NATURAL PESTICIDES
Dr.U.Srinivasa, M. Pharm., M.Phil., Ph.D.
Professor and Head, (Dept. of Pharmacognosy)
Srinivas coll...
PEST
• Pest is any animal , plant or micro –
organism that causes trouble , injuries
(Economic damage) or destruction t...
• The common pests includes
• insects, bacteria, fungi, rats (rodents)
and weeds.
• PESTICIDE-
• A pesticide is any toxic substance used to
kill animals or plants that causes
economic damage to crop or...
METHODS OF PEST CONTROL
• There are two methods available for the
control of pest.
• 1. Natural control
• 2. Artificia...
• NATURAL CONTROL
• Topographical influence of the seasons
changes, changing temperatures, rainfall,
soil, atmospheric ...
• ARTIFICIAL CONTROL
• Artificial control of pest have been
developed by man.
• These methods can be categorized as
Me...
•Mechanical control:
• By using manual labour as well as
mechanical devices for collection or
destruction of pest. like...
• Agriculture control:
• It is the oldest method.
• It includes deep ploughing for
eradication of weeds and early stage...
• Alternative crop rotation of changing
environmental conditions are some
methods which lead to obstruction of the
life...
• Chemical control:
• Chemical agents are used for killing pests
or for protecting crops, animals or other
properties a...
• Biological control:
• Biological control by using plant or
animal materials for controlling many
harmful pests
• Lik...
Classification of pesticides:
• Pesticides are classified according to the
pest they control
• Insecticides (Ants, moth...
Mechanism of action of pesticides
• Broad categories - As
• 1. Stomach poisons:
• Kill by being taken into stomach,
ab...
• 2. Contact insecticides:
• Kill by direct or indirect contact with the
insect or sometimes it penetrates inside
the b...
• 3. Fumigants:
• Can be applied only in enclosed areas
where it surrounds the insect, enters their
breathing pores and...
Advantages:
• 1. They are cheap (They are economical)
• 2.They are less harmful to the human
beings and more effective ...
• 4.They can be used to control the carriers
of vector borne diseases like malarial,
sleeping sickness and dengue fever.
• Dis- advantages:
• The onset of action is slow
• The quantity of pesticide required may
be more due to crude componen...
Natural Pesticides:
Pyrethrum Flower ,
Neem leaves and oil ,
Tobacco leaves,
Nuxvomica seed,
Sabadilla seeds,
Ryania...
Pyrethrum
• Synonyms:
• Natural pyrethrum, insect flowers
• Biological source:
• Pyrethrum consists of more or less fu...
Chemical constituents:
Active constituents are Pyrethrins, which are
organic esters, chemicals made up of carboxylic
ac...
I.P. Standards
• i) Pyrethrum should contain not more than
5% of naturally adhering stems.
• ii) Ash: Not more than 8% ...
Uses:
• 1.Used as insecticide
• 2.Contact poison,
• It paralyses in short time, used in the form of
wettable powder, e...
• Many a time,
• Pyrethrum extract is mixed with other
insecticides ( like DDT
• (Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane), ...
• Other varieties
• Chrysanthemum coccineum
• Chrysanthemum marschalli
Tobacco
• Synonyms : Tamaku (Hindi)
• Biological source:
• Tobacco consists of the dried leaves of
Nicotiana tobacum a...
Chemical constituents:
• It contains pyridine alkaloids. The main
constituent is Nicotine, Nicotyrine, Nicotimine,
Anab...
Uses:
• Sedative,
• Antispasmodic,
• Veterinary anthelmintic,
• Useful in smoking and agriculture insecticide
• Manuf...
Neem
• Synonyms:
• Hindi- Nim, Malayalam- Veppa
• Biological source:
• It consists of fresh leaves of the plant known ...
Chemical constituents:
• It contains bitter principle Nimbidin, complex
liminoid compound named azadirachtin,
meliantro...
Uses:
• The bark of neem tree is a good bitter tonic,
used in malarial fever, and in skin diseases,
used as an insect r...
DERRIS
• Biological source:
• It consists of dried root and rhizomes of
Derris elliptica and Derris malaccensis
• Fami...
• Chemical constituents:
• It contains isoflavonoid derivative Rotenone
• Tephrosin
• Toxicarol
• Degnelin
• Uses :
• 1. Contact poison
• 2.Used in the form of spray for killing
vegetable insects during harvesting time such
a...
SABADILLA
• Biological source:
• It consists of dried ripe seeds of
Schoenocaulon officinale
• Family : Liliaceae
• Chemical constituents:
• It contains
• Sabadine,
• Cevadine ( Veratrine),
• Eratridine,
• Sabadilline and
• Cavadi...
• Uses:
• It is an insecticide used to kill house flies and
bugs in the form of spray or dust.
RYANIA
• Biological source: It consists of dried root
and stems of Ryania speciosa
• Family : Flacourtiaceae
• Chemica...
NUXVOMICA
• Biological source:
• Nuxvomica consists of the dried, ripe seeds of
Strychnos nux-vomica
• Family : Logani...
• Active constituents:
• It contains about 1-5% of bitter alkaloids
( Indole alkaloids ).
• The chief constituents of a...
• Uses:
• Spinal cord stimulant.
• In cases of neurasthenia (excessive fatigue of
neurotic origin).
• As a circulatory...
of 42

Natural pesticides

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Published on: Mar 3, 2016
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Transcripts - Natural pesticides

  • 1. NATURAL PESTICIDES Dr.U.Srinivasa, M. Pharm., M.Phil., Ph.D. Professor and Head, (Dept. of Pharmacognosy) Srinivas college of pharmacy, Mangalore. Email. usreenivas1966@rediffmail.com
  • 2. PEST • Pest is any animal , plant or micro – organism that causes trouble , injuries (Economic damage) or destruction to plants or crops.
  • 3. • The common pests includes • insects, bacteria, fungi, rats (rodents) and weeds.
  • 4. • PESTICIDE- • A pesticide is any toxic substance used to kill animals or plants that causes economic damage to crop or ornamental plants.
  • 5. METHODS OF PEST CONTROL • There are two methods available for the control of pest. • 1. Natural control • 2. Artificial control
  • 6. • NATURAL CONTROL • Topographical influence of the seasons changes, changing temperatures, rainfall, soil, atmospheric humidity and other natural factors also shows their effect on insects and their hosts.
  • 7. • ARTIFICIAL CONTROL • Artificial control of pest have been developed by man. • These methods can be categorized as Mechanical, Agricultural, Chemical and Biological methods
  • 8. •Mechanical control: • By using manual labour as well as mechanical devices for collection or destruction of pest. like hand picking, burning, trapping are employed for the destruction of eggs, larvae and adult insects
  • 9. • Agriculture control: • It is the oldest method. • It includes deep ploughing for eradication of weeds and early stages of insects.
  • 10. • Alternative crop rotation of changing environmental conditions are some methods which lead to obstruction of the life cycle of pests.
  • 11. • Chemical control: • Chemical agents are used for killing pests or for protecting crops, animals or other properties against the attack of the pest. Like DDT,BHC,Alderin, Endrin
  • 12. • Biological control: • Biological control by using plant or animal materials for controlling many harmful pests • Like insect hormones( Ecdysone and Juvenile) • Insects are eaten by birds
  • 13. Classification of pesticides: • Pesticides are classified according to the pest they control • Insecticides (Ants, moths, cockroaches) • Herbicides (Weeds) • Fungicides (Control fungal diseases) • Rodenticides (Rats)
  • 14. Mechanism of action of pesticides • Broad categories - As • 1. Stomach poisons: • Kill by being taken into stomach, absorbed in the blood and leads to the death of the pest due to the toxic action.
  • 15. • 2. Contact insecticides: • Kill by direct or indirect contact with the insect or sometimes it penetrates inside the body and causes oxidation and suffocates the insect.
  • 16. • 3. Fumigants: • Can be applied only in enclosed areas where it surrounds the insect, enters their breathing pores and kills.
  • 17. Advantages: • 1. They are cheap (They are economical) • 2.They are less harmful to the human beings and more effective against pest • 3. They are more stable and can be kept for prolonged period (Degradation is less)
  • 18. • 4.They can be used to control the carriers of vector borne diseases like malarial, sleeping sickness and dengue fever.
  • 19. • Dis- advantages: • The onset of action is slow • The quantity of pesticide required may be more due to crude components
  • 20. Natural Pesticides: Pyrethrum Flower , Neem leaves and oil , Tobacco leaves, Nuxvomica seed, Sabadilla seeds, Ryania root and stem Derris root and rhizome
  • 21. Pyrethrum • Synonyms: • Natural pyrethrum, insect flowers • Biological source: • Pyrethrum consists of more or less fully expanded flower heads of Chrysanthenium cinerarifolium • Family: Compositae
  • 22. Chemical constituents: Active constituents are Pyrethrins, which are organic esters, chemicals made up of carboxylic acid and keto alcohols. The main constituents are Pyrethrin I and II. It also contains Cinerin I and II, Jasmoline I and II
  • 23. I.P. Standards • i) Pyrethrum should contain not more than 5% of naturally adhering stems. • ii) Ash: Not more than 8% • iii) Acid insoluble ash - Not more than 1%
  • 24. Uses: • 1.Used as insecticide • 2.Contact poison, • It paralyses in short time, used in the form of wettable powder, emulsion concentrate, kerosene solution (20% of Pyrethrins)
  • 25. • Many a time, • Pyrethrum extract is mixed with other insecticides ( like DDT • (Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane), Sulfoxides etc) which increase the action of pyrethrum.
  • 26. • Other varieties • Chrysanthemum coccineum • Chrysanthemum marschalli
  • 27. Tobacco • Synonyms : Tamaku (Hindi) • Biological source: • Tobacco consists of the dried leaves of Nicotiana tobacum and Nicotiana rustica • Family: Solanaceae
  • 28. Chemical constituents: • It contains pyridine alkaloids. The main constituent is Nicotine, Nicotyrine, Nicotimine, Anabasine, Anatabine • It also contains carbohydrates – Sucrose, starch, pectin, cellulose, lignins and pentoses
  • 29. Uses: • Sedative, • Antispasmodic, • Veterinary anthelmintic, • Useful in smoking and agriculture insecticide • Manufacture of nicotinic acid and nicotinamides
  • 30. Neem • Synonyms: • Hindi- Nim, Malayalam- Veppa • Biological source: • It consists of fresh leaves of the plant known as Azadirachta indica • Family: Meliaceae
  • 31. Chemical constituents: • It contains bitter principle Nimbidin, complex liminoid compound named azadirachtin, meliantrol and salanin etc.
  • 32. Uses: • The bark of neem tree is a good bitter tonic, used in malarial fever, and in skin diseases, used as an insect repellent. • Insecticide, nematicide and antimicrobial properties. Seed oil possesses spermicidal activity.
  • 33. DERRIS • Biological source: • It consists of dried root and rhizomes of Derris elliptica and Derris malaccensis • Family : Leguminosae
  • 34. • Chemical constituents: • It contains isoflavonoid derivative Rotenone • Tephrosin • Toxicarol • Degnelin
  • 35. • Uses : • 1. Contact poison • 2.Used in the form of spray for killing vegetable insects during harvesting time such as leaf hopper
  • 36. SABADILLA • Biological source: • It consists of dried ripe seeds of Schoenocaulon officinale • Family : Liliaceae
  • 37. • Chemical constituents: • It contains • Sabadine, • Cevadine ( Veratrine), • Eratridine, • Sabadilline and • Cavadine
  • 38. • Uses: • It is an insecticide used to kill house flies and bugs in the form of spray or dust.
  • 39. RYANIA • Biological source: It consists of dried root and stems of Ryania speciosa • Family : Flacourtiaceae • Chemical constituents: Alkaloid i.e Ryanodine • Uses: Insecticide
  • 40. NUXVOMICA • Biological source: • Nuxvomica consists of the dried, ripe seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica • Family : Loganiaceae • It contains not less than 1.2% of strychnine.
  • 41. • Active constituents: • It contains about 1-5% of bitter alkaloids ( Indole alkaloids ). • The chief constituents of alkaloids are Strychnine, Brucine, vomicine, pseudostrychinine, Glycoside – Monoterpene glycoside - Loganin, Fixed oil - 2 - 4 %
  • 42. • Uses: • Spinal cord stimulant. • In cases of neurasthenia (excessive fatigue of neurotic origin). • As a circulatory stimulant. • Nerve and sex tonic. • Bitter Stomachic (strengthening of stomach and promoting its action).