farther destinations. NASA is working to identify additional opportunities to work with the private sector to achieve low-cost results and catalyze innovation and risk-sharing. Our impressive fleet of science missions is taking us on a journey of discovery to help understand our solar system and its sun, search for life beyond and explore the origins and future of the universe. The most important planet is the one on which we live, and NASA’s constantly expanding view of our planet from space is helping us understand Earth and its changes. We are uniquely qualified to take on the challenge of documenting and understanding these changes, predicting the ramifications and sharing information across the globe. All of our work has an impact on people worldwide every day. One of the most visible aspects of this work is in aviation. NASA is with you when you fly and we are transforming air travel by dramatically reducing its environmental impact, maintaining safety in more crowded skies, and paving the way toward revolutionary aircraft shapes and propulsion.
  • 16. FY 2016 Budget Request Executive Summary MESSAGE FROM THE ADMINISTRATOR SUM-3 This budget supports all of these activities. Our work is part of a vital strategy to equip our nation with the technologies for the future and inspire a new generation of explorers to make the next giant leaps in human experience. At NASA, we’re creating a bright future today. Charles F. Bolden, Jr. NASA Administrator
  • 17. FY 2016 Budget Request Executive Summary BUDGET HIGHLIGHTS SUM-4 The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 challenged our Nation to grow our technical and scientific abilities in air and space. Since the 1970s, numerous economic reports and articles have demonstrated that NASA investments helped grow the US economy. Perhaps most importantly NASA- funded R&D helped stimulate our long-term capacity for innovation and economic growth within the government, at universities, and at industrial companies. The disciplines advanced were many – including materials, computing and electronics, fuels, radio communications, safety, and even human health. In the FY 2016 President’s Budget Request, NASA addresses the challenge of advancing US leadership in space exploration, space and Earth science, and aeronautics in the current fiscal climate. In formulating this budget, projects and programs have been reviewed and their costs and benefits assessed to ensure the highest return on the dollar. The potential contributions of partner agencies, nations, and industries were evaluated. In developing this budget, the Agency faced and made tough decisions to fully support its highest priority programs. Progress on attaining our highest priorities can continue in a productive, efficient, and safe manner only if other worthy, but less tightly aligned missions are held steady or slowed. This budget presents a balanced portfolio of NASA investments, but one focused on success for the long-term. This budget advances the Nation’s space exploration, technology development, and scientific research plans and maintains the US posture as a world leader through the development of a next-generation deep space transportation system. It fosters the development of a commercial space industry that will, among other things, expand the research use of the ISS. The budget ensures we continue to learn about and protect life on our home planet, Earth. It invests in R&D, technology development, and a scientific infrastructure that enables exploration today, tomorrow, and generations from now. Moreover, the FY 2016 budget aims to create jobs and support the growing US economy. In FY 2016, NASA continues to plan and refine the requirements for its first-of-a-kind mission to capture and redirect a near-Earth asteroid into a stable orbit around the Moon, where astronauts will explore the asteroid. In support of this cross-agency activity, scientists, mission managers, technologists, and operations specialists are working on a multi-segment mission that will advance our deep space exploration capabilities as we learn to operate and live safely beyond the Earth for extended periods of time and drive towards future human missions to Mars, and will improve the ability of our Nation and others to protect the planet from asteroid impacts. Today’s technology development in advanced solar electric propulsion, as managed by the Space Technology Mission Directorate, will provide the spacecraft with sufficient energy and thrust so it is able to rendezvous with a small, non-threatening asteroid and move it into a stable lunar orbit. Designers of the mission spacecraft will also incorporate anticipated technological advances in lightweight materials, communication, data storage and transfer, and space navigation. Many of these technologies will also be useful for other NASA missions, as well as for commercial space activities. In the third segment of the mission, NASA will employ the Orion crew vehicle to send human crews deep into space to examine and collect samples from the redirected asteroid by 2025. More information about the technical aspects of the missions can be found in the Science, Space Technology, and Exploration account sections of this document. The FY 2016 budget request fully supports the plan for crewed exploration of deep space. NASA has identified our Agency Baseline Commitment for the Space Launch System (SLS) and Exploration Ground Systems (EGS) which supports a launch capability readiness date of November 2018 at 70% and
  • 18. FY 2016 Budget Request Executive Summary BUDGET HIGHLIGHTS SUM-5 80% JCL respectively. The Agency will determine the Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) integrated launch date after Orion, SLS, and EGS have completed their respective Critical Design Reviews. In January 2014, the President’s Science Advisor announced plans to extend ISS operations to at least 2024. Doing so increases the Nation’s ability to conduct fundamental and applied research necessary to developing spacecraft and human life support systems for deep space exploration. The ISS extension is made possible in large part because of the success of our commercial space partners in developing low- cost and highly reliable systems for delivering supplies and equipment to the ISS. The burgeoning US commercial space marketplace is already providing mission support, which lessens American reliance on foreign services, and creates highly-skilled jobs across the Nation. This budget request strongly supports ISS research. Scientists and engineers will develop and execute experiments and technology demonstrations in diverse disciplines including physics, biology, materials science, robotics, communications, and human physiology. Insights gained from these studies will be essential for planning future deep space missions, including to Mars. The Center for the Advancement of Science in Space (CASIS), the research management organization for the ISS National Laboratory, will continue to enable federal, academic, and commercial research activities. Exciting research will include potential medicines and interventions that will improve human health both in space and here on Earth. This budget request continues to fund a strategic suite of missions to study the Earth, Sun, solar system, and deep space. Earth observations continue to allow unprecedented study of climate change, weather, and natural hazards. NASA investments in improved IT systems capable of managing “big data” will provide researchers with unparalleled access to data about the Earth. By fostering collective and collaborative research, the scientific insights gained from NASA missions will increase profoundly. The James Webb Space Telescope remains on track for launch in 2018. Once operational, scientists will be able to look farther out into space than ever before, gaining new insights to the formation and evolution of stars and galaxies. A robust planetary science program includes data analysis of ongoing missions, and development of the next Mars rover. NASA will also continue formulating a mission to Europa, Jupiter’s icy moon that, data suggests, may have organic material on its surface. NASA continues to reduce the barriers to human and robotic exploration of space by identifying and working solutions for both near and long-term needs. The Agency’s investments in Space Technology in FY 2016 include demonstrations of maturing technologies, and novel “game-changing” basic and applied R&D that may eventually save time and costs while increasing scientific return on investment. Focus areas in 2016 include solar electric propulsion, which is necessary for a deep space asteroid mission; laser communications; and human-robotic interfaces. NASA’s Space Technology program also supports Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs. Through these competitive opportunities, NASA is able to draw on the innovation of small local engineering and technology companies. These programs are a win-win as NASA benefits from the creativity and flexibility of small teams, and the companies grow and may be able to spin off NASA- inspired technologies to new commercial markets. The FY 2016 budget request for Aeronautics research reflects its focus on six strategic areas: safe, efficient growth in global operations; innovation in commercial supersonic aircraft; ultra-efficient commercial vehicles; transition to low-carbon propulsion; real-time, system-wide safety assurance; and assured autonomy for aviation transformation. Across its portfolio of aeronautics investments, NASA
  • 19. FY 2016 Budget Request Executive Summary BUDGET HIGHLIGHTS SUM-6 continues to develop and test solutions that strengthen the air travel and transportation industry while minimizing environmental impact. NASA supports efforts to improve the quality and delivery of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education programs. The Office of Education will continue to coordinate with the Department of Education, the National Science Foundation, and the Smithsonian Institution on STEM issues in order to maximize NASA’s unique resources that support the Federal STEM Education Five- Year Strategic Plan. NASA will continue to provide opportunities for students and educators to engage in activities that tie directly to NASA’s science, technology, and engineering activities. The FY 2016 budget makes efficient use of NASA’s assets, including its workforce, equipment, and one- of-a-kind facilities. The budget also includes reinvigorated efforts to protect these assets, particularly from cyber threats. NASA continues to evaluate its current and future needs for existing facilities and invests in preventative repairs that will reduce future costs of refurbishment or replacement. The Agency is also proactively seeking means to reduce its operating costs. NASA is reducing its energy footprint, working with other agencies to share and leverage facilities usage, and using reimbursable agreements to support external customers who seek NASA’s unique capabilities. In its more than 50 years, NASA has advanced our technical knowledge and human abilities. Our engineers are now building spacecraft capable of launching humans to another planet or moving an asteroid. What we now know about the stars would astound the earliest scientists who documented the seasonality of constellations, or those who later studied the heavens through simple lenses and prisms. In many respects, NASA has made science fiction a reality by investing in disciplines that may have seemed like fantasy in 1958: robotics, space habitats, analyzing the surface of Mars, and healing the sick through telemedicine. But in one important respect, NASA continues to do what it has always done. It serves as a stimulus to US creativity and innovation, our competitiveness on the global stage, and economic growth that benefits all Americans. SCIENCE IS ANSWERING ENDURING QUESTIONS IN, FROM, AND ABOUT SPACE NASA’s Science account funds exploration of our planet, other planets and planetary bodies, our star system in its entirety, and funds observations out into our galaxy and beyond. Through the development of space observatories and probes that enable exploration and discovery, NASA will continue to inspire the next generation of scientists, engineers, and explorers. The FY 2016 budget request for Science is $5,288.6 million. The Webb telescope, a successor to the Hubble telescope, is on schedule for a 2018 launch. Webb will be 100 times more capable than Hubble, becoming the premier astronomical observatory of the next decade. The request also funds ongoing study of a possible WFIRST/AFTA mission, the next major observatory beyond Webb. Other astrophysics missions in formulation and development include the Astro-H Soft X- Ray Spectrometer, and the TESS and NICER Explorer missions. The request also includes full funding for SOFIA. NASA continues to learn more about Earth. The launch and operation of Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) will enable global mapping of soil moisture with unprecedented accuracy, resolution, and coverage. The request also fully funds Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat-II); Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE-FO); and many other future Earth Science missions. The Sustainable Land Imaging (SLI) program will provide US users with high-quality, global, land imaging
  • 20. FY 2016 Budget Request Executive Summary BUDGET HIGHLIGHTS SUM-7 measurements that are compatible with the existing 42-year record; that will address near- and longer- term issues of continuity risk; and that will evolve flexibly and responsibly through investment in, and introduction of, new sensor and system technologies. SLI is initiating the Landsat-9 mission in FY 2015. The OSIRIS-REx spacecraft will launch in 2016, travel to a near-Earth asteroid in 2018, and be the first US mission to carry samples from an asteroid back to Earth. InSight (launching in 2016) and Mars 2020 are future Mars lander missions. The request also supports a potential future mission to Jupiter’s moon Europa, providing double the amount of funding as last year’s request to proceed with pre-formulation activities. The request fully funds several major missions to advance our understanding of the Sun and its impact on the Earth, including Magnetospheric Multiscale, Solar Probe Plus, and Solar Orbiter Collaboration. The request also funds the ICON and GOLD Explorer missions. AERONAUTICS RESEARCH TO ADDRESS AVIATION’S CHALLENGES The air transportation system of today is a vital part of the US and Global economies. It is the primary mechanism for connecting major population centers in the US and countries across the world for people and cargo. NASA conducts aeronautics research to bring transformational advances in the safety, capacity, and efficiency of the air transportation system while minimizing negative impacts on the environment. The FY 2016 budget request for the Aeronautics account is $571.4 million. The request funds cutting-edge research programs aligned with a new and compelling strategic vision that addresses global challenges of growing demand for mobility; sustainability of energy and environment; and application of rapid advances in information, communication, and automation technologies. NASA is developing new methods of validating and verifying complex flight systems to improve safety and reduce development costs. A system-wide safety management system is being developed in partnership with FAA to ensure that aviation’s enviable current safety record is maintained and improved into the future with growing traffic and increased system complexity. NASA, in partnership with FAA and industry, is demonstrating an effective and harmonious integrated suite of air traffic management tools, which will expand airspace capacity with more fuel-efficient flight planning, diminish delays on the ground and in the sky, reduce fuel consumption, reduce the overall environmental footprint of aviation, and continue to improve safety. Through research into next generation aircraft configurations, efficient engines, and low carbon propulsion systems, NASA is developing concepts and technologies that enable revolutionary new vehicles to dramatically reduce fuel consumption, emissions, and noise, and assure safety levels. NASA is also developing technologies that will integrate Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System and enable small UAS operations at low altitude. The request will initiate fundamental research in autonomous systems for aviation applications.
  • 21. FY 2016 Budget Request Executive Summary BUDGET HIGHLIGHTS SUM-8 SPACE TECHNOLOGY GROWS CAPABILITIES, REDUCES COSTS, AND DRIVES EXPLORATION Space Technology conducts rapid development and incorporation of transformative space technologies that enable and reduce the cost of NASA’s missions and reduce the cost and increase the capabilities of other US agencies and the US space industry. Technology drives exploration by improving our ability to access and travel through space; land more mass more accurately in more locations throughout the solar system; live and work in deep space and on planetary bodies; transform the ability to observe the universe to answer profound questions in earth and space sciences including the outer planets; and improve the US aerospace industry technological capability to continue the Nation’s economic leadership. The FY 2016 budget request for Space Technology is $724.8 million. In FY 2014, Space Technology completed the world’s largest, out-of-autoclave composite cryogenic propellant tank ever manufactured. The 18-foot (5.5-meter) diameter tank successfully endured a rigorous series of tests over the course of five months to replicate the physical stresses launch vehicles experience during flight. The development effort validated the ability to manufacture large-scale composite structures for aerospace applications that will significantly reduce the structural mass of future launch vehicles and consequently dramatically increase their payload mass to orbit. In addition, Space Technology successfully flew a rocket-powered, saucer-shaped test vehicle into near-space in late June from the US Navy’s Pacific Missile Range Facility on Kauai, Hawaii. This first flight successfully demonstrated that the experimental vehicle could reach the altitudes and airspeeds needed to test two new breakthrough technologies for landing large payloads on the surface of Mars. Informed by the results of FY 2014 testing of solar array and thruster designs, Space Technology continues development of a high-powered solar electric propulsion system that will enable orbit transfer and accommodate increasing power demands for satellites, and power the robotic segment of the asteroid redirect mission. In addition, over the next two years, Space Technology will execute several in-space demonstrations including: a deep space atomic clock for advanced navigation- particularly applicable to understanding Europa’s under-ice liquid water oceans, green propellant and four small spacecraft demonstrations of pioneering new technologies. Space Technology will continue maturation of enabling technologies incentivized in the Science Discovery 2014 solicitation: advanced thermal protection system materials, solar arrays, green propellant, deep space optical communications, and an advanced atomic clock. Space Technology will also initiate development of foundational technologies to support future outer planets icy moons missions with emphasis on landing and mobility, navigation and communications, radiation protection and accommodating power requirements. In addition, Space Technology has developed a wide and diverse portfolio of early-stage research and technology that is primed to solve the Agency and Nation’s most difficult exploration challenges. Space Technology will continue to prioritize “tipping point” technologies and early-stage innovation with over 600 awards to small businesses, private innovators, and academia to spark new ideas for the benefit of US aerospace and high tech industries. As efforts complete, appropriate technologies will be transferred and commercialized to benefit a wide range of users to ensure the full economic value and societal benefit of these innovations is realized.
  • 22. FY 2016 Budget Request Executive Summary BUDGET HIGHLIGHTS SUM-9 EXPANDING HUMAN EXPLORATION OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM The work of NASA ensures the United States remains both a leader and international partner in the human exploration of space. NASA’s exploration goal is to develop the capability for people to live and work safely beyond the Earth for extended periods of time. The Agency is working to incrementally and progressively develop systems and capabilities, and leverage near-term mission opportunities, which will allow the expansion of the human presence into the solar system and to the surface of Mars. The Exploration account develops systems and capabilities required for deep space exploration and ensures reliable and cost-effective crew access to low Earth orbit by US commercial providers. The FY 2016 budget request for Exploration is $4,505.9 million. The Exploration account invests in crew transportation to and beyond Earth orbit; research and countermeasures aimed at maintaining astronaut health and function during long-term missions; and technologies to advance capabilities and minimize the cost of crewed deep space missions. In FY 2016, the program will focus on preparing for the first Exploration Mission – an uncrewed test flight to lunar orbit, which will be the first pairing of the Orion crew vehicle with the Space Launch System. The multi- day flight will validate spacecraft design and operations. The Agency will continue fabrication of a next-generation spacesuit, which includes a more flexible, lightweight design, powered by an advanced battery system. In the Commercial Crew program, the Agency transitioned industry partners from Space Act Agreements to fixed-price, milestone based contracts to support the next phase of commercial crew transportation systems. NASA’s commercial partners will continue development efforts towards flights in 2017 by performing risk reduction and technical readiness testing. LIVING AND WORKING IN SPACE Space Operations funds critical NASA capabilities that create pathways for discovery and human exploration of space. These capabilities include research on and operation of the International Space Station, affordable and reliable launches of NASA science missions, and critical communication links to crewed and robotic spacecraft. In addition to supporting NASA’s activities, Space Operations also provides a platform for research and space transportation for non-NASA users. The FY 2016 budget request for Space Operations is $4,003.7 million. In the Space Operations account, NASA will complete the year-long US and Russian crew expedition to ISS that will help scientists better understand the impacts of long-duration spaceflight on the human body and aid in the development of effective countermeasures. The Agency will fly Raven to the ISS in FY 2016, demonstrating a common rendezvous sensor suite for satellite servicing, Orion and the Asteroid Redirect Mission. NASA will leverage satellite servicing technologies such as dexterous robotic capture mechanisms for future missions. Space Operations activities will provide dependable communications for human and science missions, including download of science data, and provide expertise and oversight for successful launch of NASA science spacecraft. The account also maintains the facilities and expertise needed for testing critical propulsion components for the SLS, NASA’s commercial partners, and other Government customers.
  • 23. FY 2016 Budget Request Executive Summary BUDGET HIGHLIGHTS SUM-10 NASA’S UNIQUE ASSETS MADE AVAILABLE TO SUPPORT THE NATION’S STEM EFFORTS NASA’s education programs share the excitement of the Agency’s science and engineering missions with learners, educators, and the public. Investments in the NASA education programmatic accounts maintain the advancement of high-quality STEM education using NASA’s unique capabilities and resources. NASA’s unique capabilities, resources, and expertise will play a crucial role in the contribution towards shaping the Nation’s STEM education portfolio in support of the Administration’s Five-Year Federal Strategic Plan on STEM Education. Hands-on challenges with NASA experts generate interest in undergraduate STEM study, fostering student participation in aerospace or related STEM fields. NASA's STEM education programs provide opportunities for educators and learners of all ages. Planned activities serve middle school audiences; offer pre- and in-service educator professional development; and provide experiential opportunities for high school and undergraduate students. NASA’s education programs inspire learners to pursue STEM study and careers by engaging them in the Agency’s missions, fostering collaborative relationships between learners and the current NASA workforce, and offering experiential learning opportunities at Agency facilities. NASA education will continue to coordinate closely with other Federal agencies in pursuit of the Administration’s STEM education goals. The FY 2016 budget request for Education is $88.9 million. MANAGING NASA’S PEOPLE AND CAPABILITIES TO SAFELY ACCOMPLISH OUR MISSION NASA’s Safety, Security, and Mission Services account funds the essential day-to-day technical and business operations required to conduct NASA’s aeronautics and space activities. These mission support activities provide the proper services, tools, and equipment to complete essential tasks, protect and maintain the security and integrity of information and assets, and ensure personnel work under safe and healthy conditions. Planning, operating, and sustaining this infrastructure and our essential services requires a number of critical institutional capabilities including management of: human capital, finance, information technology, infrastructure, acquisitions, security, real and personnel property, occupational health and safety, equal employment opportunity and diversity, small business programs, external relations, strategic internal and external communications, stakeholder engagement, and other essential corporate functions. In FY 2016 NASA will continue to provide strategic and operational planning and management over a wide range of functions and services to help NASA operate in a more efficient and sustainable manner. The FY 2016 budget request for Safety, Security, and Mission Services is $2,843.1 million. The Construction and Environmental Compliance and Restoration account enables NASA to manage the Agency’s facilities with a focus on reducing infrastructure, implementing efficiency and high performance upgrades, and prioritizing repairs to achieve the greatest return on investment. In FY 2016, NASA continues to consolidate facilities to achieve greater operational efficiency, replacing old, obsolete, costly facilities with fewer, high performance facilities. Institutional construction projects replace deficient and obsolete facilities and correct deficiencies to support core capabilities within a smaller, more efficient footprint. Programmatic construction of facilities projects provide the specialized technical
  • 24. FY 2016 Budget Request Executive Summary BUDGET HIGHLIGHTS SUM-11 facilities required by the missions. NASA will decommission and continue preparations to dispose of property and equipment no longer needed. To protect human health and the environment, and to preserve natural resources for future missions, environmental compliance and restoration projects will clean up pollutants released into the environment during past NASA activities. The FY 2016 request for Construction and Environmental Compliance and Restoration is $465.3 million.
  • 25. FY 2016 Budget Request Executive Summary NOTES ON THE BUDGET SUM-12 NASA’S WORKFORCE NASA’s workforce continues to be one of its greatest assets for enabling missions in space and on Earth. The Agency remains committed to applying this asset to benefit society, address contemporary environmental and social issues, lead or participate in emerging technology opportunities, collaborate and strengthen the capabilities of commercial partners, and communicate the challenges and results of Agency programs and activities. The civil service staffing levels proposed in the FY 2016 budget support NASA’s scientists, engineers, researchers, managers, technicians, and business operations workforce. It includes civil service personnel at NASA Centers, Headquarters, and NASA-operated facilities. The mix of skills and distribution of workforce across the Agency is, however, necessarily changing. NASA continues to adjust its workforce size and mix of skills to address changing mission priorities, with an emphasis on industry and academic partnerships, and transferring work in-house from on and near site support contracts. As NASA works toward he right workforce to meet its requirements, some reduction to workforce levels is necessary. NASA will reduce the size of the civil service workforce by more than 200 full-time equivalents from FY 2015 to FY 2016, bringing the civil service workforce to approximately 17,200 full-time equivalents. NASA will continue to explore opportunities across the Agency to insource work. The Agency will apply the valued civil service workforce to priority mission work, adjusting the mix of skills where appropriate. Centers will explore cross-mission retraining opportunities for employees whenever possible, offer targeted buyouts in selected surplus skill areas, and continue to identify, recruit, and retain a multi- generational workforce of employees who possess skills critical to the Agency. OPERATING EFFICIENTLY AND CUTTING WASTE NASA continues to pursue cost savings throughout its operations. Savings targets comply with Executive Order 13576, Delivering an Efficient, Effective and Accountable Government, Executive Order 13589, Promoting Efficient Spending, and Office of Management and Budget Memorandum M-12-12 Promoting Efficient Spending to Support Agency Operations. AGENCY DIGITAL SERVICE TEAMS The success rate of government digital services is improved when agencies have digital service experts on staff with modern design, software engineering, and product management skills. To ensure the agency can effectively build and deliver important digital services, the FY 2016 Budget includes funding for staffing costs to build a Digital Service team that will focus on transforming the agency’s digital services with the greatest impact to citizens and businesses so they are easier to use and more cost-effective to build and maintain. These digital service experts will bring private sector best practices in the disciplines of design, software engineering, and product management to bear on the agency’s most important services. The positions will be term-limited, to encourage a continuous influx of up-to-date design and technology skills into the agency. The digital service experts will be recruited from among America’s leading technology enterprises and startups, and will join with the agency’s top technical and policy leaders to deliver meaningful and lasting improvements to the services the agency provides to citizens and businesses.
  • 26. FY 2016 Budget Request Executive Summary NOTES ON THE BUDGET SUM-13 This digital service team will build on the success of the United States Digital Service team inside of OMB, created in 2014. This team has worked in collaboration with Federal agencies to implement cutting edge digital and technology practices on the nation’s highest impact programs, including the successful re-launch of HealthCare.gov in its second year, which led to millions of Americans receiving health coverage; the Veterans Benefits Management System; online visa applications, green card replacements and renewals; among others. In addition to their work on these high priority projects, this small team of tech experts has worked to establish best practices (as published in the US Digital Services Playbook at http://playbook.cio.gov) and to recruit more highly skilled digital service experts and engineers into government.
  • 27. FY 2016 Budget Request Executive Summary EXPLANATION OF BUDGET TABLES AND SCHEDULES SUM-14 NASA presents the FY 2016 budget request in full-cost, where all project costs are allocated to the project, including labor funding for the Agency’s civil service workforce. Note that budget figures in tables may not add because of rounding. OUTYEAR FUNDING ASSUMPTIONS At this time, funding lines beyond FY 2016 should be considered notional. EXPLANATION OF FY 2014 AND FY 2015 BUDGET COLUMNS FY 2014 Column The FY 2014 Actual column in budget tables is consistent with the approved Agency spending plan (e.g. operating plan) control figures at the time of the budget release. Budget structure and figures are adjusted for comparability to the FY 2016 request. See note below. All FY 2014 budget figures represent appropriations reflect funding amounts specified in the June 2014 Operating Plan per P.L. 113-76. FY 2015 Column The FY 2015 Enacted column in budget tables displays appropriations enacted in the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015 (P.L. 113-235). As of budget release, an initial FY 2015 operating plan has not been approved by Congress. As a result, budget tables show only accounts, themes, or programs where appropriations are called out in P.L. 113-235. Tables also show tentatively planned FY 2015 funding for projects in development (subject to change pending finalization of the FY 2015 initial operating plan). Budget structures and figures are adjusted for comparability to the FY 2016 budget structure. See note below.
  • 28. FY 2016 Budget Request Executive Summary EXPLANATION OF BUDGET TABLES AND SCHEDULES SUM-15 EXPLANATION OF PROJECT SCHEDULE COMMITMENTS AND KEY MILESTONES Programs and projects follow their appropriate life cycle. The life cycle is divided into phases. Transition from one phase to another requires management approval at Key Decision Points (KDPs). The phases in program and project life cycles include one or more life-cycle reviews, which are considered major milestone events. A life-cycle review is designed to provide the program or project with an opportunity to ensure that it has completed the work of that phase and an independent assessment of a program’s or project’s technical and programmatic status and health. The final life-cycle review in a given life-cycle phase provides essential information for the KDP that marks the end of that life-cycle phase and transition to the next phase if successfully passed. As such, KDPs serve as gates through which programs and projects must pass to continue. The KDP decision to authorize a program or project’s transition to the next life-cycle phase is based on a number of factors, including technical maturity; continued relevance to Agency strategic goals; adequacy of cost and schedule estimates; associated probabilities of meeting those estimates (confidence levels); continued affordability with respect to the Agency’s resources; maturity and the readiness to proceed to the next phase; and remaining program or project risk (safety, cost, schedule, technical, management, and programmatic). At the KDP, the key program or project cost, schedule, and content parameters that govern the remaining life-cycle activities are established. For reference, a description of schedule commitments and milestones is listed below for projects in Formulation and Implementation. A list of common terms used in mission planning is also included. Formulation • Phase A: concept and technology development; and • Phase B, preliminary design and technology completion. Implementation • Phase C: final design and fabrication; • Phase D: system assembly, integration, test, launch and checkout; • Phase E: operations and sustainment; and • Phase F: closeout.
  • 29. FY 2016 Budget Request Executive Summary EXPLANATION OF BUDGET TABLES AND SCHEDULES SUM-16 Formulation NASA places significant emphasis on project Formulation to ensure adequate preparation of project concepts and plans and mitigation of high-risk aspects of the project essential to position the project for the highest probability of mission success. During Formulation, the project explores the full range of implementation options, defines an affordable project concept to meet requirements, and develops needed technologies. The activities in these phases include developing the system architecture; completing mission and preliminary system designs; acquisition planning; conducting safety, technical, cost, and schedule risk trades; developing time-phased cost and schedule estimates and documenting the basis of these estimates; and preparing the Project Plan for Implementation. Formulation Milestone Explanation KDP-A The lifecycle gate at which the decision authority determines the readiness of a program or project to transition into Phase A and authorizes Formulation of the project. Phase A is the first phase of Formulation and means that:  The project addresses a critical NASA need;  The proposed mission concept(s) is feasible;  The associated planning is sufficiently mature to begin activities defined for formulation; and  The mission can likely be achieved as conceived. System Requirements Review (SRR) The lifecycle review in which the decision authority evaluates whether the functional and performance requirements defined for the system are responsive to the program’s requirements on the project and represent achievable capabilities System Definition Review or Mission Definition Review The lifecycle review in which the decision authority evaluates the credibility and responsiveness of the proposed mission/system architecture to the program requirements and constraints on the project, including available resources, and determines whether the maturity of the project’s mission/system definition and associated plans are sufficient to begin the next phase, Phase B. KDP-B The lifecycle gate at which the decision authority determines the readiness of a program or project to transition from Phase A to Phase B. Phase B is the second phase of Formulation and means that:  The proposed mission/system architecture is credible and responsive to program requirements and constraints, including resources;  The maturity of the project’s mission/system definition and associated plans is sufficient to begin Phase B; and  The mission can likely be achieved within available resources with acceptable risk. Preliminary Design Review (PDR) The lifecycle review in which the decision authority evaluates the completeness/consistency of the planning, technical, cost, and schedule baselines developed during Formulation. This review also assesses compliance of the preliminary design with applicable requirements and determines if the project is sufficiently mature to begin Phase C.
  • 30. FY 2016 Budget Request Executive Summary EXPLANATION OF BUDGET TABLES AND SCHEDULES SUM-17 Implementation Implementation occurs when Agency management establishes baseline cost and schedule commitments for projects at KDP-C. The projects maintain the baseline commitment through the end of the mission. Projects are baselined for cost, schedule, and programmatic and technical parameters. Under Implementation, projects are able to execute approved plans development and operations. Implementation Milestone Explanation KDP-C The lifecycle gate at which the decision authority determines the readiness of a program or project to begin the first stage of development and transition to Phase C and authorizes the Implementation of the project. Phase C is first stage of development and means that:  The project’s planning, technical, cost, and schedule baselines developed during Formulation are complete and consistent;  The preliminary design complies with mission requirements;  The project is sufficiently mature to begin Phase C; and  The cost and schedule are adequate to enable mission success with acceptable risk. Critical Design Review (CDR) The lifecycle review in which the decision authority evaluates the integrity of the project design and its ability to meet mission requirements with appropriate margins and acceptable risk within defined project constraints, including available resources. This review also determines if the design is appropriately mature to continue with the final design and fabrication phase. System Integration Review (SIR) The lifecycle review in which the decision authority evaluates the readiness of the project and associated supporting infrastructure to begin system assembly, integration, and test. The lifecycle review also evaluates whether the remaining project development can be completed within available resources, and determine if the project is sufficiently mature to begin Phase D. KDP-D The lifecycle gate at which the decision authority determines the readiness of a project to continue in Implementation and transition from Phase C to Phase D. Phase D is a second phase in Implementation; the project continues in development and means that:  The project is still on plan;  The risk is commensurate with the project’s payload classification; and  The project is ready for assembly, integration and test with acceptable risk within its Agency baseline commitment. Launch Readiness Date (LRD) The date at which the project and its ground, hardware, and software systems are ready for launch.
  • 31. FY 2016 Budget Request Executive Summary EXPLANATION OF BUDGET TABLES AND SCHEDULES SUM-18 Other Common Terms for Mission Planning Term Definition Decision Authority The individual authorized by the Agency to make important decisions on programs and projects under their authority. Formulation Authorization Document The document that authorizes the formulation of a program whose goals will fulfill part of the Agency’s Strategic Plan and Mission Directorate strategies. This document establishes the expectations and constraints for activity in the Formulation phase. Key Decision Point (KDP) The lifecycle gate at which the decision authority determines the readiness of a program or project to progress to the next phase of the life cycle. The KDP also establishes the content, cost, and schedule commitments for the ensuing phase(s). Launch Manifest This list that NASA publishes (the “NASA Flight Planning Board launch manifest”) periodically, which includes the expected launch dates for NASA missions. The launch dates in the manifest are the desired launch dates approved by the NASA Flight Planning Board, and are not typically the same as the Agency Baseline Commitment schedule dates. A launch manifest is a dynamic schedule that is affected by real world operational activities conducted by NASA and multiple other entities. It reflects the results of a complex process that requires the coordination and cooperation by multiple users for the use of launch range and launch contractor assets. Moreover, the launch dates are a mixture of “confirmed” range dates for missions launching within approximately six months, and contractual/planning dates for the missions beyond six months from launch. The NASA Flight Planning Board launch manifest date is typically earlier than the Agency Baseline Commitment schedule date to allow for the operationally driven delays to the launch schedule that may be outside of the project’s control. Operational Readiness Review The lifecycle review in which the decision authority evaluates the readiness of the project, including its ground systems, personnel, procedures, and user documentation, to operate the flight system and associated ground system(s), in compliance with defined project requirements and constraints during the operations phase. Mission Readiness Review or Flight Readiness Review (FRR) The lifecycle review in which the decision authority evaluates the readiness of the project, ground systems, personnel and procedures for a safe and successful launch and flight/mission. KDP-E The lifecycle gate at which the decision authority determines the readiness of a project to continue in Implementation and transition from Phase D to Phase E. Phase E is a third phase in Implementation and means that the project and all supporting systems are ready for safe, successful launch and early operations with acceptable risk. Decommissioning Review The lifecycle review in which the decision authority evaluates the readiness of the project to conduct closeout activities. The review includes final delivery of all remaining project deliverables and safe decommissioning of space flight systems and other project assets. KDP-F The lifecycle gate at which the decision authority determines the readiness of the project’s decommissioning. Passage through this gate means the project has met its program objectives and is ready for safe decommissioning of its assets and closeout of activities. Scientific data analysis may continue after this period.
  • 32. FY 2016 Budget Request Executive Summary EXPLANATION OF BUDGET TABLES AND SCHEDULES SUM-19 For further details, go to:  NASA Procedural Requirement 7102.5E NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements: http://nodis3.gsfc.nasa.gov/displayDir.cfm?t=NPR&c=7120&s=5E  NASA Procedural Requirement NPR 7123.1B - NASA Systems Engineering Processes and Requirements: http://nodis3.gsfc.nasa.gov/npg_img/N_PR_7123_001B_/N_PR_7123_001B_.pdf  NASA Launch Services Web site: http://www.nasa.gov/directorates/heo/launch_services/index.html
  • 33. SCIENCE SCMD-1 Actual Enacted Request Notional Budget Authority (in $ millions) FY 2014 FY 2015 FY 2016 FY 2017 FY 2018 FY 2019 FY 2020 Earth Science 1824.9 -- 1947.3 1966.7 1988.0 2009.3 2027.4 Planetary Science 1345.7 -- 1361.2 1420.2 1458.1 1502.4 1527.8 Astrophysics 678.3 -- 709.1 726.5 769.5 1005.5 1138.3 James Webb Space Telescope 658.2 645.4 620.0 569.4 534.9 305.0 197.5 Heliophysics 641.0 -- 651.0 685.2 697.9 708.1 722.1 Total Budget 5148.2 5244.7 5288.6 5367.9 5448.4 5530.2 5613.1 FY 2014 reflects funding amounts specified in the June 2014 Operating Plan per P.L. 113-76. FY 2015 reflects only funding amounts specified in P.L. 113-235, the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015. Science............................................................................. SCMD-4 Earth Science EARTH SCIENCE RESEARCH .................................................................................ES-2 EARTH SYSTEMATIC MISSIONS...........................................................................ES-12 Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat-2) [Development] .................................. ES-14 Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) [Development] ................................................ ES-20 GRACE Follow-On [Development] .................................................................................... ES-26 Surface Water and Ocean Topography Mission [Formulation] ......................................... ES-31 Other Missions and Data Analysis .................................................................................... ES-36 EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE PATHFINDER.............................................................ES-54 Venture Class Missions ..................................................................................................... ES-55 Other Missions and Data Analysis .................................................................................... ES-63 EARTH SCIENCE MULTI-MISSION OPERATIONS ................................................ES-67 EARTH SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY..........................................................................ES-72 APPLIED SCIENCES ..............................................................................................ES-77
  • 34. SCIENCE SCMD-2 Planetary Science PLANETARY SCIENCE RESEARCH ........................................................................PS-2 Other Missions and Data Analysis ...................................................................................... PS-6 DISCOVERY .............................................................................................................PS-9 InSight [Development] ....................................................................................................... PS-13 Other Missions and Data Analysis .................................................................................... PS-19 NEW FRONTIERS...................................................................................................PS-23 Origins-Spectral Interpretation-Resource Identification-Security-Regolith Explorer [Development].................................................................................................................... PS-25 Other Missions and Data Analysis .................................................................................... PS-32 MARS EXPLORATION............................................................................................PS-35 Other Missions and Data Analysis .................................................................................... PS-38 OUTER PLANETS...................................................................................................PS-45 TECHNOLOGY .......................................................................................................PS-50 Astrophysics ASTROPHYSICS RESEARCH.......................................................................... ASTRO-2 Other Missions and Data Analysis .............................................................................. ASTRO-8 COSMIC ORIGINS .......................................................................................... ASTRO-11 Hubble Space Telescope Operations [Operations]................................................... ASTRO-12 Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) [Operations]................. ASTRO-15 Other Missions and Data Analysis ............................................................................ ASTRO-18 PHYSICS OF THE COSMOS .......................................................................... ASTRO-21 Other Missions and Data Analysis ............................................................................ ASTRO-23 EXOPLANET EXPLORATION......................................................................... ASTRO-27 Other Missions and Data Analysis ............................................................................ ASTRO-28 ASTROPHYSICS EXPLORER ........................................................................ ASTRO-32 Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) [Development] .................................. ASTRO-35 Other Missions and Data Analysis ....................................................................ASTRO-40 James Webb Space Telescope JAMES WEBB SPACE TELESCOPE [DEVELOPMENT]...................................................JWST-2
  • 35. SCIENCE SCMD-3 Heliophysics HELIOPHYSICS RESEARCH .............................................................................HELIO-2 Other Missions and Data Analysis ................................................................................ HELIO-8 LIVING WITH A STAR .......................................................................................HELIO-13 Solar Probe Plus [Development] .................................................................................HELIO-14 Solar Orbiter Collaboration [Development]..................................................................HELIO-20 Other Missions and Data Analysis ..............................................................................HELIO-26 SOLAR TERRESTRIAL PROBES .....................................................................HELIO-30 Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) [Development]......................................................HELIO-31 Other Missions and Data Analysis ..............................................................................HELIO-37 HELIOPHYSICS EXPLORER PROGRAM.........................................................HELIO-40 Ionospheric Connection Explorer [Development]........................................................HELIO-42 Other Missions and Data Analysis ..................................................................... HELIO-47
  • 36. SCIENCE SCMD-4 FY 2016 Budget Actual Enacted Request Notional Budget Authority (in $ millions) FY 2014 FY 2015 FY 2016 FY 2017 FY 2018 FY 2019 FY 2020 Earth Science 1824.9 -- 1947.3 1966.7 1988.0 2009.3 2027.4 Planetary Science 1345.7 -- 1361.2 1420.2 1458.1 1502.4 1527.8 Astrophysics 678.3 -- 709.1 726.5 769.5 1005.5 1138.3 James Webb Space Telescope 658.2 645.4 620.0 569.4 534.9 305.0 197.5 Heliophysics 641.0 -- 651.0 685.2 697.9 708.1 722.1 Total Budget 5148.2 5244.7 5288.6 5367.9 5448.4 5530.2 5613.1 Change from FY 2015 43.9 Percentage change from FY 2015 0.8% FY 2014 reflects funding amounts specified in the June 2014 Operating Plan per P.L. 113-76. FY 2015 reflects only funding amounts specified in P.L. 113-235, the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015. NASA’s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) conducts scientific exploration enabled by observatories and probes that view Earth from space, observe and visit other bodies in the solar system, and gaze out into the galaxy and beyond. NASA’s science programs deliver answers to profound questions, such as:  How and why are Earth’s climate and the environment changing?  How does the Sun vary; and how does it affect Earth and the rest of the solar system?  How do planets and life originate?  How does the universe work, and what are its origin and destiny?  Are we alone? NASA science programs address the need to understand our place in the universe, and provide information to policy makers who address issues affecting all life on the planet. NASA is also working to improve its operations and is increasingly launching its science missions on schedule and on budget. Our discoveries continue to rewrite textbooks; inspire children to pursue careers in science, technology, education, and mathematics (STEM); and demonstrate US leadership worldwide. NASA uses the recommendations of the National Academies’ decadal surveys as an important input in planning the future of its science programs. For over 30 years, decadal surveys have proven vital in establishing a broad consensus within the national science community on the state of the science, the highest priority science questions we can address, and actions we can take to address those priority science topics. NASA uses these recommendations to prioritize future flight missions, including space From the vantage point of space, NASA captures breath- taking images of our world and the universe. These images advance our scientific understanding in a multitude of disciplines. They also have the power to inform policy, influence action, and inspire learning.
  • 37. SCIENCE SCMD-5 observatories and probes, as well as technology development and proposals for theoretical and suborbital supporting research. In that process, NASA must also adapt science-based decadal survey recommendations to actual budgets, existing technological capabilities, national policy, partnership opportunities, and other programmatic factors. Assessments of how this budget request supports the recommendations of the most recent decadal surveys are included below. EXPLANATION OF MAJOR CHANGES IN FY 2016 Building on NASA’s successful launch of the NASA/USGS Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM)/Landsat-8 mission in February 2013, the Administration’s new Sustainable Land Imaging (SLI) program will provide US users with high-quality, global, land imaging measurements that are compatible with the existing 42-year record. The proposed program will address near- and longer-term issues of continuity risk; and will evolve flexibly and responsibly through investment in, and introduction of, new sensor and system technologies. The multi-decadal SLI system involves three NASA mission/development activities, including initiation of Landsat 9 immediately in FY 2015, along with a fourth activity combining technology investments and detailed system engineering to design and build a full-capability Landsat 10 satellite. Also in Earth Science, NASA has assigned the Pre-Aerosol, Clouds, and ocean Ecosystem (PACE) mission to the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), and the mission is preparing to begin formulation activities. The budget request for Planetary Science now supports formulation of a new mission to explore Jupiter’s moon, Europa, the destination within the solar system most likely to harbor current life. The Europa mission will investigate the science questions established in the most recent decadal survey. In Astrophysics, the budget restores funding for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) mission. The 2016 Senior Review panel will evaluate SOFIA’s scientific productivity. The Education budget within Science receives an increase relative to the FY 2015 request. This funding will support multi-year cooperative agreements that NASA will award in late FY 2015. SMD's restructured education program will allow for more streamlined and effective implementation of STEM education activities in support of the goals of the Federal STEM Education 5-Year Strategic Plan. ACHIEVEMENTS IN FY 2014 Science missions have continued a recent string of excellent technical, cost and schedule performance. The Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission, scheduled for launch in March 2015, has had a cost overrun of about three percent. Other than MMS, there has been no cost growth or schedule delay on any NASA Science spacecraft in development in the last year. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) and Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) missions launched in 2014; both were ahead of schedule and under budget, and are already making important scientific contributions. Seven other Science missions under development are holding closely to their original cost and schedule baseline estimates: Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP), InSight, Origins-Spectral Interpretation-Resource Identification- Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx), Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS), Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Follow-On (GRACE-FO), Solar Probe Plus (SPP), and the Solar Orbiter Collaboration (SOC). James Webb Space Telescope (Webb) and Ice, Cloud, and land
  • 38. SCIENCE SCMD-6 Elevation Satellite (ICESat)-2 experienced past cost and schedule growth, but are still holding closely to their revised cost and schedule commitments. A steady pace of important science results continued in FY 2014. In Earth Science, some of the most notable findings related to global ice melting. Mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet contributes significantly to present sea level rise. Surface melt has been spreading and intensifying in Greenland, with the highest surface area melt and runoff recorded in 2012. A recent analysis detected widespread ice- covered valleys that extend significantly deeper below sea level and farther inland than previously thought. The findings imply that the outlet glaciers of Greenland, and the ice sheet as a whole, are probably more vulnerable to heating from warm ocean waters and peripheral thinning than inferred previously from existing numerical ice-sheet models. For the first time, Operation IceBridge conducted a deployment in the Arctic to collect altimetry data over sea ice and the Greenland ice sheet during the annual melt season. For three weeks, between October and November 2013, NASA’s C-130 aircraft flew nine science missions with the Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor and its smaller version designed for the unpiloted Global Hawk platform. In Planetary Science, the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover has been exploring the surface of Mars with the objective of determining if the weather and environmental conditions could have supported microbial life, past or present. The rover has traveled outside its landing ellipse, more than 9.5 kilometers, and reached its prime destination: the base of Mt. Sharp. During the journey, scientists determined that the area of Yellowknife Bay once had water flowing on its surface, and the water was relatively neutral pH, low salinity, and contained the ingredients for life, showing that Mars could have supported microbial life. For the first time on another planet, Curiosity has dated a rock in Gale Crater to be 4.2 billion years old and yet the rock has only been exposed for about 80 million years. Atmospheric measurements indicate that Mars lost over 85 percent of its atmosphere. Radiation measurements in cruise and on the surface of Mars have shown that a nominal mission to Mars would expose an astronaut to radiation equivalent to one Sievert, which represents an approximate 5 percent increase in the risk of developing fatal cancer. Astronomers used Hubble's Wide Field Camera 3 and a technique called transmission spectroscopy to find evidence for clear skies and water vapor in a Neptune-sized planet around the star HAT-P-11. As a planet passes in front of its star, starlight filters thru the rim of the planet’s atmosphere and this transmission provides information about the contents of that atmosphere. If molecules like water vapor are present, the molecules absorb some of the starlight, leaving distinct signatures in the light that reaches Earth. Closer to home, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has uncovered three Kuiper Belt objects the Agency's New Horizons spacecraft could potentially visit after it flies by Pluto in July 2015. Meanwhile, astronomers have confirmed more than 1,000 exoplanets, with more than an additional 3,500+ candidates discovered for continuing investigation. The current estimate is that one in five solar type stars has an earth-sized planet in the habitable zone – the region of planetary orbits where liquid water can exist. Using an instrument on NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), called the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), researchers finally found elusive giant convective cells in the solar interior. Scientists theorized their existence over 40 years ago, but data was not available to prove their existence until scientists were able to get continuous observations that are only available from space and specifically from the HMI instrument with its high resolution. Giant convective cells are 30 times the size of the Earth, transport heat from the Sun’s core, and play a role in originating the cycles of sunspot
  • 39. SCIENCE SCMD-7 activity. The HMI observations may also help answer a question asked since the time of Galileo: why does the Sun rotate faster at the equator than at the pole? The motion of giant cells can explain this rotation, which is a key part of how the solar cycle works, with implications to every star, not just the Sun. WORK IN PROGRESS IN FY 2015 NASA continues to support over 55 operating Science missions, involving more than 70 spacecraft, many in collaboration with international partners or other US agencies. Work on over 35 missions in formulation and implementation continues. Suborbital research using aircraft, sounding rockets, and balloons is ongoing, as are more than 3,000 competitively selected research awards to scientists located at universities, NASA field Centers, and other government agencies. NASA released a competitive Astrophysics Explorer Announcement of Opportunity (AO) on September 17, 2014. NASA will select missions for further study in the summer of 2015, leading to final selection in early FY 2017. NASA has received proposals for flight instruments for a potential mission to Europa, and has issued an AO for a new Discovery mission. NASA plans to evaluate proposals from both of these announcements and make selections in FY 2015. The Dawn spacecraft will arrive at Ceres around March 2015, New Horizons will encounter Pluto in July, and MESSENGER will complete its mission at Mercury. KEY ACHIEVEMENTS PLANNED FOR FY 2016 NASA plans to launch two planetary missions in 2016. InSight will launch in March, landing on Mars in September, and OSIRIS-REx launches in September, to begin its journey to the asteroid Bennu. Juno will arrive at Jupiter, after five years in cruise, to begin its mapping of the gravity field at the solar system’s largest planet. NASA plans to make the final mission selection from the Discovery 2014 AO by September 2016. Themes EARTH SCIENCE From space, NASA satellites can view Earth as a planet and enable the study of it as a complex, dynamic system of diverse components: the oceans, atmosphere, continents, ice sheets, and life. The Nation’s scientific community can thereby observe and track global-scale changes, connecting causes to effects. Scientists can study regional changes in their global context, as well as observe the role that human civilization plays as a force of change. Through partnerships with agencies that maintain forecasting and decision support systems, NASA improves national capabilities to predict climate, weather, and natural hazards; manage resources; and support the development of environmental policy. The primary recommendations of the National Academies’ 2007 Decadal Survey for Earth Science and Applications from Space (ESAS), which informed the 2010 Climate-Centric Architecture plan, were:
  • 40. SCIENCE SCMD-8  Complete the ongoing program. All legacy Earth Science missions identified in the 2007 ESAS Decadal [Jason-2 (2008), OCO (2009, 2014), Glory (2011), Aquarius (2011), Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi-NPP) (2011), LDCM (2013)] have been developed and launched. OCO-1 and Glory suffered launch vehicle failures. OCO-2 was then developed and successfully launched. The FY 2016 budget fully funds operations and science exploitation of these on-orbit missions. Additionally, the budget supports completion of OCO-3, which will provide precise measurements of carbon dioxide from the vantage point of the International Space Station.  Continue the balance between flight and non-flight activities. The FY 2016 request fully supports this recommendation.  Increase the scope and fraction of the Earth Science Technology program. The FY 2016 request fully supports this recommendation, in part through funding for the In-Space Validation of Earth Science Technologies (InVEST) CubeSat-based program.  Establish a robust program of competed Venture-class missions. The FY 2016 budget request fully supports this recommendation. It funds all Earth Venture (EV) missions selected under the three previous solicitations, including CYGNSS, Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO), Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI), and ECOsystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station (ECOSTRESS). It also fully funds the planned future solicitations in all three strands on schedule (4-year cadence for EV-Suborbital and EV-Mission, 18-month cadence for EV-Instrument).  Aggressively develop a number of future strategic missions. The 2007 ESAS Decadal identified 4 systematic Tier-1 missions [SMAP, ICESAT-2, Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice (DESDynI), Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO)] to be developed and launched by NASA by 2013, along with 5 Tier-2 missions [Hyperspectral Infrared Image (HyspIRI), Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT), GEOstationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE), Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS), and Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystem (ACE)] by 2016. Those Decadal recommendations assumed unrealistically low mission costs and overly optimistic appropriation estimates, rendering the target launch dates unachievable. NASA launched SMAP in January 2015. The FY 2016 budget request fully funds ICESAT-2 (2018), the radar portion of DESDynI (NISAR – 2021), and technology demonstration instruments for risk reduction for CLARREO (for launch to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2019). The FY 2016 budget request also funds completion of high-priority, Decadal-identified, continuity missions: Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE)-III (2016), Landsat-9 (2023, assigned to USGS in the Decadal), GRACE-FO (2017, deferred to Tier-3 in the Decadal), and SWOT (2020). The FY 2016 budget request supports launch dates that are consistent with the latest (2014 or earlier) mission gate review decision memoranda and Agency commitments.

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