Nanotechnology: Hip or Hype?
Presented by: Alya Elhawary and Ashley Pietz
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - Nanotechnology: Hip or Hype?
Hip or Hype?
History of Nanotechnology
Introduction to Graphene and CNTs
What is Nanotechnoloy
Nanotechnology is science, engineering
and technology conducted at the
nanoscale. This includes the manipulation
of matter on an atomic and molecular
History – Pre-modern
4th Century: The Lycurgus Cup (Rome)
is an example of dichroic glass;
colloidal gold and silver in the glass
allow it to look opaque green when lit
from outside but translucent red when
light shines through the inside.
13th-18th Centuries: “Damascus” saber
blades contained carbon nanotubes
and cementite nanowires—an
ultrahigh-carbon steel formulation that
gave them strength, resilience, the
ability to hold a keen edge, and a
visible moiré pattern in the steel that
give the blades their name.
History - Modern Era
1857: Michael Faraday discovered colloidal “ruby” gold,
demonstrating that nanostructured gold under certain
lighting conditions produces different-colored solutions.
1959: Richard Feynman of the California Institute of
Technology gave what is considered to be the first lecture
on technology and engineering at the atomic scale,
"There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom" at an American
Physical Society meeting at Caltech.
1981: Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer at IBM’s Zurich lab
invented the scanning tunneling microscope.
1985: Rice University researchers Harold Kroto, Sean
O’Brien, Robert Curl, and Richard Smalley discovered the
Buckminsterfullerene (C60), more commonly known as the
buckyball, which is a molecule resembling a soccerball in
shape and composed entirely of carbon, as are graphite
1991: Sumio Iijima of NEC is credited with discovering the
carbon nanotube (CNT). CNTs, like buckyballs, are entirely
composed of carbon, but in a tubular shape. They exhibit
extraordinary properties in terms of strength, electrical and
thermal conductivity, among others.
1999: Chad Mirkin at Northwestern University invented dip-
pen nanolithography® (DPN®), leading to manufacturable,
reproducible “writing” of electronic circuits as well as
patterning of biomaterials for cell biology research,
nanoencryption, and other applications.
History - New Millennium
1999–early 2000’s: Consumer products making use of
nanotechnology began appearing in the marketplace.
2003: Congress enacted the 21st Century Nanotechnology
Research and Development Act (P.L. 108-153). The act
provided a statutory foundation for the NNI (National
Nanotechnology Initiative), established programs, assigned
agency responsibilities, authorized funding levels, and
promoted research to address key issues.
2009–2010: Nadrian Seeman and colleagues at New York
University created DNA-like robotic nanoscale assembly
Process for creating 3D DNA structures using synthetic sequences
of DNA crystals that can be programmed to self-assemble using
“sticky ends” and placement in a set order and orientation.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are
allotropes of carbon with a
•Organic polymers, paints,
• Energy storage
•Tuning in of Diameter, Length
•Tuning in of purity ~ 60% other carbon forms
•Methods such as filtration reduce Young’s
Modulus – becomes similar to bulk material
•Properties being both pliable and brittle
•Shrinks with increasing T
•Melting point and order of phase transition
•High film resistivity of several hundred Ohms for
80% transparency (solar cell applications)
Graphene is a one-atom thick layer of
mineral graphite, arranged in a
regular hexagonal pattern.
Material Thermodynamics Physics Chemistry Manufacturing
Steel Well Known
Well Known and
Well Understood and
Studied for decade
Theoretical Unknown Unknown
Theoretical Unknown Unknown
Source: Zhao, Qian Qiu, Arthur Boxman, and Uma Chowdhry. "Nanotechnology in the Chemical industry–opportunities and
Challenges." Journal of Nanoparticle Research 5.5-6 (2003): 567-72. Web.
“All things are poison and not without poison; only the dose
makes a thing not a poison” –Paracelsus (1493-1541)
Source: Maynard, Andrew D. "Nanotechnology: Assessing the Risks." Nano Today 1.2 (2006): 22-33. Web.
Where Is Nanotechnology
Source: Mazzola, Laura. "Commercializing Nanotechnology." Nature biotechnology 21.10 (2003): 1137-43. Web.
Over 80% of Americans know little or nothing of
Will public view it like Nuclear Power, GMOs, or
So far, public seem in favor of nanotechnology
but may change with further integration to
Source: Macoubrie, Jane. "Public Perceptions about Nanotechnology: Risks, Benefits and Trust." Journal of
Nanoparticle Research 6.4 (2004): 395-405. Web
Future – Hip or Hype?
Center for Responsible Nanotechnology
National Nanotechnology Initiative
1. Ajayan, Pulickel M., and Otto Z. Zhou. "Applications of Carbon
Nanotubes." Carbon Nanotubes.Springer, 2001. 391-425. Web.
2. Baughman, Ray H., Anvar A. Zakhidov, and Walt A. de Heer. "Carbon
Nanotubes--the Route Toward Applications." Science 297.5582 (2002):
3. Geim, Andre Konstantin. "Graphene: Status and Prospects." Science
324.5934 (2009): 1530-4. Web.
4. Macoubrie, Jane. "Public Perceptions about Nanotechnology: Risks,
Benefits and Trust." Journal of Nanoparticle Research 6.4 (2004): 395-405.
5. Maynard, Andrew D. "Nanotechnology: Assessing the Risks." Nano Today
1.2 (2006): 22-33. Web.
6. Mazzola, Laura. "Commercializing Nanotechnology." Nature
biotechnology 21.10 (2003): 1137-43. Web.
7. Sun, Ya-Ping, et al. "Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes: Properties and
Applications." Accounts of Chemical Research 35.12 (2002): 1096-104.
8. Zhao, Qian Qiu, Arthur Boxman, and Uma Chowdhry. "Nanotechnology
in the Chemical industry–opportunities and Challenges." Journal of
Nanoparticle Research 5.5-6 (2003): 567-72. Web.
Steel Comparison in Numbers
Steel 200 43 6.99 x 10^6 7.85 $0.03
Major component in
5000 W/mK –
LCDs, Clean Energy
0.01 to 0.1