POLYNEMIDS FISHERIES OF INDIABy Shravan Kumar SharmaFRM MA 02 07CIFE, Mumbai
TAXONOMIC POSITIONKingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ChordataClass: Actinopterygii (ray finned fishes)Order: PerciformesFamily:Polyn...
Etheronema tertradactylum(Indian salmon)Marathi name - RawasPolynemus indicusMarathi name - Dara
 popularly known as threadfins partly pelagic and partly demersal fishes (kagwade.P.V.) Found in tropical to subtropica...
 These species do not form shoals, for which reason they are not ingreat abundance. (kagwade.P.V.) The Bombay and Sauras...
There are 9 speceis are recorded grom the coastal waters of India1. Eleutheronema tetradactylum {sunderban on east (Bhimac...
Family characters – presence of free filamentous rays on thelower side of the pectoral fins which are varying in numbersan...
 Dwarka is the richest of all regions for ‘Dara’. In past, about 90 to 99 % of Dara from here. Thenafter it changes to ...
Eleutheronema tetradactylumFood and feeding : Carnivorous, predaceous, voracious, cannibalisticYoung – filter feeders – Co...
AGE & GROWTHP. indicusKagwade – Length frequency data and scales34.5, 54.5, 74.5, 84.5, 94.5, 104.5 cm fork length 1 – VIy...
P. heptadactylus : 83, 128, 158, 188, 213, 237,255, 273 mm I – VIII yearsLength weight relationship :W = 0.00001089 L3.083...
REPRODUCTIONHermaphroditism – common in polynemids.Spawning: Continuous - all round the year.Presence of immature - mature...
Adults - deeper waters - move to shallower region &breed - Navi Mumbai, Dahanu/Satpati 5.6 to 6.0 cmrecorded. Species in r...
Embryonic DevelopmentPlanktonic egg 1.3 mm diameter. Oil glob. 6.5mm.Hatched after 4½ hrs. scales at larval length24.8 mm....
P. indicus:Trawl landings Dwarka & Kutch small sizedspecimens ‘ dol’ & Waghra – largeMature species – indicating shoreward...
Craft & Gearcommonly – seine nets, gill nets, long lines, handlines,In NW coast – stake nets (dol nets), set long lines(kh...
CATCH DATA Demersal In 2011 – 943 tonnes (CMFRI, 2011-12)
REFERENCES CITED1. Kagwade. P.V. Polynemid fishery of India. Central MarineFisheries Research Institute, Mandapam camp.2. ...
Polynemid &polynemid reources
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Polynemid &polynemid reources

Published on: Mar 4, 2016
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Transcripts - Polynemid &polynemid reources

  • 1. POLYNEMIDS FISHERIES OF INDIABy Shravan Kumar SharmaFRM MA 02 07CIFE, Mumbai
  • 2. TAXONOMIC POSITIONKingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ChordataClass: Actinopterygii (ray finned fishes)Order: PerciformesFamily:Polynemidae
  • 3. Etheronema tertradactylum(Indian salmon)Marathi name - RawasPolynemus indicusMarathi name - Dara
  • 4.  popularly known as threadfins partly pelagic and partly demersal fishes (kagwade.P.V.) Found in tropical to subtropical waters contains nine genera and 33 species. Smallest - 20 centimeters - black-finned threadfin (Polydactylusnigripinnis) Largest - 200 centimeters (79 inches) four finger threadfins(Eleutheronema tetradactylum) and giant Africanthreadfins(Polydactylus quadrifilis)
  • 5.  These species do not form shoals, for which reason they are not ingreat abundance. (kagwade.P.V.) The Bombay and Saurashtra waters are the richest, contributing toabout 80 % of the Polynemids landings of this country E. tetradactylum & Polynemus indicus - Highly esteemed table fish. Restricted abundance – mostly on N.W. coast Migratory species : Sea – river mouths & estuaries. Occur upto 70 – 90 m depth. Polynemids are spread over the tropical waters of Atlantic, Indianand Pacific oceans and are not so far known to occur in the Red Sea.
  • 6. There are 9 speceis are recorded grom the coastal waters of India1. Eleutheronema tetradactylum {sunderban on east (Bhimachar, 1959) andBombay and Saurashtra on the west coast (Anon, 1941)}2. Polynemus blebeius {sea and brackish water part of N-W coast of India}3. P. sexifilis (from East coast of India)4. P. sextarius (both on east and west coast but predominant in Madras)5. P. xanthonemus (Day has stated the distribution to be in the seas from India toChina, but he couldnt obtain this species from Indian waters)6. P. heptadactylum (Bombay and Saurashtra coast)7. P. paradeseus (Bengal and Central andhra)8. P.microstoma (off mandipam in the Gulf of Mannar)9. P. indicus (both on east and west coast, dominant at Bomabay and Saurashtracoast)
  • 7. Family characters – presence of free filamentous rays on thelower side of the pectoral fins which are varying in numbersand used as feelers. The number and nature of thesefilamentous rays assists the classification of species.Based on latitudes and longitudes, this vast stretch of thecontinental shelf from Mumbai to kutch has been charted in to6 majors regions of Mumbai, Cambay, Veraval, Porbundar,Dwarka and Kutch from south to north in order.
  • 8.  Dwarka is the richest of all regions for ‘Dara’. In past, about 90 to 99 % of Dara from here. Thenafter it changes to kutch, but catch rates andpercentage catches is good at Dwarka than Kutch. Best catch of Dara – Nov to Dec, it prefers waters below45 meters deep and temperature below 24 C. Fishery is also influenced by the lunar phases, thecatches being better in the neat tide periods.
  • 9. Eleutheronema tetradactylumFood and feeding : Carnivorous, predaceous, voracious, cannibalisticYoung – filter feeders – Copepods, Naupli, AmphipodsPlanktonic forms in slightly grown ups – mysids, small prawns, postlarvae of fishAdults – Polychaetes, decapods, stomatopods & fish.P. indicus – Juvenile – crustaceans.Adult – Carnivorous, piscivorousMohammed (1955), Karekar & Bal (1958)Crustaceans – penaeid and non-penaeid prawns, crabsFish –Sciaenids, Sepia, LoligoMalhotra observation E. tetradactylus – different feeding prefer atdifferent lengthsUpto 7.30 cm - copepods & mysids30 – 60 cm - post larve & larvae of crustaceans & fish.>60 cm - crustaceans and fish in sea and polychaetes –estuaries.
  • 10. AGE & GROWTHP. indicusKagwade – Length frequency data and scales34.5, 54.5, 74.5, 84.5, 94.5, 104.5 cm fork length 1 – VIyears of its life.Largest record – 142 cm (Mohammed, 1955)3-4 years class occurs in Dwarka.Age 4 & above are found in Mumbai.Length growth parameters – L = 135.2, K = 0.23,to = -0.30 years.Fish is immature till 3 years.Mature 1st time when 4 year old
  • 11. P. heptadactylus : 83, 128, 158, 188, 213, 237,255, 273 mm I – VIII yearsLength weight relationship :W = 0.00001089 L3.0832W = 0.00001147 L3.0745Attains first maturity at 3rd year.
  • 12. REPRODUCTIONHermaphroditism – common in polynemids.Spawning: Continuous - all round the year.Presence of immature - mature - spent in all the monthsindicate the same. Juvenile and post larvae also occur inall months suggesting continuous spawning.P. indicus according to Nayak (1959a) April to June andOctober to December two peaks.Grounds : Coastal waters appear to be the spawningground. Juveniles 9 mm - abundant in nursery groundDwarka.
  • 13. Adults - deeper waters - move to shallower region &breed - Navi Mumbai, Dahanu/Satpati 5.6 to 6.0 cmrecorded. Species in roe not recorded.Overall - breeding - inshore areas.Sex Ratio: As hermaphrodite P. indicus are recorded -sex ratio is complicated Mohamed (1955) & Nayak(1959a) Cambay - mostly females.Mohammed (1955) _ satpati - majority males. Maturityfemales. - Night catches. January to February -Deshpande (1962). Thus segregation of sexes appear tobe common.
  • 14. Embryonic DevelopmentPlanktonic egg 1.3 mm diameter. Oil glob. 6.5mm.Hatched after 4½ hrs. scales at larval length24.8 mm. They feed on copepods, eggs ofcopepods & later on Peneus (Kuthalingam)
  • 15. P. indicus:Trawl landings Dwarka & Kutch small sizedspecimens ‘ dol’ & Waghra – largeMature species – indicating shorewardmigration of the species. November – May peak.Mature specimens in Feb. – MarchP. heptadactylus :No well defined season October – January thelandings appear to be more Adults from trawl ,Juvenile – ‘dol’ nets.
  • 16. Craft & Gearcommonly – seine nets, gill nets, long lines, handlines,In NW coast – stake nets (dol nets), set long lines(khanda), bottom drift gill nets Except “Waghra”there is no exclusive net used for Polynemids –Gujarat & MaharashtraBottom set gill net – shallower watersTrawl & ‘dol’ also brings good catches ofpolynemids.
  • 17. CATCH DATA Demersal In 2011 – 943 tonnes (CMFRI, 2011-12)
  • 18. REFERENCES CITED1. Kagwade. P.V. Polynemid fishery of India. Central MarineFisheries Research Institute, Mandapam camp.2. Jingaran , V.G; Riverine fisheries of India (revised & enlargedthird edition).3. ICAR; Riverine fisheries. In handbook of fisheries &aquaculture. pp: 90 - 1054. CMFRI Annual report 2011-12