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Kinetic Model of Matter

States of Matter Molecular Model
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Education
Source: www.slideshare.net

Transcripts - Kinetic Model of Matter

• 1. Kinetic Model of Matter ∞ States of Matter ∞ Molecular Model Kinetic Model of Matter 1
• 2. State of Matter Matter is made up of a tiny particles called atoms and molecules. These particles are much too small to be seen by human eyes. Ice, water and steam are three different states of matter of the same material. The three states of matter are called solid, liquid and gas. Kinetic Model of Matter 2
• 3. Dense, close and arrange in order Arrangement of Particles Far apart and not arrange in order Further apart and not arrange in order Kinetic Model of Matter 3
• 4. Particles vibrating in a fixed position Movement of Particles Particles move randomly and fast Particles move randomly Kinetic Model of Matter 4
• 5. Very strong Intermolecular force Fair Very weak Kinetic Model of Matter 5
• 6. Very low Kinetic energy content Fair Very high Kinetic Model of Matter 6
• 7. Fixed shape and volume Shape and volume Takes the shape and volume of the object Take the shape of the object but fixed volume Kinetic Model of Matter 7
• 8. High Density Fair Low Kinetic Model of Matter 8
• 9. Very difficult to compress Compressibility Difficult to compress Easy to compress Kinetic Model of Matter 9
• 10. Kinetic Model The kinetic theory of matter states that all matter is made up of a large number of tiny atoms or molecules which are in continuous motion. The existence of particles in continuous motion has been demonstrated by Brownian motion and diffusion. Kinetic Model of Matter 10
• 11. Motion of Molecules and Temperature When temperature increases, thermal energy is transferred to the molecules and the molecules gain kinetic energy. Hence the molecules move faster. Kinetic Model of Matter 11
• 12. Motion of Molecules and Pressure When randomly moving gas molecules hit the wall of a container they exert a force on the wall. As the pressure is defined as force per unit area, the force acting in the container gives rise the gas pressure. Kinetic Model of Matter 12
• 13. Boyle’s Law Kinetic Model of Matter 13
• 14. Kinetic Model of Matter 14 P V P 1 / V
• 15. Charle’s Law Kinetic Model of Matter 15
• 16. Kinetic Model of Matter 16 V T
• 17. Pressure Law Kinetic Model of Matter 17
• 18. • A closed and rigid boundary cylinder is used to contain the gas/air. • Volume of air is constant and amount of molecules are constant. • When temperature increases, heat is absorbed by air molecules. • Kinetic energy increases. • Collision between molecules and cylinder boundary increases. • Pressure of air increases. P T Kinetic Model of Matter 18
• 19. Conclusion Boyle’s Law: At constant temperature, pressure is inversely proportional to volume Charle’s Law: At constant pressure, volume is proportional to temperature Pressure Law: At constant volume, pressure is proportional to temperature Kinetic Model of Matter 19
• 20. Example 1. What is a property of both liquids and gases? A. They always fill their containers. B. They are incompressible. C. They can flow. D. They have molecules in fixed positions. Kinetic Model of Matter 20
• 21. 2. When ice melts to become water, which force must be overcome? A. the attraction between electrons and the nucleus B. the attraction between the atoms in a molecule C. the force between molecules D. the force of gravity Kinetic Model of Matter 21
• 22. 3. Assuming the temperature remains constant, which combination correctly describes the volume and the shape of a gas or liquid? B gas or liquid volume shape A gas fixed not fixed B gas not fixed not fixed C liquid fixed fixed D liquid not fixed fixed Kinetic Model of Matter 22
• 23. 4. Which line in the table correctly describes whether the molecules of a solid, liquid and gas are moving or stationary? D solid liquid gas A stationary stationary stationary B stationary stationary moving C stationary moving moving D moving moving moving Kinetic Model of Matter 23
• 24. 5. What describes the molecular structure of a liquid? Kinetic Model of Matter 24 B
• 25. 6. Which line in the table describes the properties of solids and of liquids at a fixed temperature? Kinetic Model of Matter 25 C
• 26. 7. A student has three sealed plastic bags. One bag is full of gas, one of liquid and one of solid. 8. The student squeezes each bag to see if it changes shape, and warms each bag to see if it expands. Kinetic Model of Matter 26
• 27. Which bag contains gas? A. the one that changes shape easily and expands the least when heated B. the one that changes shape easily and expands the most when heated C. the one that is fixed in shape and expands the least when heated D. the one that is fixed in shape and expands the most when heated Kinetic Model of Matter 27
• 28. 8. A substance consists of particles that are close together and moving past each other at random. The average speed of the particles is gradually increasing. What best describes the substance? A. a gas being heated B. a liquid being heated C. a solid being heated D. a solid being melted Kinetic Model of Matter 28
• 29. 9. Which of the following contains the molecules with the highest average speed? D Kinetic Model of Matter 29
• 30. 10.A gas cylinder is left outside on a sunny day. The Sun heats the gas inside the cylinder. What happens to the gas molecules? A. They collide less often. B. They expand. C. They move closer together. D. They move more rapidly. Kinetic Model of Matter 30
• 31. 11. The diagram represents gas molecules contained in a cylinder. The piston is moved slowly downwards and the temperature of the gas stays the same. Kinetic Model of Matter 31
• 32. 1. Why does the pressure of the gas increase? A. The molecules collide harder with the walls. B. The molecules collide more often with the walls. C. The molecules move more quickly. D. The number of molecules increases. Kinetic Model of Matter 32
• 33. 12. Driving a car raises the temperature of the tyres. This causes the pressure of the air in the tyres to increase. Why is this? A. Air molecules break up to form separate atoms. B. Air molecules expand with the rise in temperature. C. The force between the air molecules increases. D. The speed of the air molecules increases. Kinetic Model of Matter 33
• 34. 13.A balloon is inflated in a cold room. When the room becomes much warmer, the balloon becomes larger. How does the behaviour of the air molecules in the balloon explain this? A. The molecules become larger. B. The molecules evaporate. C. The molecules move more quickly. D. The molecules repel each other. Kinetic Model of Matter 34
• 35. 14.A cylinder is filled with a gas and then sealed, so that the gas has a fixed volume. 15. The gas molecules are given energy so that their average speed increases. 16.What happens to the pressure and to the temperature of the gas in the cylinder? Kinetic Model of Matter 35
• 36. Kinetic Model of Matter 36 D
• 37. 15. A liquid is heated. 16. Which statement is incorrect? A. The molecules expand. B. The molecules gain energy. C. The molecules move further apart. D. The molecules move faster. Kinetic Model of Matter 37
• 38. 16.Some air is trapped inside a small balloon. The average kinetic energy of the air molecules in the balloon is increased. 17.What remains the same? A. the density of the air in the balloon B. the mass of the air in the balloon C. the temperature of the air in the balloon D. the volume of the air in the balloon Kinetic Model of Matter 38
• 39. 17. Air is pumped slowly into a car tyre to increase the pressure. The temperature of the air does not change. 1. Which line in the table is correct? B Kinetic Model of Matter 39
• 40. 18. A fixed mass of gas at constant temperature is compressed to reduce its volume. 19. How do the molecules of gas now strike the walls of the container? A. less often than before with a higher velocity B. less often than before with the same velocity C. more often than before with a higher velocity D. more often than before with the same velocity Kinetic Model of Matter 40
• 41. 19.A piston traps a certain mass of gas inside a cylinder. Initially the piston is halfway along the length of the cylinder. 20. The piston is now moved towards the open end of the cylinder. The temperature of the gas remains constant. Kinetic Model of Matter 41
• 42. Kinetic Model of Matter 42
• 43. 1. How are the density and the pressure of the gas affected by moving the piston? Kinetic Model of Matter 43 A
• 44. 20. The pressure of a fixed mass of gas in a cylinder is measured. The volume of the gas in the cylinder is then slowly decreased. 21. Which graph could show the change of pressure of the gas during this process? Kinetic Model of Matter 44
• 45. Kinetic Model of Matter 45 C
• 46. Kinetic Model of Matter LEARNING OUTCOMES Kinetic Model of Matter 46
• 47. States of matter State the distinguishing properties of solids, liquids and gases. Describe qualitatively the molecular structure of solids, liquids and gases, relating their properties to the forces and distances between molecules and to the motion of the molecules. Kinetic Model of Matter 47
• 48. Molecular model Describe the relationship between the motion of molecules and temperature. Explain the pressure of a gas in terms of the motion of its molecules. Kinetic Model of Matter 48