Applying Narrative theories
to music video
Lesson Objectives
To consolidate your knowledge of
conventional narrative theories.
To gain knowledge and
understand...
Definitions of Narrative
 Narrative is ‘a way of organising spatial and
temporal events into a cause-effect chain of
e...
Narrative Theory
 Narrative theory analyses the way in which media
texts communicate meaning about events.
 Subjective
character identity
– a range of
characters’ stories
or view points are
shown
 Objective
character ide...
Approaches to studying
narrative
 Claude Levi-Strauss = Binary Oppositions
 Vladimir Propp = Stock character types
...
Todorov’s approach to narrative
7
 Todorov suggests that all narratives begin with
equilibrium or an initial situation...
8
Propp’s approach to narrative
Propp believed that there are seven roles which any character may
assume in the story: ...
Claude Levi-Strauss’s approach
to narrative 9
 He observed that all narratives are organised
around the conflict betwe...
Examples of binary opposites
10
 Good vs evil
 Black vs white
 Boy vs girl
 Peace vs war
 Civilised vs savage
...
Starter Activity: Narrative
Analysis
 In pairs apply the narrative theory you have
been given to the Taylor Swift musi...
Applying Todorov Theory
 Equilibrium – the geeky girl is in
love with the boy next door who
only sees her as a friend....
Propp – character types
 Hero – character who seeks something – Taylor
Swift
 Villain – character who the hero must o...
Levi-strauss – binary oppositions
 The video involves a number of pairs of opposites
reflecting (and resolving) the nar...
Levi-Strauss
 What are the key conflicts?
 How are the conflicts resolved?
 What messages are conveyed through this ...
Jock Nerd
 Male
 Sociable
 Popular
 Sport
 Object
 Female
 Studious
 Unpopular
 Reading
 Subject
Roland Barthes
 Barthes identifies narrative codes which readers
use to decode (understand) texts.
 He emphasises the...
Narrative theory
Roland Barthes' narrative theory claims that a narrative can be broken down
into codes or sets of rules...
Enigma code
Refers to any element in a story
that raises questions and
demands an explanation.
Semantic code
Any elem...
Barthes – Narrative Codes
(Taylor Swift Video)
 Action – Viewers are expected to connect different
pieces of narrative...
Postmodern Narratives
 Some theorists suggest that postmodern narratives are
different from previous narrative structur...
Postmodern approach -
Pastiche
 Frederic Jameson states that postmodern texts are
simply characterised by pastiche.
...
 Linda Hutcheon develops this view and argues
that postmodern texts use pastiche in a
knowing way acknowledging the con...
Modular Narratives
Modular Narratives “articulate a sense of time as divisible and subject to
manipulation”.
Allan Came...
Analysing Narrative in Music
video
Use the worksheet provided to analyse one of
the
following music videos
 Jason De...
of 25

Narrative observation lesson new

Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Narrative observation lesson new

  • 1. Applying Narrative theories to music video
  • 2. Lesson Objectives To consolidate your knowledge of conventional narrative theories. To gain knowledge and understanding of postmodern narrative theories  To apply narrative theories to the analysis of a music video.
  • 3. Definitions of Narrative  Narrative is ‘a way of organising spatial and temporal events into a cause-effect chain of events with a beginning, a middle, and end that embodies a judgement about the nature of events’ (Branigan).
  • 4. Narrative Theory  Narrative theory analyses the way in which media texts communicate meaning about events.
  • 5.  Subjective character identity – a range of characters’ stories or view points are shown  Objective character identity – one character’s story or viewpoint is shown
  • 6. Approaches to studying narrative  Claude Levi-Strauss = Binary Oppositions  Vladimir Propp = Stock character types  Tzvetan Todorov =5 conventional stages of narrative
  • 7. Todorov’s approach to narrative 7  Todorov suggests that all narratives begin with equilibrium or an initial situation (where everything is balanced).  This is followed by some form of disruption, which is later resolved.  With the resolution at the end of the narrative a new equilibrium is usually established.
  • 8. 8 Propp’s approach to narrative Propp believed that there are seven roles which any character may assume in the story:  Villain - struggles with hero  Donor - prepares and/or provides hero with magical agent  Helper - assists, rescues, solves and/or transfigures the hero  Princess - a sought-for person who exists as goal and often recognises and marries hero and/or punishes villain  Dispatcher - sends hero off  Hero - departs on a search (seeker-hero), reacts to donor and weds at end  False Hero - claims to be the hero, often seeking and reacting like a real hero
  • 9. Claude Levi-Strauss’s approach to narrative 9  He observed that all narratives are organised around the conflict between binary opposites.
  • 10. Examples of binary opposites 10  Good vs evil  Black vs white  Boy vs girl  Peace vs war  Civilised vs savage  Democracy vs dictatorship  Conqueror vs conquered  First world vs third world  Domestic vs foreign/alien  Articulate vs inarticulate Young vs old  Protagonist vs antagonist  Action vs inaction  Motivator vs observer  Empowered vs victim  Man vs woman  Good-looking vs ugly  Strong vs weak  Decisive vs indecisive  East vs west  Humanity vs technology  Ignorance vs wisdom
  • 11. Starter Activity: Narrative Analysis  In pairs apply the narrative theory you have been given to the Taylor Swift music video.  How useful was the approach?
  • 12. Applying Todorov Theory  Equilibrium – the geeky girl is in love with the boy next door who only sees her as a friend.  Disequilibrium – the boy’s girlfriend cheats on him?  Resolution – the geeky girl is transformed into a beautiful girl and gets together with the boy.  What sort of values are reinforced by this narrative structure?
  • 13. Propp – character types  Hero – character who seeks something – Taylor Swift  Villain – character who the hero must overcome – the girlfriend  Princess – the boy – he is the reward for the hero.  What effect does the use of these character types have?  Why might the hero and villain be female?  What values are reinforced by this?
  • 14. Levi-strauss – binary oppositions  The video involves a number of pairs of opposites reflecting (and resolving) the narrative conflicts.  There are different sets of oppositions between the jock/the geek, and the cheerleader/the geek.  These oppositions identify the central ideological messages of the video.
  • 15. Levi-Strauss  What are the key conflicts?  How are the conflicts resolved?  What messages are conveyed through this narrative?
  • 16. Jock Nerd  Male  Sociable  Popular  Sport  Object  Female  Studious  Unpopular  Reading  Subject
  • 17. Roland Barthes  Barthes identifies narrative codes which readers use to decode (understand) texts.  He emphasises the active role of audiences in creating meaning, and their ‘culturally formed expectations’.  The narrative codes are:  Action  Enigma  Semic  Cultural
  • 18. Narrative theory Roland Barthes' narrative theory claims that a narrative can be broken down into codes or sets of rules. These are: Action code Applies to any action that implies a further narrative action. Viewers are expected to connect different pieces of narrative. Cultural code Any element in a narrative that is dependant on audience prior knowledge.
  • 19. Enigma code Refers to any element in a story that raises questions and demands an explanation. Semantic code Any element in a text that suggests an additional meaning by connotations. For example a skull has connotations of death.
  • 20. Barthes – Narrative Codes (Taylor Swift Video)  Action – Viewers are expected to connect different pieces of narrative (e.g. The boy is shown arguing on his phone – viewer assumes it is with his girlfriend).  Enigma – Will the jock and the geek get together?  Semic – glasses, book, notepads, red car, uniforms, white dress/red dress  Cultural – the video draws on stereotypes/cliches of teen movies – jock, cheerleader, geek, girl next door, prom, etc.
  • 21. Postmodern Narratives  Some theorists suggest that postmodern narratives are different from previous narrative structures.  Characteristics of postmodern narratives include:  Intertextuality  Pastiche (parody)  Temporal distortion (fragmented narratives)  Hyperreality (representations that are exaggerated)
  • 22. Postmodern approach - Pastiche  Frederic Jameson states that postmodern texts are simply characterised by pastiche.  A pastiche is an imitation of another genre or text. Linda Hutcheon argues that postmodern narratives can critique contemporary society by calling attention to the constructed nature of the society.
  • 23.  Linda Hutcheon develops this view and argues that postmodern texts use pastiche in a knowing way acknowledging the constructed nature of representation.  Does the cliched nature of the Taylor Swift Video act as a critique of the values it promotes?
  • 24. Modular Narratives Modular Narratives “articulate a sense of time as divisible and subject to manipulation”. Allan Cameron has identified different types of modular narrative: • Anachronic • Forking Paths • Split Screens
  • 25. Analysing Narrative in Music video Use the worksheet provided to analyse one of the following music videos  Jason Derulo- What If  Britney Spears Everytime  Katy Perry- Last Friday Night  Joe Cole- Crooked Smile  Lana Del Ray – National Anthem  Avril Lavigne- Alice in Wonderland

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