DAVID MORLEY
David Morley was a media researcher who specialised in audience theory,
which is an element of thinking that...
NATIONWIDE
Nationwide was a BBC News and current affairs television programme which ran
from 9 September 1969 to 5 August ...
THE NATIONWIDE PROJECT
Morley conducted The Nationwide Project in the late 1970s and early 1980s, alongside
Charlotte Brun...
BBC SURVEY OF NATIONWIDE AUDIENCE IN 1974
THE THREE CATEGORIES
Morley outlined three hypothetical positions (adapted from Frank Parkin) which
the reader of a progra...
HIS CONCLUSION
The initial conclusion was that decodings cannot be traced solely to socioeconomic
position, since members ...
AUDIENCE COMPOSITION
Social Status Classifications
The social status of a target audience for a magazine has an impact of ...
GLOSSARY
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Quantitate – Including surveys and customer
questionnaires — can help small firms to
improve their pro...
Nationwide project – David Morley
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Nationwide project – David Morley

Published on: Mar 3, 2016
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Transcripts - Nationwide project – David Morley

  • 1. DAVID MORLEY David Morley was a media researcher who specialised in audience theory, which is an element of thinking that developed within academic literary theory and cultural studies. His research has addressed questions in relation to media consumption and the effect that it has on viewers. He worked for the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies(CCCS) – a research centre in the University of Birmingham, primarily in the 1970s.
  • 2. NATIONWIDE Nationwide was a BBC News and current affairs television programme which ran from 9 September 1969 to 5 August 1983. It was broadcast on BBC One each weekday following the early evening news. It followed a magazine format, combining political analysis and discussion with consumer affairs, light entertainment and sports reporting. It began on 9 September 1969, running between Tuesdays and Thursdays at 6.00pm, before being extended to five days a week in 1972. From 1976 until 1981 the start time was 5:55pm. The final edition was broadcast on 5 August 1983, and the following October it was replaced by Sixty Minutes.
  • 3. THE NATIONWIDE PROJECT Morley conducted The Nationwide Project in the late 1970s and early 1980s, alongside Charlotte Brunsdon, which focused on media audiences. He undertook a frequent amount of research with various participants from various educational and occupational backgrounds. The Media Group at the CCCS selected the BBC television current affairs programme Nationwide to study the encoding/decoding model, a part of reception theory, developed by Stuart Hall. This study was concerned with "the programme's distinctive ideological themes and with the particular ways in which Nationwide addressed the viewer". This first part of the study was published by Brunsdon and Morley in 1978. Morley conducted qualitative research with various participants from different educational and occupational backgrounds. He observed different responses to a clip of its budget special to see whether they would construct dominant, oppositional or negotiated readings (the three categories of readings proposed by Hall).
  • 4. BBC SURVEY OF NATIONWIDE AUDIENCE IN 1974
  • 5. THE THREE CATEGORIES Morley outlined three hypothetical positions (adapted from Frank Parkin) which the reader of a programme might occupy. • Dominant (or 'hegemonic') reading: The reader shares the programme's 'code' (its meaning system of values, attitudes, beliefs and assumptions) and fully accepts the programme's 'preferred reading' (a reading which may not have been the result of any conscious intention on the part of the programme makers). • Negotiated reading: The reader partly shares the programme's code and broadly accepts the preferred reading, but modifies it in a way which reflects their position and interests. • Oppositional ('counter-hegemonic') reading: The reader does not share the programme's code and rejects the preferred reading, bringing to bear an alternative frame of interpretation.
  • 6. HIS CONCLUSION The initial conclusion was that decodings cannot be traced solely to socioeconomic position, since members of the sample occupying the same class location produced different readings. However, Sujeong Kim's statistical re-analysis of the project's findings suggests that this may be an underinterpretation: according to Kim, the results show that 'audience's social positions ... structure their understandings and evaluations of television programmes in quite consistent directions and patterns.' For example, Kim observes that middle class viewers produced negotiated readings of one particular programme, while working class viewers produced dominant or oppositional readings dependent on their gender and race.
  • 7. AUDIENCE COMPOSITION Social Status Classifications The social status of a target audience for a magazine has an impact of the content it offers. Magazines will normally target audiences from more than one of these categories. E.g. ABC or C1&2D A higher managerial and professional B middle managerial and professional C1 supervisory, junior management and professional C2 skilled manual worker D semi-skilled and unskilled manual workers E pensioners, lower grade workers and the unemployed. An example of how to use this in a sentence: ―The target audience for Cosmopolitan Magazine fall into the ABC1 social demographic.‖
  • 8. GLOSSARY • • • • Quantitate – Including surveys and customer questionnaires — can help small firms to improve their products and services by enabling them to make informed decisions • Qualitative – is a method of inquiry employed in many different academic disciplines, traditionally in the social sciences Dominant reading – is the reading that seems to be, for the majority of people in society, the natural or normal way to interpret a text. • Deductive – characterized by or based on the inference of particular instances from a general law. Negotiated reading – The process of give and take by which members of the audience interpret, deconstruct and find meaning within a media text. • Reactive – is the subject of the study (e.g. survey respondent) is affected either by the instruments of the study or the individuals conducting the study in a way that changes whatever is being measured. • Socio/economic group – Social class, as in a class society, is a set of concepts in the social sciences and political theory centred on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle, and lower classes. • Demographic – Measurable characteristics of media consumers such as age, gender, race, education and income level. • Polysomic – the ambiguity of an individual word or phrase that can be used (in different contexts) to express two or more different meanings. • Active audience – audience members who already are interested in an organization, issue, or cause. Instead of waiting to receive information on it, they seek it out from many sources and when doing so, they speak as well as listen. Oppositional reading – A reading of a media text that rejects the ideological positioning and apparent meaning intended by the producers of the text and substitutes a radical alternative.

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