INTRODUCTION TO NANOTECHNOLOGYAn Overview of Fluid Mechanics for MEMS -Reni Raju
MEMS (Applications) Accelerometers for airbags Micro heat exchangers Sensors Actuators Micropumps
NEMS (Application) Nanostructured Catalysts Drug Delivery systems Molecular Assembler/Replicators Sensors Magnetic Storage...
Fluid Mechanics of MEMS Devices having a characteristic length of less than 1 mm but more than 1 micron. 10-16 10-14...
FLUID MODELLING Conventional Navier Stokes with no-slip boundary conditions cannot be used. Pressure Gradient is non-const...
For Gases Fluid Modeling Molecular Modeling Continuum ...
Either as a collection of molecules or as a continuum.Mean Free path, 1 ...
Kn=0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 Continuum Flow ...
CONTINUUM MODEL Local Properties such as Density and Velocity are averages over elements large compared with the microscop...
Conversation of Energy: ∂e ∂  e ∂q ∂i ...
Euler’s Equation: Fluid is invisicid and non-conducting, ∂ρ ∂ ...
Compressibility DENSITY CHANGES DUE TO TEMPERATURE Strong wall Heating or cooling may cause density change. DENSITY CH...
For Adiabatic Walls; T −T0 T* = ...
For Isothermal Wall; ˆ T −T0 T = ...
Boundary Conditions At the Fluid- Solid Interface No-slip and no-temperature jump is based on no discontinuities of veloci...
Slip velocity & Temperature Jump, 2 −σv  ∂u *  3 (γ −1) Kn 2 Re  ∂T *  u gas ...
MOLECULAR BASED MODELS Goal is to determine the position , velocity and state of all particles at all times. DETERMINISTIC...
STATISTICAL MODEL:Based on probability of finding a molecule at a particular position and state.Six-dimensional phase spac...
Non-linear collision integral, describes the net effect of populating and depopulatingcollisions on the distribution. ...
LIQUID FLOWS The Average distance between the molecules approaches the molecular diameter. Molecules are always in collisi...
Slip length,  γ  Ls = Lo  −  1 ...
SURFACE PHENOMENA Surface to Volume ratio for 1 micron is 106 m-1. High Radiative and Convective Heat transfer. Increased ...
Fluid Mechanics for NEMS Nanofluids - thermal conductivity fluids. Possibility of applying Continuum Model for low Knudsen...
TASKS AHEAD Modeling using the Continuum model for the Slip Flow Regime Knudsen Numbers. Understanding the mechanics of Na...
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Nanotechnology2

Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Nanotechnology2

  • 1. INTRODUCTION TO NANOTECHNOLOGYAn Overview of Fluid Mechanics for MEMS -Reni Raju
  • 2. MEMS (Applications) Accelerometers for airbags Micro heat exchangers Sensors Actuators Micropumps
  • 3. NEMS (Application) Nanostructured Catalysts Drug Delivery systems Molecular Assembler/Replicators Sensors Magnetic Storage Applications Reinforced Polymers Nanofluids
  • 4. Fluid Mechanics of MEMS Devices having a characteristic length of less than 1 mm but more than 1 micron. 10-16 10-14 10-12 10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 100 102 Dia. Of Proton H-Atom Human Hair Man Diameter NEMS MEMS
  • 5. FLUID MODELLING Conventional Navier Stokes with no-slip boundary conditions cannot be used. Pressure Gradient is non-constant along a microduct and flowrate greater than predicted. Surface to volume ratio is high of the order of 106 m-1 for a characteristic length of 1 micron. Other factors like thermal creep, rarefaction, viscous dissipation, compressibility etc.
  • 6. For Gases Fluid Modeling Molecular Modeling Continuum ModelsDeterministic Statistical Euler Burnett Navier Stokes MD Liouville DSMC Boltzmann
  • 7. Either as a collection of molecules or as a continuum.Mean Free path, 1 = 2πnσ 2Characteristic Length, ρ L= ∂ρ ∂yKnudsen Number,  πγ Ma Kn = = L 2 Re
  • 8. Kn=0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 Continuum Flow Transition Regime(Ordinary Density Levels) (Moderately Rarefied) Slip-Flow Regime Free-Molecule Flow (Slightly Rarefied) (Highly rarefied) Local value of Knudsen Number determines the degree of rarefaction and the degree of validity of the continuum model.
  • 9. CONTINUUM MODEL Local Properties such as Density and Velocity are averages over elements large compared with the microscopic structure of the fluid but small enough to permit the use of differential calculus. Conservation of Mass: ∂ρ ∂ + ( ρu k ) = 0 ∂t ∂xk Conservation of Momentum: ∂ i u ∂i u σ  ∂ ki ρ  +u k =  +ρ i g ∂t ∂k x  ∂k x
  • 10. Conversation of Energy: ∂e ∂  e ∂q ∂i u ρ  +u k σ  =− k + ki ∂t ∂k  x  ∂k x ∂k xClosure:  ∂u ∂u   ∂u  σki = − pδki + µ i + k  + λ j  ∂x δki  k ∂xi    ∂x  j   ∂T qi = −k + Flux (radiation ) ∂xi de = cv dT p = ρRT
  • 11. Euler’s Equation: Fluid is invisicid and non-conducting, ∂ρ ∂ + ( ρu k ) = 0 ∂t ∂xk ∂ i u ∂i u  ∂p ρ  +u k  =−  +ρ i g ∂t ∂k x  ∂k x ∂T ∂T  ∂ k u ρ v c  +u k  =−p  ∂t ∂k x  ∂k x
  • 12. Compressibility DENSITY CHANGES DUE TO TEMPERATURE Strong wall Heating or cooling may cause density change. DENSITY CHANGES DUE TO PRESSURE Pressure changes due to viscous effects even for Ma<0.3. Continuity Equation: Dρ ∂u +ρ k =0 Dt ∂xk 1 Dρ Dp DT =α −β 1 ∂ρ ρ Dt Dt Dt α ( p, T ) = ρ ∂p T 1 ∂ρ β ( p, T ) = − ρ ∂T p
  • 13. For Adiabatic Walls; T −T0 T* = u  Pr  0  c   p0  1 Dρ *  Dp * Pr Bβ * DT *  = γ 0 Ma 2 α * −  ρ * Dt *  Dt * A Dt *  A = α0 ρ0 c p 0T0 ; B = β0T0
  • 14. For Isothermal Wall; ˆ T −T0 T = Tw −T0 1 Dρ * Dp *  T − T0  DT ˆ = γ 0 Ma 2α * − Bβ *  w  T   Dt * ρ * Dt * Dt *  0 
  • 15. Boundary Conditions At the Fluid- Solid Interface No-slip and no-temperature jump is based on no discontinuities of velocity/temperature. Continuum applicable for Kn<0.001 Tangential Slip velocity at wall, ∂u ∆ w = u gas −u wall =  u ∂y w For Real gases, 2 −σv ∂u ∆ w = u gas −u wall = u  σv ∂y w
  • 16. Slip velocity & Temperature Jump, 2 −σv  ∂u *  3 (γ −1) Kn 2 Re  ∂T *  u gas −u wall * * =  *  +  ∂y    σv  w 4 γ Ec  ∂x * w   2 −σT  2γ  Kn  ∂T *  T * gas −T wall = *   σT (γ +1)  Pr  ∂y * w     where τi −τr σv = , τi −τw dEi − dEr σT = dEi − dEw
  • 17. MOLECULAR BASED MODELS Goal is to determine the position , velocity and state of all particles at all times. DETERMINISTIC MODEL: Particle described in the form of two body potential energy and time evolution of the molecular positions by integrating Newton’s Law of motion. Shortcomings: Need to choose a proper and convenient potential for a fluid & solid combination. Vast computer resources.
  • 18. STATISTICAL MODEL:Based on probability of finding a molecule at a particular position and state.Six-dimensional phase space.Assumption, for dilute gases with binary collision with no degrees of freedom.Liouville equation, conservation of N-particle distribution function in 6N-dimensionalspace, ∂ℑ N ∂ℑ N ∂ℑ +∑ k . ξ + ∑Fk . =0 ∂t k=1 ∂xk k=1 ∂xkBoltzmann equation for monatomic gases with binary collision, ∂( nf ) ∂( nf ) ∂( nf ) +ξ j + Fj = J ( f , f *) ∂t ∂x j ∂x j j =1,2,3
  • 19. Non-linear collision integral, describes the net effect of populating and depopulatingcollisions on the distribution. ∞ 4π J ( f , f *) = ∫ ∫n ( f * f1* − ff1 )ξrσdΩ(dξ )1 2 −∞ 0
  • 20. LIQUID FLOWS The Average distance between the molecules approaches the molecular diameter. Molecules are always in collision state. Difficult to predict. Non-Newtonian behaviour commences, ∂u γ=  ≥2τ−1 ∂y Contradictory results in experimental data and modelling. MD seems to be the best option available. Based on MD, the degree of slip increases as the relative wall density increases or the strength of the wall-fluid coupling decreases.
  • 21. Slip length,  γ  Ls = Lo  −  1  γc  
  • 22. SURFACE PHENOMENA Surface to Volume ratio for 1 micron is 106 m-1. High Radiative and Convective Heat transfer. Increased importance to surface forces and waning importance of body forces. Significant cohesive intermolecular forces between surface, stiction independent of device mass. Adsorbed layer. Surface tension and nonlinear volumetric intermolecular forces.
  • 23. Fluid Mechanics for NEMS Nanofluids - thermal conductivity fluids. Possibility of applying Continuum Model for low Knudsen number.(?) Model applicability to Dense and rare gas. Possible treatment of Liquids as dense gas at Nano scale.(?) Importance of Quantum Mechanics. Importance of Surface Phenomenons.
  • 24. TASKS AHEAD Modeling using the Continuum model for the Slip Flow Regime Knudsen Numbers. Understanding the mechanics of Nano-scaled Domains. Arriving at a suitable modeling technique comparable with the experimental data (if available.)

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