Political ideologies as shapers of
future tourism development
Craig Webster
Ball State University, USA
cwebster3@bsu.edu
S...
Content (1)
• Introduction
• Political ideologies
• Political ideologies and tourism
• Case Studies: Ideological Influence...
Content (2)
• Future developments in political ideologies and
their impact on tourism
Politicisation of tourism
Tourism ...
Introduction
• We aim to illustrate the political ideas translate into
typologies of responses to the challenges of touris...
Political ideologies (1)
5
Ideology Terminology
Schumaker et al.
(1997)
Sargent (1996) Macris (1986) Vincent (2009)
Conser...
Political ideologies (2)
6
Ideology Terminology
Schumaker et al.
(1997)
Sargent (1996) Macris (1986) Vincent (2009)
Fascis...
Political ideologies and tourism (1)
7
Ideology Role of the State Role of the
Individual
Priority of
Tourism in the
Societ...
Political ideologies and tourism (2)
8
Ideology Role of the State Role of the
Individual
Priority of
Tourism in the
Societ...
Case Studies:
Bulgaria
• Until 1989 – communist ideology > all tourist companies
were government owned. The tourism sector...
Case Studies:
Russia
• Nationalist ideology – ‘inclusive’ strategy – ruling
party named ‘United Russia’
• Massive campaign...
Case Studies:
North Korea
• Communist ideology
• State-organised and strictly controlled visits of
foreign tourists
• Tour...
Case Studies:
USA
• Liberal ideology > no official national DMO, many
DMOs on city/county/state level
• The Office of Trav...
Case Studies:
Cyprus
• Divided island – the Republic of Cyprus and ‘the
Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus’
• Nationalist...
Case Studies:
Scandinavia
• Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Denmark
• Social democracy > well-developed welfare stat...
Case Studies:
Japan
• The Liberal Democratic party of Japan has controlled the
government of Japan almost continuously sin...
Case Studies:
China
• Political ideology > communism
• Economic ideology > economic nationalism
• Great governmental contr...
Future developments
Politicisation of tourism (1)
• Tourism as a tool for achieving political and economic
goals > it is p...
Future developments
Politicisation of tourism (2)
• Political ideologies differ on the basis of:
a) who would be supported...
Future developments
Politicisation of tourism (3)
• Tourism as a tool to promote political ideas (North
Korea)
• Tourism a...
Future developments
Tourism wars (1)
• A natural consequence of the politicisation of tourism is the
tourism wars.
• Touri...
Future developments
Tourism wars (2)
• Stimulation of domestic tourism and recommendations by the
Russian officials to cit...
Future developments
Environmentalism (1)
• Environmentalism has permeated the agenda of political
parties, governments and...
Future developments
Environmentalism
• For the future: we expect much greater role of sustainability
thinking in governmen...
Future developments
Greater control on populations
• The political goal of achieving greater control on
populations might ...
Future developments
Thriving nationalism
• New nations find nationalism and domestic tourism as
tools for nation-building....
Conclusion
• There is a friction between liberal and nationalist
approaches to tourism management.
• Greater role of the m...
Manuscript references (1)
• Altinay, L. (2000), “Possible impacts of a federal solution to the Cyprus problem on the touri...
Manuscript references (2)
• Desforges, L. (2000), “State tourism institutions and neo-liberal development: a case study of...
Manuscript references (3)
• Ivanov, S., and Dimitrova, M. (2014), “Managing Tourism in Bulgaria: between ‘Mission Impossib...
Manuscript references (4)
• O’Neil, P. (2012), Essentials of Comparative Politics (4th ed.), W. W. Norton and Company, New...
Manuscript references (5)
• Vincent, A. (2009), Modern Political Ideologies (3rd ed.), Wiley Blackwell, Chichester.
• Vzgl...
THANK YOU FOR THE ATTENTION!
QUESTIONS?
(CRAIG ANSWERING VIA TELEPATHY!)
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Political ideologies as shapers of future tourism development

Purpose. The paper aims to identify the link between political ideology and the management of tourism in countries. We stipulate that the predominant political ideology in the country influences the nature and logic of state interventions in the tourism industry. Design/methodology/approach. The paper elaborates several case studies from various countries – Bulgaria, Cyprus, Scandinavia, Russia, USA, China, Japan, Indonesia, North Korea. Findings. Countries with predominant (neo)liberal ideology do not typically interfere in tourism regulation, while nationalism leads governments to stimulate inbound and domestic tourism. Communist ideological approaches tend to be burdensome, inhibiting growth while stressing the promotion of the socialist achievements of a country. Countries that are traditionally thought of as social democratic have been evolving in recent years to regulate tourism in ways that are more liberal in nature than social democratic. Practical implications. Political ideologies shape the acceptability of government support for private tourist companies, legislation in field of tourism, limitation/stimulation of inbound/outbound tourist flows. For the future we expect greater politicisation of tourism, active tourism ‘wars’ between countries, greater control of governments on populations, thriving nationalism, ‘aggressive’ environmentalism. Originality/value. This is one of the first papers to discuss the impact of the political ideology on the management of tourism at the national level.
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: News & Politics      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Political ideologies as shapers of future tourism development

  • 1. Political ideologies as shapers of future tourism development Craig Webster Ball State University, USA cwebster3@bsu.edu Stanislav Ivanov Varna University of Management, Bulgaria, stanislav.ivanov@vumk.eu
  • 2. Content (1) • Introduction • Political ideologies • Political ideologies and tourism • Case Studies: Ideological Influences on Tourism and Tourism Management: Bulgaria, Russia, North Korea, USA, Cyprus, Scandinavia, Japan, China 2
  • 3. Content (2) • Future developments in political ideologies and their impact on tourism Politicisation of tourism Tourism wars Environmentalism Greater control on populations Thriving nationalism • Conclusion • References 3
  • 4. Introduction • We aim to illustrate the political ideas translate into typologies of responses to the challenges of tourism. • Our main premise is that political and economic ideas lead to institutions reflecting values and assumptions regarding humans and their political and economic reality. • There is a continuing interest in academic circles in the role of ideas on political outcomes and institutions (see for example; Campbell, 1998, 2002; Lowndes and Roberts, 2013), although this is rarely looked into in the field of tourism, with some exceptions (such as, Britton, 1991; Britton, 1982; Hall, 2004; Jeffries, 2001; Desforges, 2000; Stevenson et al., 2008). 4
  • 5. Political ideologies (1) 5 Ideology Terminology Schumaker et al. (1997) Sargent (1996) Macris (1986) Vincent (2009) Conservatism  Traditional Conservatism  Contemporary Conservatism  Contemporary Conservatism  Conservatism  Conservatism Liberalism  Classical Liberalism  Contemporary Liberalism  Contemporary Liberalism  Democratic Liberalism  Liberalism Anarchism  Anarchism  Anarchism  Anarchism  Anarchism Marxism  Marxism  Communism  Democratic Socialism  Marxism  Democratic Socialism  Democratic Capitalism  Communism  Democratic Socialism  Utopian Socialism  Socialism
  • 6. Political ideologies (2) 6 Ideology Terminology Schumaker et al. (1997) Sargent (1996) Macris (1986) Vincent (2009) Fascism / National Socialism  Fascism and Nazism  Fascism and National Socialism  Fascism/Nazis m  Fascism Environmentalis m  Environmentali sm  Environmentali sm  Ecologism Other ideologies referred to  Feminism  Fundamentalis m  Nationalism  Feminism  Third World Ideologies  Liberation Theology  Islam  Nationalism  Nationalism  Fundamentalis m  Feminism
  • 7. Political ideologies and tourism (1) 7 Ideology Role of the State Role of the Individual Priority of Tourism in the Society How it Should be Enjoyed/Supplied Liberalism Limited Purchased and enjoyed by the individual Low, except for economic development purposes Market-supplied Anarchism None Enjoyed communally High, as it is linked with the high value of freedom Society-supplied Social Democracy Provision of legal framework to ensure leisure and tourism opportunities, state regulation to ensure leisure and tourism Purchased and enjoyed by the individual High, as it is linked with entitlements of the working class Mostly market- supplied but such supply ensured by substantial state interventions into the market
  • 8. Political ideologies and tourism (2) 8 Ideology Role of the State Role of the Individual Priority of Tourism in the Society How it Should be Enjoyed/Supplied Communism Provision of Tourism and Leisure of time during Dictatorship of the Proletariat, no role after socialist phase is past Enjoyed communally High, as it is linked with entitlements of the working class State-supplied, society-supplied (in later historical stages) Fascism / National Socialism Provision of legal framework to ensure leisure and tourism opportunities, state/party intervention to ensure leisure and tourism Provided by the state and market and enjoyed communally High, as it is linked with a system of rewards for the loyalty of the working classes Mixture of state and market forces supplying tourism opportunities
  • 9. Case Studies: Bulgaria • Until 1989 – communist ideology > all tourist companies were government owned. The tourism sector was managed by the governmental Tourism Committee (Ivanov and Dimitrova, 2014). Tourism serves to create perception of good standard of living of local population. • 1997-2013 – governments with conservative and neoliberal ideas > aggressive privatisation, hand-off approach to tourism management, closure of State Agency for Tourism in 2009! • 2014 – coalition government of parties with opposing political ideologies – conservatism, socialism, nationalism, neoliberalism/social democracy > Ministry of Tourism created in November 2014. 9
  • 10. Case Studies: Russia • Nationalist ideology – ‘inclusive’ strategy – ruling party named ‘United Russia’ • Massive campaign towards domestic tourism and import substitution • Tourist flows directed to Crimea to support the local economy, expansion of Crimea’s airports 10
  • 11. Case Studies: North Korea • Communist ideology • State-organised and strictly controlled visits of foreign tourists • Tourism is highly politically overburdened and is perceived as a way to trumpet the achievements of the communist system (ideologically) and source of foreign exchange (pragmatically). 11
  • 12. Case Studies: USA • Liberal ideology > no official national DMO, many DMOs on city/county/state level • The Office of Travel and Tourism Industries within the Department of Commerce, is largely a ‘think tank’ dealing with research, data collection and policy recommendations (Webster, Ivanov, Illum, 2011). 12
  • 13. Case Studies: Cyprus • Divided island – the Republic of Cyprus and ‘the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus’ • Nationalist ideologies • In both political entities, the state has retained a key role in the promotion and regulation of tourism, clearly defying liberal principals but also clearly not for redistributive purposes, but is done more in line with nationalist ideology. 13
  • 14. Case Studies: Scandinavia • Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Denmark • Social democracy > well-developed welfare states > very strong governmental interventions into the economy, very high income tax levels in all the Scandinavian states, with the intention to redistribute the wealth to the poorer strata of society. • In all the countries, the government was fairly generous in funding NTOs and supporting all sorts of efforts to promote national tourism products. • In recent years, there has been a gradual introduction of ideas that are more oriented with market needs > transferring more responsibilities to private companies, privatisation, decrease in size of the NTOs 14
  • 15. Case Studies: Japan • The Liberal Democratic party of Japan has controlled the government of Japan almost continuously since World War Two. • One of the key elements in the regulation of tourism for Japan is the key role that the government plays in the control of the inflow of tourists (Soshiroda 2005), in the marketing to tourists (Uzama 2009), and in the tourism industry in Japan (Zhang and McCornac 2014). • The strong government involvement is more in line with the nationalist ideology, rather than with the liberal (as the name of the ruling party suggests), intending to create a stronger industry to be in line with building a stronger national economy. 15
  • 16. Case Studies: China • Political ideology > communism • Economic ideology > economic nationalism • Great governmental control over the tourism industry, including ownership of tourist enterprises • The China National Tourism Administration is a governmental authority that has considerable authority in terms of the regulation of tourism in China as well as performs research and marketing for the Chinese tourism product abroad (Bao et al 2014; Su and Teo 2009; Weaver 2015). 16
  • 17. Future developments Politicisation of tourism (1) • Tourism as a tool for achieving political and economic goals > it is politically convenient to tax non-voting non- residents. • Tourism as a tool to generate votes and win elections through satisfying the interests of some of the stakeholders – for instance, subsidising the infrastructure construction, renovation or expansion (conservative/social democratic approach), vouchers to local residents to be used for domestic tourism (socialist approach), tax breaks for investors in municipalities with high unemployment rate (conservative/liberal approach), removal or simplification of regulations towards tourism businesses (liberal approach), etc. 17
  • 18. Future developments Politicisation of tourism (2) • Political ideologies differ on the basis of: a) who would be supported – the tourist companies (conservatism, social democracy, liberalism) or the tourists (socialism); b) how would the support be provided – indirect support: elimination of tax and regulatory burden on tourist companies (liberalism), provision of public assets and services needed to tourists and tourist companies (conservatism, social democracy) or direct support: vouchers for use of tourist services, subsidies for tourist companies (socialism). 18
  • 19. Future developments Politicisation of tourism (3) • Tourism as a tool to promote political ideas (North Korea) • Tourism as a tool to stimulate the integration of new territories (Russia > Crimea) • Foreign tourists as lucrative targets of terrorist attacks. For the future: increased politicisation of tourism 19
  • 20. Future developments Tourism wars (1) • A natural consequence of the politicisation of tourism is the tourism wars. • Tourist wars relate to the aggressive destination marketing and in general can be applied by both destinations and tourist generating countries. When applied by destinations tourism wars refer to the diverting (‘stealing’) of inbound tourists from competitor destinations. When applied by tourist generating countries tourism wars include redirecting outbound tourist flows from one destination to another as a substitute and extension of political ‘wars’. 20
  • 21. Future developments Tourism wars (2) • Stimulation of domestic tourism and recommendations by the Russian officials to citizens not to travel to countries that support the EU/USA sanctions (BurgasNews, 2015) > lower expected number of tourists for Greece, Cyprus, Turkey, Bulgaria, Egypt and other countries. • Countries’ reactions included: subsidising charter flights from Russia to Turkey (social-democratic approach) (Vestnik Kavkaza, 2015), simplified visa issue process for Russian tourists visiting Greece (liberal approach) (Greek Travel Pages, 2015), or voices from Bulgarian tourism industry for compensation from the EU for missed revenues (socialist approach) (News.bg, 2015). For the future: we expect such tourist wars to continue and sometimes even worsen. 21
  • 22. Future developments Environmentalism (1) • Environmentalism has permeated the agenda of political parties, governments and NGOs. • It is no longer just ‘save the planet’ way of thinking emphasising economic use of resources, use of renewable energy, waste separation, recycling and so on. • Environmentalism has now received the qualities of a political doctrine per se – it is organised (Greenpeace and other organisations), influences our daily life (e.g. compulsory home waste separation), regulates the economic activities (e.g. ISO 14000: Environmental management; EU requirements about renewable energy’s share in total energy production within the union) and its issues are discussed on top political and global level (e.g. UN’s Agenda 21). 22
  • 23. Future developments Environmentalism • For the future: we expect much greater role of sustainability thinking in governments and local authorities, leading to the infusion of even more ‘aggressive’ green thinking in tourism organisations – e.g. compulsory offsetting of the carbon footprint for every tourist, compulsory minimum percentage of renewable energy in the total energy consumption of tourism enterprises, expansion of protected areas and limited access to them, severe regulations on water consumption and transportation in resorts, etc. • In the future, the potential choice ‘jobs or environment’ (the ecologists stopping the development of resorts and infrastructure) would be transformed into ‘jobs and environment’ (tourist go to places with proper environment management). 23
  • 24. Future developments Greater control on populations • The political goal of achieving greater control on populations might lead to the use of tourism as a tool to introduce and spread faster the human radio- frequency identification (RFID) microchip implants (Ivanov et al. 2013). • Through tourism, neo-conservative governments might popularise the benefits of implanted RFID microchips – smooth and fast passage at airports and frontier control points, electronic visa, no need of carrying physical ID/passport/cash/credit or debit cards, greater security of travel, no need of foreign exchange, etc. 24
  • 25. Future developments Thriving nationalism • New nations find nationalism and domestic tourism as tools for nation-building. • The heritisation, antiquisation and the glorification of the past become vital steps in the process. Governments construct monuments, dedicated to the victorious ancient rulers and prominent figures from nation’s history, sometimes regardless of the historical facts, use tourism to promote the real and invented national heritage. • Example: The nationalist ideology and the aim of the political elite of the Republic of Macedonia (creating a new nation and inventing it past it could be proud of) led to the erection of monuments in Skopje disputed by Greece (e.g. Alexandre the Great) and Bulgaria (e.g. King Samuil). 25
  • 26. Conclusion • There is a friction between liberal and nationalist approaches to tourism management. • Greater role of the market forces > gradual retreat of the governments from strong tourism management on national level. • Resistance to (neo)liberalism in many countries. 26
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  • 32. THANK YOU FOR THE ATTENTION! QUESTIONS? (CRAIG ANSWERING VIA TELEPATHY!) 32

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