World Population Dynamics
Population Distribution <ul><li>Population distribution is where people live, this can be on a global, regional or local...
 
Areas of Large Population <ul><li>River Valleys. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Ganges valley in India, Rhine valley in Germany,...
The Population Explosion
Population Explosion a recent event <ul><li>Last 200 years or less for MDCs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial Revolution <...
Components Influencing Pop. Growth <ul><li>The Pop. of a country changes because of the relationship between: </li></ul><u...
Rates of Global Pop. Change <ul><li>CBR (crude birth rate) = number of births per 1000 population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>19...
Special Kinds of Fertility and Mortality Rates <ul><li>TFR (total fertility rate) = </li></ul><ul><ul><li>number of child...
Pop. Growth and Resources <ul><li>The relationship b/w the population grwoth and the resources can be understand by the fo...
Factors Affecting Pop. Growth <ul><li>2. Leading to a high </li></ul><ul><li>death rate </li></ul><ul><li>Health Care </l...
<ul><li>3. Migration </li></ul>
Percentage Population Change 1900-1990 5 7 10 11 16 23 27 25 33 33 Death rate 27 34 42 45 46 44 39 31 32 34 Birth rate    ...
Consequences of Pop. Growth Benefits Problems
<ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><li>Competition for jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Competition for...
Population, population change, growth rates <ul><li>Population: number of persons </li></ul><ul><li>Population change: inc...
 
 
 
Doubling Time <ul><li>Number of years in which a population reaches twice its size </li></ul><ul><li>doubling time can be...
Population Pyramids <ul><li>Graphic device: bar graph </li></ul><ul><li>shows the age and gender composition of a region <...
The Demographic Transition
Five Stages of the Demographic Transition <ul><li>birth rates, death rates and growth rates systematically change through ...
Stage 1 <ul><li>high birth rates, high (at time erratic) death rates, low growth rates </li></ul><ul><li>stage for much of...
Stage 2 <ul><li>high birth rates, declining death rates, rising growth rates </li></ul><ul><li>improvements in sanitation ...
Stage 3 <ul><li>continued decline of death rates, declining birth rates, growth rates decline from high to lower levels </...
Stage 4 & 5 <ul><li>Stage 4: low birth rates, low death rates, low growth rates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>United States today ...
Population Pyramid with young cohorts
Population Pyramids and Demographic Stages <ul><li>characteristics shapes of ‘pyramids’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wide base (t...
Population Pyramid and Demographic Transition <ul><li>Stage 2: wide base </li></ul>
Population Pyramid and Demographic Transition <ul><li>stage 3: wide middle </li></ul>
Population Pyramid and Demographic Transition <ul><li>stage 4: slender </li></ul>
Population Pyramid and Demographic Transition <ul><li>stage 5: narrow base </li></ul>
Population Dependency in LEDCs & MEDCs <ul><li>Population dependency is a ratio comparing the number of working age (16-6...
Dependency Ratio = no. of children(0-15) + old people(65+)x100 no. of people of working age (16-64) <ul><li>Exampl...
 
use: International Data Base http:// www.census.gov/ipc/www/idbnew.html , then Online Demographic Aggregation
Frequency of Vital Events: The Population Clock <ul><li>Population Clock </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.census.gov/main/www...
Population Pyramids <ul><li>Population Pyramids on the Web </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idbpyr.html </l...
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Pop. Dynamics

Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Pop. Dynamics

  • 1. World Population Dynamics
  • 2. Population Distribution <ul><li>Population distribution is where people live, this can be on a global, regional or local scale. </li></ul><ul><li>Places with lots of people usually have habitable environments they either: </li></ul><ul><li>wealthy and industrial e.g. Europe, Japan etc. </li></ul><ul><li>poor with rapidly growing populations e.g. India, Ethiopia </li></ul><ul><li>Places with few people are usually hostile environments, e.g. Antarctica, Sahara Deserts, Alaska etc. </li></ul>
  • 4. Areas of Large Population <ul><li>River Valleys. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Ganges valley in India, Rhine valley in Germany, Indus Valley in Pakistan. </li></ul><ul><li>Lowlands Plains. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Denmark (very low lying and famous for dairy farms), East Anglia in the UK (good location for growing cereals) </li></ul><ul><li>Area rich in natural resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal Plains. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. New York in the U.S.A. </li></ul>
  • 5. The Population Explosion
  • 6. Population Explosion a recent event <ul><li>Last 200 years or less for MDCs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvement in sanitation and medicine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Last 50 years or less for LDCs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer of technology, i.e. medical, agricultural (Green Revolution) </li></ul></ul>
  • 7. Components Influencing Pop. Growth <ul><li>The Pop. of a country changes because of the relationship between: </li></ul><ul><li>the birth rate — number of live births per </li></ul><ul><li>1000 of the population per year. </li></ul><ul><li>the death rate — number of deaths per 1000 </li></ul><ul><li>of the population per year. </li></ul><ul><li>migration — number of people moving into </li></ul><ul><li>or out of a country. </li></ul>
  • 8. Rates of Global Pop. Change <ul><li>CBR (crude birth rate) = number of births per 1000 population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1990: 24 Today: 21.3 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CDR (crude death rate) = number of deaths per 1000 population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1990: 9 Today: 8.93 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>growth rate = birth rate - death rate (often in %) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1990: 1.5% Today: 1.3% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>growth rates have come down </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. Special Kinds of Fertility and Mortality Rates <ul><li>TFR (total fertility rate) = </li></ul><ul><ul><li>number of children born to a woman during her reproductive years (or life time) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1990: 3.1 2000: 2.8 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IMR (infant mortality rate) = </li></ul><ul><ul><li>infant deaths per 1000 live births (infant < 1 yr) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1990: 62 2000: 56 (1900: 200) </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Pop. Growth and Resources <ul><li>The relationship b/w the population grwoth and the resources can be understand by the following three key concepts: </li></ul><ul><li>Overpopulation — when pop. is more than the available resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Under population — when pop. is less than the available resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Optimum population — when population is a/c to the available resources. </li></ul>
  • 11. Factors Affecting Pop. Growth <ul><li>2. Leading to a high </li></ul><ul><li>death rate </li></ul><ul><li>Health Care </li></ul><ul><li>Infant mortality rate </li></ul><ul><li>Better hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>Life expectancy </li></ul><ul><li>HIV/AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>1. Leading to a high birth </li></ul><ul><li>rate </li></ul><ul><li>Health Care </li></ul><ul><li>Preference for sons </li></ul><ul><li>Early marriages </li></ul><ul><li>Need for human labor </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of information on family planning </li></ul>
  • 12. <ul><li>3. Migration </li></ul>
  • 13. Percentage Population Change 1900-1990 5 7 10 11 16 23 27 25 33 33 Death rate 27 34 42 45 46 44 39 31 32 34 Birth rate                     MEXICO 7 7 7 8 9 10 11 13 13 16 Death rate 14 15 17 27 27 22 24 29 34 27 Birth rate                     CANADA 9 9 9 10 10 11 11 13 15 17 Death rate 15 16 16 23 25 20 22 27 30 33 Birth rate                     USA 1990 1980 1970 1960 1950 1940 1930 1920 1910 1900 COUNTRIES
  • 14. Consequences of Pop. Growth Benefits Problems
  • 15. <ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><li>Competition for jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Competition for housing </li></ul><ul><li>Educational opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Shortage of food supply </li></ul><ul><li>Sanitation and sewage </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Health care </li></ul><ul><li>Controls: </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives and penalties </li></ul><ul><li>Family planning </li></ul>
  • 16. Population, population change, growth rates <ul><li>Population: number of persons </li></ul><ul><li>Population change: increase in the number of persons (per year) </li></ul><ul><li>Growth rates: rate of change (per year) </li></ul>
  • 20. Doubling Time <ul><li>Number of years in which a population reaches twice its size </li></ul><ul><li>doubling time can be approximated using growth rates </li></ul><ul><li>doubling time = 69 : growth rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rate: 1.4 doubling time: 49 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rate: 2.0 doubling time: 34.5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rate: 0.5 doubling time: 138 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rate: -0.5 doubling time: ???? </li></ul></ul>
  • 21. Population Pyramids <ul><li>Graphic device: bar graph </li></ul><ul><li>shows the age and gender composition of a region </li></ul><ul><li>horizontal axis: gender </li></ul><ul><ul><li>male: left-hand female: right-hand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>absolute number of people or % </li></ul></ul><ul><li>vertical axis: age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5-year or 10-year age groups </li></ul></ul>
  • 22. The Demographic Transition
  • 23. Five Stages of the Demographic Transition <ul><li>birth rates, death rates and growth rates systematically change through time as societies change: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>modernize, urbanize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gain access to technology </li></ul></ul>
  • 24. Stage 1 <ul><li>high birth rates, high (at time erratic) death rates, low growth rates </li></ul><ul><li>stage for much of human history, traditional societies </li></ul><ul><li>practically no country today </li></ul>
  • 25. Stage 2 <ul><li>high birth rates, declining death rates, rising growth rates </li></ul><ul><li>improvements in sanitation (water) and medicine </li></ul><ul><li>in Europe during Industrial Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>in developing countries since the 50s/60s </li></ul><ul><li>much of Africa today, some countries of Asia (Afghanistan, Nepal, etc.) </li></ul>
  • 26. Stage 3 <ul><li>continued decline of death rates, declining birth rates, growth rates decline from high to lower levels </li></ul><ul><li>change in behavior: adaptation to lower death rate, in particular infant mortality rate </li></ul><ul><li>economic change: urbanization (incentive to have fewer children) </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Mexico, China </li></ul>
  • 27. Stage 4 & 5 <ul><li>Stage 4: low birth rates, low death rates, low growth rates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>United States today </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage 5: low birth rates, rising death rates, declining growth rates (if birth rates drop below death rates: negative growth rates) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Western Europe, Japan </li></ul></ul>
  • 28. Population Pyramid with young cohorts
  • 29. Population Pyramids and Demographic Stages <ul><li>characteristics shapes of ‘pyramids’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wide base (true pyramid) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wide middle (bulge), somewhat wider base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>urn- or bottle-shaped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reversed pyramid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>different shapes--different dynamics </li></ul>
  • 30. Population Pyramid and Demographic Transition <ul><li>Stage 2: wide base </li></ul>
  • 31. Population Pyramid and Demographic Transition <ul><li>stage 3: wide middle </li></ul>
  • 32. Population Pyramid and Demographic Transition <ul><li>stage 4: slender </li></ul>
  • 33. Population Pyramid and Demographic Transition <ul><li>stage 5: narrow base </li></ul>
  • 34. Population Dependency in LEDCs & MEDCs <ul><li>Population dependency is a ratio comparing the number of working age (16-64)* with the number of dependents (0-15 and over 65)*. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s normally written as a single number which is the number of dependents for every one hundred people of working age. </li></ul><ul><li>* The range of these age group can be vary. </li></ul>
  • 35. Dependency Ratio = no. of children(0-15) + old people(65+)x100 no. of people of working age (16-64) <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>The dependency ratio for the UK (1995) </li></ul><ul><li>in millions == 11,360 + 9,029 x100 == 53.84 </li></ul><ul><li>37,867 </li></ul><ul><li>This means that for every 100 economically active </li></ul><ul><li>people , there are nearly 54 people are dependent. </li></ul><ul><li>Note that: D.R.  50-60  MEDCs </li></ul><ul><li>D.R.  60-100  LEDCs </li></ul>
  • 37. use: International Data Base http:// www.census.gov/ipc/www/idbnew.html , then Online Demographic Aggregation
  • 38. Frequency of Vital Events: The Population Clock <ul><li>Population Clock </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html </li></ul><ul><li>Vital Events (per time unit) </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.census.gov/cgi-bin/ipc/pcwe </li></ul><ul><li>The global population reached 6 billion in fall of 1999 </li></ul>
  • 39. Population Pyramids <ul><li>Population Pyramids on the Web </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idbpyr.html </li></ul>