1 Learn Java/J2EE core concepts and design/coding issues WithJava/J2EE Job Interview Companion ...
2 Java/J2EE Job Interview Co...
3OutlineSECTION DESCRIPTION What this book will do for you? Motivation for this book ...
4 application? 9. How would you go about applying the UML diagrams in your Java/J2EE project?...
5Table of contentsOutline ________________________________________________________________________ 3Table of contents ____...
6What this book will do for you?Have you got the time to read 10 or more books and articles to add value prior to the inte...
7Motivation for this bookI started using Java in 1999 when I was working as a junior developer. During those two years as ...
8 Apply OO concepts like inheritance, polymorphism and encapsulation: Refer Q08 in Java section. Pro...
9Key Areas IndexI have categorised the core concepts and issues into 14 key areas as listed below. These key areas are vit...
10 Java SECTION ONE ...
Java 11Java – Language FundamentalsQ 01: Give a few reasons for us...
12 Java All the code in Java program is enc...
Java 13 ...
14 Java The increased quality and reduced development ti...
Java 15Sample code: //client or calling code ...
16 Java Implementation inheritance ...
Java 17 ...
18 Java On public methods ...
Java 19 assert Expression1 : Expression2; Where:...
20 Java When to use an interface?: For polymorphic ...
Java 21A 14: The key interfaces us...
22 Java List myList = Collections.sync...
Java 23 List lineItems = new ArrayList(); ...
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  • 1. 1 Learn Java/J2EE core concepts and design/coding issues WithJava/J2EE Job Interview Companion By K.Arulkumaran Technical Reviewers Craig Malone Lara D’Albreo Stuart Watson Acknowledgements A. Sivayini R.Kumaraswamipillai Cover Design K. Arulkumaran A.Sivayini
  • 2. 2 Java/J2EE Job Interview Companion Copy Right 2005 K.Arulkumaran The author has made every effort in the preparation of this book to ensure the accuracy of the information. However, information in this book is sold without warranty either express or implied. The author will not be held liable for any damages caused or alleged to be caused either directly or indirectly by this book.
  • 3. 3OutlineSECTION DESCRIPTION What this book will do for you? Motivation for this book Key Areas indexSECTION 1 Interview questions and answers on: Java Language Fundamentals Swing Applet Performance and memory Leaks. PersonalSECTION 2 Interview questions and answers on: Enterprise Java J2EE Servlet JSP JDBC JNDI RMI EJB JMS XML SQL, Database tuning and O/R mapping RUP & UML Struts Web and Application servers. Best practices and performance considerations. Testing and deployment. PersonalSECTION 3 Putting it all together section. How would you go about…? 1. How would you go about documenting your Java/J2EE application? 2. How would you go about designing a Java/J2EE application? 3. How would you go about identifying performance problems and/or memory leaks in your Java application? 4. How would you go about minimising memory leaks in your Java/J2EE application? 5. How would you go about improving performance of your Java/J2EE application? 6. How would you go about identifying any potential thread-safety issues in your Java/J2EE application? 7. How would you go about identifying any potential transactional issues in your Java/J2EE application? 8. How would you go about applying the Object Oriented (OO) design concepts in your Java/J2EE
  • 4. 4 application? 9. How would you go about applying the UML diagrams in your Java/J2EE project? 10. How would you go about describing the software development processes you are familiar with? 11. How would you go about applying the design patterns in your Java/J2EE application? 12. How would you go about determining the enterprise security requirements for your Java/J2EE application? 13. How would you go about describing the open source projects like JUnit (unit testing), Ant (build tool), CVS (version control system) and log4J (logging tool) which are integral part of most Java/J2EE projects? 14. How would you go about describing Web services?SECTION 4 Emerging Technologies/Frameworks Test Driven Development (TDD). Aspect Oriented Programming (AOP). Inversion of Control (IOC) (Also known as Dependency Injection). Annotations or attributes based programming (xdoclet etc). Spring framework. Hibernate framework. EJB 3.0. JavaServer Faces (JSF) framework.SECTION 5 Sample interview questions … Java Web Components Enterprise Design General GLOSSARY OF TERMS RESOURCES INDEX
  • 5. 5Table of contentsOutline ________________________________________________________________________ 3Table of contents ________________________________________________________________ 5What this book will do for you? _____________________________________________________ 6Motivation for this book ___________________________________________________________ 7Key Areas Index _________________________________________________________________ 9Java – Interview questions & answers_______________________________________________ 10 Java – Language Fundamentals _______________________________________________________ 11 Java – Personal _____________________________________________________________________ 37 Java – Key Points ___________________________________________________________________ 40GLOSSARY OF TERMS _________________________________________________________ 43RESOURCES __________________________________________________________________ 45INDEX _______________________________________________________________________ 47
  • 6. 6What this book will do for you?Have you got the time to read 10 or more books and articles to add value prior to the interview? This book has beenwritten mainly from the perspective of Java/J2EE job seekers and interviewers. There are numerous books and articleson the market covering specific topics like Java, J2EE, EJB, Design Patterns, ANT, CVS, Multi-Threading, Servlets, JSP,emerging technologies like AOP (Aspect Oriented Programming), Test Driven Development (TDD), Inversion of Control(IoC) etc. But from an interview perspective it is not possible to brush up on all these books where each book usually hasfrom 300 pages to 600 pages. The basic purpose of this book is to cover all the core concepts and design/coding issueswhich, all Java/J2EE developers, designers and architects should be conversant with to perform well in their current jobsand to launch a successful career by doing well at interviews. The interviewer can also use this book to make sure thatthey hire the right candidate depending on their requirements. This book contains a wide range of topics relating toJava/J2EE development in a concise manner supplemented with diagrams, tables, sample codes and examples. Thisbook is also appropriately categorised to enable you to choose the area of interest to you.This book will assist all Java/J2EE practitioners to become better at what they do. Usually it takes years to understand allthe core concepts and design/coding issues when you rely only on your work experience. The best way to fast track thisis to read appropriate technical information and proactively apply these in your work environment. It worked for me andhopefully it will work for you as well. I was also at one stage undecided whether to name this book “Java/J2EE coreconcepts and solving design/coding issues” or “Java/J2EE Job Interview Companion”. The reason I chose“Java/J2EE Job Interview Companion” is because these core concepts and design/coding issues helped me to besuccessful in my interviews and also gave me thumbs up in code reviews.
  • 7. 7Motivation for this bookI started using Java in 1999 when I was working as a junior developer. During those two years as a permanent employee,I pro-actively spent many hours studying the core concepts behind Java/J2EE in addition to my hands on practicalexperience. Two years later I decided to start contracting. Since I started contracting in 2001, my career had a much-needed boost in terms of contract rates, job satisfaction, responsibility etc. I moved from one contract to another with aview of expanding my skills and increasing my contract rates.In the last 5 years of contracting, I have worked for 5 different organisations both medium and large on 8 differentprojects. For each contract I held, on average I attended 6-8 interviews with different companies. In most cases multiplejob offers were made and consequently I was in a position to negotiate my contract rates and also to choose the job Iliked based on the type of project, type of organisation, technology used, etc. I have also sat for around 10 technical testsand a few preliminary phone interviews.The success in the interviews did not come easily. I spent hours prior to each set of interviews wading through variousbooks and articles as a preparation. The motivation for this book was to collate all this information into a single book,which will save me time prior to my interviews but also can benefit others in their interviews. What is in this book hashelped me to go from just a Java/J2EE job to a career in Java/J2EE in a short time. It has also given me the jobsecurity that ‘I can find a contract/permanent job opportunity even in the difficult job market’.I am not suggesting that every one should go contracting but by performing well at the interviews you can be in a positionto pick the permanent role you like and also be able to negotiate your salary package. Those of you who are already ingood jobs can impress your team leaders, solution designers and/or architects for a possible promotion by demonstratingyour understanding of the key areas discussed in this book. You can discuss with your senior team members aboutperfomance issues, transactional issues, threading issues (concurrency issues) and memory issues. In most ofmy previous contracts I was in a position to impress my team leads and architects by pinpointing some of the criticalperformance, memory, transactional and threading issues with the code and subsequently fixing them. Trust me it is nothard to impress someone if you understand the key areas.For example: Struts action classes are not thread-safe (Refer Q113 in Enterprise section). JSP variable declaration is not thread-safe (Refer Q34 in Enterprise section). Valuable resources like database connections should be closed properly to avoid any memory and performance issues (Refer Q45 in Enterprise section). Throwing an application exception will not rollback the transaction in EJB. (Refer Q77 in Enterprise section).The other key areas, which are vital to any software development, are a good understanding of some of key designconcepts, design patterns, and a modelling language like UML. These key areas are really worthy of a mention inyour resume and interviews.For example: Know how to use inheritance, polymorphism and encapsulation (Refer Q5, Q6, Q7, and Q8 in Java section.). Why use design patterns? (Refer Q5 in Enterprise section). Why is UML important? (Refer Q106 in Enterprise section).If you happen to be in an interview with an organization facing serious issues with regards to their Java applicationrelating to memory leaks, performance problems or a crashing JVM etc then you are likely to be asked questions onthese topics. Refer Q 63 – Q 65 in Java section and Q123, Q125 in Enterprise section.Another good reason why these key areas like transactional issues, design concepts, design patterns etc are vital arebecause solution designers, architects, team leads, and/or senior developers are usually responsible for conducting thetechnical interviews. These areas are their favourite topics because these are essential to any software development.Some interviewers request you to write a small program during interview or prior to getting to the interview stage. This isto ascertain that you can code using object oriented concepts and design patterns. So I have included a coding key areato illustrate what you need to look for while coding.
  • 8. 8 Apply OO concepts like inheritance, polymorphism and encapsulation: Refer Q08 in Java section. Program to interfaces not to implementations: Refer Q08, Q15 in Java section. Use of relevant design patterns: Refer Q11 in How would you go about… section. Use of Java collection API and exceptions correctly: Refer Q15, Q34, and Q35 in Java section. Stay away from hard coding values: Refer Q04 in Java section. L anguage F u n d a m e n t a ls H o w m a n y b o o k s d o I h a v e to r e a d to P e rfo rm a n c e u n d e r s t a n d a n d p u t t o g e t h e r a ll t h e s e Is s u e s k e y a re a s ? H o w m a n y y e a r s o f e x p e r ie n c e s h o u ld I h a v e t o u n d e r s t a n d a ll t h e s e S p e c if ic a t io n k e y a re a s ? E x c e p tio n F u n d a m e n ta ls H a n d lin g W ill t h e s e k e y a r e a s h e lp m e p r o g r e s s in m y c a r e e r ? S o ftw a re D e v e lo p m e n t P ro c e s s W ill t h e s e k e y a r e a s h e lp m e c u t q u a lit y c o d e ? D e s ig n D e s ig n C o n c e p ts S E c u r ity P a tte rn s T r a n s a c tio n a l Is s u e s B est C o n c u rre n c y S c a la b ilit y P r a c tic e s Is su e s Iss u e s M e m o ry Is su e s CO d in g LF DC CI PI SE EH SD DP SF MI SI TI BP CO This book aims to solve the above dilemma.My dad keeps telling me to find a permanent job (instead of contracting), which in his view provides better job security butI keep telling him that in my view in Information Technology the job security is achieved only by keeping your knowledgeand skills sharp and up to date. The 8 contract positions I held over the last 5.5 years have given me broader experiencein Java/J2EE and related technologies. It also kept me motivated since there was always something new to learn in eachassignment, and not all companies will appreciate your skills and expertise until you decide to leave. Do the followingstatements sound familiar to you when you hand in your resignation or decide not to extend your contract after gettinganother job offer? “Can I tempt you to come back? What can I do to keep you here?” etc. You might even think why youwaited so long. The best way to make an impression in any organisations is to understand and proactively apply andresolve the issues relating to the Key Areas discussed in the next section. But be a team player, be tactful and don’tbe critical of everything, do not act in a superior way and have a sense of humour. “Technical skills must be complemented with interpersonal skills.”Quick Read guide: It is recommended that you go through all the questions in all the sections but if you are pressed for time or wouldlike to read it just before an interview then follow the steps shown below: 1. Read/Browse Popular Questions in Java and Enterprise Java sections. 2. Read/Browse Key Points in Java and Enterprise Java sections. 3. Read/Browse through “Emerging Technologies/Frameworks” section. 4. Read/Browse “How would you go about…” section excluding Q11 & Q13, which are discussed in detail.
  • 9. 9Key Areas IndexI have categorised the core concepts and issues into 14 key areas as listed below. These key areas are vital for anygood software development. This index will enable you to refer to the questions based on key areas. Also note that eachquestion has an icon next to it to indicate which key area or areas it belongs to. Additional reading is recommended forbeginners in each of the key areas. Key Areas icon Question Numbers Java section Enterprise section How Emerging would you Technologies go /Frameworks about…? Language LF Q1-Q4, Q10-Q14, Q16- - Q10, Q15, Fundamentals Q20, Q22-Q27, Q30- Q17, Q19 Q33, Q36-Q43, Q47-Q62 Specification SF - Q1-Q19, Q26-Q33, Q35- Q14 Fundamentals Q38, Q41, Q42, Q44, Q46- Q81, Q89-Q97, Q99, 102, Q110, Q112-Q115, Q118- Q119, Q121, Q126, Q127, Q128 Design Concepts DC Q5-Q9, Q10, Q13, Q22, Q2, Q3, Q19, Q20, Q21, Q02, Q08, Q3-Q9, Q11, Q49 Q31, Q45, Q98, Q106, Q09 Q13, Q14, Q107, Q108, Q109, 101, Q16, Q18, Q111 Q20 Design Patterns DP Q10, Q14, Q20, Q31, Q5, Q5, Q22, Q24, Q25, Q11 Q12 Q45, Q46, Q50, Q54, Q83, Q84, Q85, Q86, Q87, Q66 Q88, Q110, Q111, Q116 Transactional TI - Q43, Q71, Q72, Q73, Q74, Q7 Issues Q75, Q77, Q78, Q79 Concurrency Issues CI Q13, Q15, Q29, Q36, Q16, Q34, Q113 Q6 Q40, Q53 Performance Issues PI Q13, Q15 -Q22, Q40, Q10, Q16, Q43, Q45, Q46, Q3, Q5 Q53, Q63. Q72, Q83-Q88, Q97, Q98, Q100, Q102, Q123, Q125, Q128 Memory Issues MI Q22, Q29, Q32, Q33, Q45, Q93 Q3, Q4 Q36, Q45, Q64, Q65. Scalability Issues SI Q19, Q20 Q20, Q21, Q120, Q122 Exception Handling EH Q34,Q35 Q76, Q77 Security SE Q61 Q12, Q13, Q23, Q35, Q46, Q12 Q51, Q58, Q81 Best Practices BP Q15, Q21, Q34, Q63, Q10, Q16, Q39, Q40, Q46, Q64 Q82, Q124, Q125 Software SD - Q103-Q109, Q129, Q133, Q1, Q10, Q1, Q2 Development Q134, Q136 Q13 Process Coding1 CO Q04, Q08, Q10, Q12, Q10, Q18, Q21, Q23, Q36, Q11 Q13, Q15, Q16, Q17, Q38, Q42, Q43, Q45, Q74, Q21, Q34, Q45, Q46 Q75, Q76, Q77, Q112, Q114, Q127, Q1281 Some interviewers request you to write a small program during interview or prior to getting to the interview stage. This is to ascertainthat you can code using object oriented concepts and design patterns. I have included a coding key area to illustrate what you need tolook for while coding. Unlike other key areas, the CO is not always shown against the question but shown above the actual section ofrelevance within a question.
  • 10. 10 Java SECTION ONE Java – Interview questions & answers Language Fundamentals LF K E Design Concepts DC Y Design Patterns DP Concurrency Issues CI A Performance Issues PI R Memory Issues MI E Exception Handling EH A S Security SE Scalability Issues SI Coding1 COPopular Questions: Q01, Q04, Q07, Q08, Q13, Q16, Q17, Q18, Q19, Q25, Q27, Q29, Q32, Q34, Q40, Q45, Q46, Q50, Q51, Q53, Q54,Q55, Q63,Q64, Q66, Q671 Unlike other key areas, the CO is not always shown against the question but shown above the actual subsection of relevance within aquestion.
  • 11. Java 11Java – Language FundamentalsQ 01: Give a few reasons for using Java? LF DCA 01: Java is a fun language. Let’s look at some of the reasons: Built-in support for multi-threading, socket communication, and memory management (automatic garbage collection). Object Oriented (OO). Better portability than other languages across operating systems. Supports Web based applications (Applet, Servlet, and JSP), distributed applications (sockets, RMI. EJB etc) and network protocols (HTTP, JRMP etc) with the help of extensive standardised APIs (Application Program Interfaces).Q 02: What is the main difference between the Java platform and the other software platforms? LFA 02: Java platform is a software-only platform, which runs on top of other hardware-based platforms like UNIX, NT etc. The Java platform has 2 components: Java Virtual Machine (JVM) – ‘JVM’ is a software that can be ported onto various hardware platforms. Byte codes are the machine language of the JVM. Java Application Programming Interface (Java API) -Q 03: What is the difference between C++ and Java? LFA 03: Both C++ and Java use similar syntax and are Object Oriented, but: Java does not support pointers. Pointers are inherently tricky to use and troublesome. Java does not support multiple inheritances because it causes more problems than it solves. Instead Java supports multiple interface inheritance, which allows an object to inherit many method signatures from different interfaces with the condition that the inheriting object must implement those inherited methods. The multiple interface inheritance also allows an object to behave polymorphically on those methods. [Refer Q 8 and Q 10 in Java section.] Java does not support destructors but rather adds a finalize() method. Finalize methods are invoked by the garbage collector prior to reclaiming the memory occupied by the object, which has the finalize() method. This means you do not know when the objects are going to be finalized. Avoid using finalize() method to release non-memory resources like file handles, sockets, database connections etc because Java has only a finite number of these resources and you do not know when the garbage collection is going to kick in to release these resources through the finalize() method. Java does not include structures or unions because the traditional data structures are implemented as an object oriented framework (Java collection framework – Refer Q14, Q15 in Java section).
  • 12. 12 Java All the code in Java program is encapsulated within classes therefore Java does not have global variables or functions. C++ requires explicit memory management, while Java includes automatic garbage collection. [Refer Q32 in Java section].Q 04: Explain Java class loaders? Explain dynamic class loading? LFA 04: Class loaders are hierarchical. Classes are introduced into the JVM as they are referenced by name in a class that is already running in the JVM. So how is the very first class loaded? The very first class is specially loaded with the help of static main() method declared in your class. All the subsequently loaded classes are loaded by the classes, which are already loaded and running. A class loader creates a namespace. All JVMs include at least one class loader that is embedded within the JVM called the primordial (or bootstrap) class loader. Now let’s look at non-primordial class loaders. The JVM has hooks in it to allow user defined class loaders to be used in place of primordial class loader. Let us look at the class loaders created by the JVM. CLASS LOADER reloadable? Explanation Bootstrap No Loads JDK internal classes, java.* packages. (as defined in the sun.boot.class.path (primordial) system property, typically loads rt.jar and i18n.jar) Extensions No Loads jar files from JDK extensions directory (as defined in the java.ext.dirs system property – usually lib/ext directory of the JRE) System No Loads classes from system classpath (as defined by the java.class.path property, which is set by the CLASSPATH environment variable or –classpath or –cp command line options) JVM class loaders Bootstrap (primordial) Classes loaded by Bootstrap class loader have no visibility into classes (rt.jar, i18.jar) loaded by its descendants (ie Extensions and Systems class loaders). Extensions The classes loaded by system class loader have visibility into classes loaded (lib/ext) by its parents (ie Extensions and Bootstrap class loaders). If there were any sibling class loaders they cannot see classes loaded by System each other. T hey can only see the classes loaded by their parent class (-classpath) loader. For example Sibling1 class loader cannot see classes loaded by Sibling2 class loader Sibling1 Sibling2 Both Sibling1 and Sibling2 class loaders have visibilty into classes loaded classloader classloader by their parent class loaders (eg: System, Extensions, and Bootstrap) Class loaders are hierarchical and use a delegation model when loading a class. Class loaders request their parent to load the class first before attempting to load it themselves. When a class loader loads a class, the child class loaders in the hierarchy will never reload the class again. Hence uniqueness is maintained. Classes loaded by a child class loader have visibility into classes loaded by its parents up the hierarchy but the reverse is not true as explained in the above diagram. Important: Two objects loaded by different class loaders are never equal even if they carry the same values, which mean a class is uniquely identified in the context of the associated class loader. This applies to singletons too, where each class loader will have its own singleton. [Refer Q45 in Java section for singleton design pattern] Explain static vs dynamic class loading? Static class loading Dynamic class loading Classes are statically loaded with Java’s Dynamic loading is a technique for programmatically invoking the functions of a “new” operator. class loader at run time. Let us look at how to load classes dynamically. class MyClass { Class.forName (String className); //static method which returns a Class public static void main(String args[]) { Car c = new Car(); The above static method returns the class object associated with the class } name. The string className can be supplied dynamically at run time. Unlike the } static loading, the dynamic loading will decide whether to load the class Car or the class Jeep at runtime based on a properties file and/or other runtime
  • 13. Java 13 conditions. Once the class is dynamically loaded the following method returns an instance of the loaded class. It’s just like creating a class object with no arguments. class.newInstance (); //A non-static method, which creates an instance of a class (ie creates an object). Jeep myJeep = null ; //myClassName should be read from a properties file or Constants interface. //stay away from hard coding values in your program. CO String myClassName = "au.com.Jeep" ; Class vehicleClass = Class.forName(myClassName) ; myJeep = (Jeep) vehicleClass.newInstance(); myJeep.setFuelCapacity(50); A NoClassDefFoundException is A ClassNotFoundException is thrown when an application tries to load in a thrown if a class is referenced with class through its string name using the following methods but no definition for the Java’s “new” operator (i.e. static loading) class with the specified name could be found: but the runtime system cannot find the referenced class. The forName(..) method in class - Class. The findSystemClass(..) method in class - ClassLoader. The loadClass(..) method in class - ClassLoader. What are “static initializers” or “static blocks with no function names”? When a class is loaded, all blocks that are declared static and don’t have function name (ie static initializers) are executed even before the constructors are executed. As the name suggests they are typically used to initialize static fields. CO public class StaticInitilaizer { public static final int A = 5; public static final int B; //Static initializer block, which is executed only once when the class is loaded. static { if(A == 5) B = 10; else B = 5; } public StaticInitilaizer(){} // constructor is called only after static initializer block } The following code gives an Output of A=5, B=10. public class Test { System.out.println("A =" + StaticInitilaizer.A + ", B =" + StaticInitilaizer.B); }Q 05: What are the advantages of Object Oriented Programming Languages (OOPL)? DCA 05: The Object Oriented Programming Languages directly represent the real life objects like Car, Jeep, Account, Customer etc. The features of the OO programming languages like polymorphism, inheritance and encapsulation make it powerful. [Tip: remember pie which, stands for Polymorphism, Inheritance and Encapsulation are the 3 pillars of OOPL]Q 06: How does the Object Oriented approach improve software development? DCA 06: The key benefits are: Re-use of previous work: using implementation inheritance and object composition. Real mapping to the problem domain: Objects map to real world and represent vehicles, customers, products etc: with encapsulation. Modular Architecture: Objects, systems, frameworks etc are the building blocks of larger systems.
  • 14. 14 Java The increased quality and reduced development time are the by-products of the key benefits discussed above. If 90% of the new application consists of proven existing components then only the remaining 10% of the code have to be tested from scratch.Q 07: How do you express an ‘is a’ relationship and a ‘has a’ relationship or explain inheritance and composition? What is the difference between composition and aggregation? DCA 07: The ‘is a’ relationship is expressed with inheritance and ‘has a’ relationship is expressed with composition. Both inheritance and composition allow you to place sub-objects inside your new class. Two of the main techniques for code reuse are class inheritance and object composition. Inheritance [ is a ] Vs Composition [ has a ] Building is a is a [House is a Building] has a [House has a Bathroom] class Building{ class House { has a ....... Bathroom room = new Bathroom() ; } .... public void getTotMirrors(){ class House extends Building{ room.getNoMirrors(); Bathroom ......... .... House } } } Inheritance is uni-directional. For example House is a Building. But Building is not a House. Inheritance uses extends key word. Composition: is used when House has a Bathroom. It is incorrect to say House is a Bathroom. Composition simply means using instance variables that refer to other objects. The class House will have an instance variable, which refers to a Bathroom object. Which one to use? The guide is that inheritance should be only used when subclass ‘is a’ superclass. Don’t use inheritance just to get code reuse. If there is no ‘is a’ relationship then use composition for code reuse. Overuse of implementation inheritance (uses the “extends” key word) can break all the subclasses, if the superclass is modified. Do not use inheritance just to get polymorphism. If there is no ‘is a’ relationship and all you want is polymorphism then use interface inheritance with composition, which gives you code reuse (Refer Q8 in Java section for interface inheritance). What is the difference between aggregation and composition? Aggregation Composition Aggregation is an association in which one class Composition is an association in which one class belongs to a belongs to a collection. This is a part of a whole collection. This is a part of a whole relationship where a part relationship where a part can exist without a whole. cannot exist without a whole. If a whole is deleted then all parts are For example a line item is a whole and product is a deleted. For example An order is a whole and line items are parts. part. If a line item is deleted then corresponding If an order deleted then all corresponding line items for that order product need not be deleted. So aggregation has a should be deleted. So composition has a stronger relationship. weaker relationship.Q 08: What do you mean by polymorphism, inheritance, encapsulation, and dynamic binding? DCA 08: Polymorphism – means the ability of a single variable of a given type to be used to reference objects of different types, and automatically call the method that is specific to the type of object the variable references. In a nutshell, polymorphism is a bottom-up method call. The benefit of polymorphism is that it is very easy to add new classes of derived objects without breaking the calling code (i.e. getTotArea() in the sample code shown below) that uses the polymorphic classes or interfaces. When you send a message to an object even though you don’t know what specific type it is, and the right thing happens, that’s called polymorphism. The process used by object- oriented programming languages to implement polymorphism is called dynamic binding. Let us look at some sample code to demonstrate polymorphism: CO
  • 15. Java 15Sample code: //client or calling code <<abstract>> For example: given a base Shape double dim = 5.0; //ie 5 meters radius or width List listShapes = new ArrayList(20); class/interface Shape, polymorphism allows the +area() : double Shape s = new Circle(); programmer to define listShapes.add(s); //add circle different area(double s = new Square(); dim1) methods for any Circle listShapes.add(s); //add square number of derived classes Square such as Circle, Square etc. +area() : double getTotArea (listShapes,dim); //returns 78.5+25.0=103.5 No matter what shape an +area() : double //Later on, if you decide to add a half circle then define object is, applying the area //a HalfCircle class, which extends Circle and then provide an method to it will return the HalfCircle //area(). method but your called method getTotArea(...) remains right results. //same. +area() : double s = new HalfCircle(); Later on HalfCicle can be listShapes.add(s); //add HalfCircle added without breaking your called code i.e. getTotArea (listShapes,dim); //returns 78.5+25.0+39.25=142.75 method getTotalArea(...) «interface» Shape /** called method: method which adds up areas of various +area() : double ** shapes supplied to it. **/ Depending on what the public double getTotArea(List listShapes, double dim){ shape is, appropriate Iterator it = listShapes.iterator(); area(double dim) method Circle Square double totalArea = 0.0; gets called and calculated. //loop through different shapes Circle area is 78.5sqm +area() : double +area() : double while(it.hasNext()) { Shape s = (Shape) it.next(); Square area is 25sqm totalArea += s.area(dim); //polymorphic method call HalfCircle area is 39.25 HalfCircle } sqm return totalArea ; } +area() : doubleInheritance – is the inclusion of behaviour (i.e. methods) and state (i.e. variables) of a base class in a derivedclass so that they are accessible in that derived class. The key benefit of Inheritance is that it provides the formalmechanism for code reuse. Any shared piece of business logic can be moved from the derived class into thebase class as part of refactoring process to improve maintainability of your code by avoiding code duplication. Theexisting class is called the superclass and the derived class is called the subclass. Inheritance can also bedefined as the process whereby one object acquires characteristics from one or more other objects the same waychildren acquire characteristics from their parents.There are two types of inheritances:1. Implementation inheritance (aka class inheritance): You can extend an applications’ functionality by reusingfunctionality in the parent class by inheriting all or some of the operations already implemented. In Java, you canonly inherit from one superclass. Implementation inheritance promotes reusability but improper use of classinheritance can cause programming nightmares by breaking encapsulation and making future changes a problem.With implementation inheritance, the subclass becomes tightly coupled with the superclass. This will make thedesign fragile because if you want to change the superclass, you must know all the details of the subclasses toavoid breaking them. So when using implementation inheritance, make sure that the subclasses depend onlyon the behaviour of the superclass, not on the actual implementation. For example in the above diagram thesubclasses should only be concerned about the behaviour known as area() but not how it is implemented.2. Interface inheritance (aka type inheritance): This is also known as subtyping. Interfaces provide a mechanismfor specifying a relationship between otherwise unrelated classes, typically by specifying a set of commonmethods each implementing class must contain. Interface inheritance promotes the design concept of program tointerfaces not to implementations. This also reduces the coupling or implementation dependencies betweensystems. In Java, you can implement any number of interfaces. This is more flexible than implementationinheritance because it won’t lock you into specific implementations which make subclasses difficult to maintain. Socare should be taken not to break the implementing classes by modifying the interfaces.Which one to use? Prefer interface inheritance to implementation inheritance because it promotes the designconcept of coding to an interface and reduces coupling. Interface inheritance can achieve code reuse with thehelp of object composition. If you look at Gang of Four (GoF) design patterns, you can see that it favoursinterface inheritance to implementation inheritance. CO
  • 16. 16 Java Implementation inheritance Interface inheritance Let’s assume that savings account and term deposit Let’s look at an interface inheritance code sample, which makes account have a similar behaviour in terms of depositing use of composition for reusability. In the following example the and withdrawing money, so we will get the super class to methods deposit(…) and withdraw(…) share the same piece of code implement this behaviour and get the subclasses to reuse in AccountHelper class. The method calculateInterest(…) has its this behaviour. But saving account and term deposit specific implementation in its own class. account have specific behaviour in calculating the interest. public interface Account { public abstract class Account { public abstract void deposit(double amount); public abstract void withdraw(double amount); public void deposit(double amount) { public abstract int getAccountType(); //deposit logic } } public interface SavingsAccount extends Account{ public void withdraw(double amount) { public abstract double calculateInterest(double amount); //withdraw logic } } public interface TermDepositAccount extends Account{ public abstract double calculateInterest(double amount); public abstract double calculateInterest(double amount); } } The classes SavingsAccountImpl, TermDepositAccountImpl public class SavingsAccount extends Account { should implement the methods declared in its interfaces. The class AccountHelper implements the methods deposit(…) and public double calculateInterest(double amount) { withdraw(…) //calculate interest for SavingsAccount } public class SavingsAccountImpl implements SavingsAccount{ } private int accountType = 1; public class TermDepositAccount extends Account { //helper class which promotes code reuse through composition AccountHelper helper = new AccountHelper(); public double calculateInterest(double amount) { //calculate interest for TermDeposit public void deposit(double amount) { } helper.deposit(amount, getAccountType()); } } public void withdraw(double amount) { The calling code can be defined as follows for illustration helper.withdraw(amount, getAccountType()); purpose only: } public double calculateInterest(double amount) { public class Test { //calculate interest for SavingsAccount public static void main(String[] args) { } Account acc1 = new SavingsAccount(); public int getAccountType(){ acc1.deposit(5.0); return accountType; acc1.withdraw(2.0); } } Account acc2 = new TermDepositAccount(); acc2.deposit(10.0); public class TermDepositAccountImpl implements acc2.withdraw(3.0); TermDepositAccount { private int accountType = 2; acc1.calculateInterest(500.00); acc2.calculateInterest(500.00); //helper class which promotes code reuse through composition } AccountHelper helper = new AccountHelper(); } public void deposit(double amount) { helper.deposit(amount, getAccountType()); } public void withdraw(double amount) { helper.withdraw(amount, getAccountType()); } public double calculateInterest(double amount) { //calculate interest for TermDeposit } public int getAccountType() { return accountType; } } The calling code can be defined as follows for illustration purpose only: public class Test { public static void main(String[] args) {
  • 17. Java 17 Account acc1 = new SavingsAccountImpl(); acc1.deposit(5.0); Account acc2 = new TermDepositAccountImpl(); acc2.deposit(10.0); if (acc1.getAccountType() == 1) { ((SavingsAccount) acc1).calculateInterest(500.00); } if (acc2.getAccountType() == 2) { ((TermDepositAccount) acc2).calculateInterest(500.00); } } } Encapsulation – refers to keeping all the related members (variables and methods) together in an object. Specifying members as private can hide the variables and methods. Objects should hide their inner workings from the outside view. Good encapsulation improves code modularity by preventing objects interacting with each other in an unexpected way, which in turn makes future development and refactoring efforts easy. Being able to encapsulate members of a class is important for security and integrity. We can protect variables from unacceptable values. The sample code below describes how encapsulation can be used to protect the MyMarks object from having negative values. Any modification to member variable “vmarks” can only be carried out through the setter method setMarks(int mark). This prevents the object “MyMarks” from having any negative values by throwing an exception. CO Sample code Class MyMarks { private int vmarks = 0; k) in private String name; ar tg Member tm et in M variables are s( ar public void setMarks(int mark) ark ks encapsulated, throws MarkException { tM () so that they if(mark > 0) se can only be this.vmarks = mark; accessed via else { private int vmarks; encapsulating throw new MarkException("No negative private String name; methods. Values"); } se tN ) } am e( e (S am tri tN public int getMarks(){ ng ge g return vmarks; na rin } m e) St //getters and setters for attribute name goes here. }Q 09: What is design by contract? Explain the assertion construct? DCA 09: Design by contract specifies the obligations of a calling-method and called-method to each other. Design by contract is a valuable technique, which should be used to build well-defined interfaces. The strength of this programming methodology is that it gets the programmer to think clearly about what a function does, what pre and post conditions it must adhere to and also it provides documentation for the caller. Java uses the assert statement to implement pre- and post-conditions. Java’s exceptions handling also support design by contract especially checked exceptions (Refer Q34 in Java section for checked exceptions). In design by contract in addition to specifying programming code to carrying out intended operations of a method the programmer also specifies: 1. Preconditions – This is the part of the contract the calling-method must agree to. Preconditions specify the conditions that must be true before a called method can execute. Preconditions involve the system state and the arguments passed into the method at the time of its invocation. If a precondition fails then there is a bug in the calling-method or calling software component.
  • 18. 18 Java On public methods On non-public methods Preconditions on public methods are enforced by explicit checks You can use assertion to check the parameters of the that throw particular, specified exceptions. You should not use non-public methods. assertion to check the parameters of the public methods but can use for the non-public methods. Assert is inappropriate private void setCalculatedRate(int rate) { because the method guarantees that it will always enforce the assert (rate > 0 && rate < MAX_RATE) : rate; argument checks. It must check its arguments whether or not //calculate the rate and set it. assertions are enabled. Further, assert construct does not throw } an exception of a specified type. It can throw only an AssertionError. Assertions can be disabled, so programs must not assume that assert construct will be always executed: public void setRate(int rate) { if(rate <= 0 || rate > MAX_RATE){ //Wrong: if assertion is disabled, CarpenterJob never throw new IllegalArgumentException(“Invalid rate ” + rate); //Get removed } assert jobsAd.remove(PilotJob); setCalculatedRate(rate); } //Correct: boolean pilotJobRemoved = jobsAd.remove(PilotJob); assert pilotJobRemoved; 2. Postconditions – This is the part of the contract the called-method agrees to. What must be true after a method completes successfully. Postconditions can be used with assertions in both public and non-public methods. The postconditions involve the old system state, the new system state, the method arguments and the method’s return value. If a postcondition fails then there is a bug in the called-method or called software component. public double calcRate(int rate) { if(rate <= 0 || rate > MAX_RATE){ throw new IllegalArgumentException(“Invalid rate !!! ”); } //logic to calculate the rate and set it goes here assert this.evaluate(result) < 0 : this; //this message sent to AssertionError on failure return result; } 3. Class invariants - what must be true about each instance of a class? A class invariant as an internal invariant that can specify the relationships among multiple attributes, and should be true before and after any method completes. If an invariant fails then there could be a bug in either calling-method or called-method. There is no particular mechanism for checking invariants but it is convenient to combine all the expressions required for checking invariants into a single internal method that can be called by assertions. For example if you have a class, which deals with negative integers then you define the isNegative() convenient internal method: class NegativeInteger { Integer value = new Integer (-1); //invariant //constructor public NegativeInteger(Integer int) { //constructor logic goes here assert isNegative(); } //rest of the public and non-public methods goes here. public methods should call assert isNegative(); prior to its return //convenient internal method for checking invariants. Returns true if the integer value is negative private boolean isNegative(){ return value.intValue() < 0 ; } } The isNegative() method should be true before and after any method completes, each public method and constructor should contain the following assert statement immediately prior to its return. assert isNegative(); Explain the assertion construct? The assertion statements have two forms as shown below: assert Expression1;
  • 19. Java 19 assert Expression1 : Expression2; Where: Expression1 is a boolean expression. If the Expression1 evaluates to false, it throws an AssertionError without any detailed message. Expression2 if the Expression1 evaluates to false throws an AssertionError with using the value of the Expression2 as the errors’ detailed message. Note: If you are using assertions (available from JDK1.4 onwards), you should supply the JVM argument to enable it by package name or class name. Java -ea[:packagename...|:classname] or Java -enableassertions[:packagename...|:classname] Java –ea:AccountQ 10: What is the difference between an abstract class and an interface and when should you use them? LF DP DCA 10: In design, you want the base class to present only an interface for its derived classes. This means, you don’t want anyone to actually instantiate an object of the base class. You only want to upcast to it (implicit upcasting, which gives you polymorphic behaviour), so that its interface can be used. This is accomplished by making that class abstract using the abstract keyword. If anyone tries to make an object of an abstract class, the compiler prevents it. The interface keyword takes this concept of an abstract class a step further by preventing any method or function implementation at all. You can only declare a method or function but not provide the implementation. The class, which is implementing the interface, should provide the actual implementation. The interface is a very useful and commonly used aspect in OO design, as it provides the separation of interface and implementation and enables you to: Capture similarities among unrelated classes without artificially forcing a class relationship. Declare methods that one or more classes are expected to implement. Reveal an objects programming interface without revealing its actual implementation. Model multiple interface inheritance in Java, which provides some of the benefits of full on multiple inheritances, a feature that some object-oriented languages support that allow a class to have more than one superclass. Diam ond problem & use of interface Shape <<Interface>> ShapeIF C ircle Square C ircleO nSquare C ircle Square <<Interface>> <<Interface>> C ircleIF SquareIF C ircleO nSquare M ultiple interface inheritance in JA VA N o m ultiple inheritance in JA VA Abstract class Interface Have executable methods and abstract methods. Have no implementation code. All methods are abstract. Can only subclass one abstract class. A class can implement any number of interfaces. Can have instance variables, constructors and any Cannot have instance variables, constructors and can have visibility: public, private, protected, none (aka package). only public and none (aka package) visibility. When to use an abstract class?: In case where you want to use implementation inheritance then it is usually provided by an abstract base class. Abstract classes are excellent candidates inside of application frameworks. Abstract classes let you define some default behaviour and force subclasses to provide any specific behaviour. Care should be taken not to overuse implementation inheritance as discussed in Q8 in Java section.
  • 20. 20 Java When to use an interface?: For polymorphic interface inheritance, where the client wants to only deal with a type and does not care about the actual implementation use interfaces. If you need to change your design frequently, you should prefer using interface to abstract. CO Coding to an interface reduces coupling and interface inheritance can achieve code reuse with the help of object composition. Another justification for using interfaces is that they solve the ‘diamond problem’ of traditional multiple inheritance as shown in the figure. Java does not support multiple inheritances. Java only supports multiple interface inheritance. Interface will solve all the ambiguities caused by this ‘diamond problem’. Design pattern: Strategy design pattern lets you swap new algorithms and processes into your program without altering the objects that use them. Strategy design pattern: Refer Q11 in How would you go about… section.Q 11: Why there are some interfaces with no defined methods (i.e. marker interfaces) in Java? LFA 11: The interfaces with no defined methods act like markers. They just tell the compiler that the objects of the classes implementing the interfaces with no defined methods need to be treated differently. Example Serializable (Refer Q19 in Java section), Cloneable etcQ 12: When is a method said to be overloaded and when is a method said to be overridden? LF COA 12: Method Overloading Method Overriding Overloading deals with multiple methods in the same class Overriding deals with two methods, one in the parent class and with the same name but different method signatures. the other one in the child class and has the same name and signatures. class MyClass { public void getInvestAmount(int rate) {…} class BaseClass{ public void getInvestAmount(int rate) {…} public void getInvestAmount(int rate, long principal) } { … } } class MyClass extends BaseClass { public void getInvestAmount(int rate) { …} Both the above methods have the same method names } but different method signatures, which mean the methods are overloaded. Both the above methods have the same method names and the signatures but the method in the subclass MyClass overrides the method in the superclass BaseClass. Overloading lets you define the same operation in Overriding lets you define the same operation in different different ways for different data. ways for different object types.Q 13: What is the main difference between an ArrayList and a Vector? What is the main difference between Hashmap and Hashtable? LF DC PI CIA 13: Vector / Hashtable ArrayList / Hashmap Original classes before the introduction of Collections So if you don’t need a thread safe collection, use the ArrayList or API. Vector & Hashtable are synchronized. Any Hashmap. Why pay the price of synchronization unnecessarily at method that touches their contents is thread-safe. the expense of performance degradation. So which is better? As a general rule, prefer ArrayList/Hashmap to Vector/Hashtable. If your application is a multithreaded application and at least one of the threads either adds or deletes an entry into the collection then use new Java collection API‘s external synchronization facility as shown below to temporarily synchronize your collections as needed: CO Map myMap = Collections.synchronizedMap (myMap); List myList = Collections.synchronizedList (myList); Java arrays are even faster than using an ArrayList/Vector and perhaps therefore may be preferable. ArrayList/Vector internally uses an array with some convenient methods like add(..), remove(…) etc.Q 14: Explain the Java Collection framework? LF DP
  • 21. Java 21A 14: The key interfaces used by the collection framework are List, Set and Map. The List and Set extends the Collection interface. Should not confuse the Collection interface with the Collections class which is a utility class. A Set is a collection with unique elements and prevents duplication within the collection. HashSet and TreeSet are implementations of a Set interface. A List is a collection with an ordered sequence of elements and may contain duplicates. ArrayList, LinkedList and Vector are implementations of a List interface. The Collection API also supports maps, but within a hierarchy distinct from the Collection interface. A Map is an object that maps keys to values, where the list of keys is itself a collection object. A map can contain duplicate values, but the keys in a map must be distinct. HashMap, TreeMap and Hashtable are implementations of a Map interface. How to implement collection ordering? SortedSet and SortedMap interfaces maintain sorted order. The classes, which implement the Comparable interface, impose natural order. For classes that don’t implement comparable interface, or when one needs even more control over ordering based on multiple attributes, a Comparator interface should be used. Design pattern: What is an Iterator? An Iterator is a use once object to access the objects stored in a collection. Iterator design pattern (aka Cursor) is used, which is a behavioural design pattern that provides a way to access elements of a collection sequentially without exposing its internal representation. JAVA collectio n fram ework < in terface> C o llectio n A b stractC o llectio n java.u til.C o llectio n s ex tends < in terface> asL ist A rrays L ist < in terface> < in terface> M ap A b stractL ist S et A b stractM ap A b stractS et A b stract < in terface> S eq u en tial < in terface> S o rted M ap L ist S o rted S et < in terface> Id en tity R an d o m H ash M ap A cess T reeS et T reeM ap L in ked L ist W eak H ash M ap im plements A rrayL ist H ash S et H ash M ap V ecto r L in ked < in terface> S tack H ash M ap L in ked C o m p arato r H ash S et (Diagram sourced from: http://www.wilsonmar.com/1arrays.htm) What are the benefits of the Java collection framework? Collection framework provides flexibility, performance, and robustness. Polymorphic algorithms – sorting, shuffling, reversing, binary search etc. Set algebra - such as finding subsets, intersections, and unions between objects. Performance - collections have much better performance compared to the older Vector and Hashtable classes with the elimination of synchronization overheads. Thread-safety - when synchronization is required, wrapper implementations are provided for temporarily synchronizing existing collection objects. Immutability - when immutability is required wrapper implementations are provided for making a collection immutable. Extensibility - interfaces and abstract classes provide an excellent starting point for adding functionality and features to create specialized object collections.Q 15: What are some of the best practices relating to Java collection? BP PI CIA 15: Use ArrayLists, HashMap etc as opposed to Vector, Hashtable etc, where possible to avoid any synchronization overhead. Even better is to use just arrays where possible. If multiple threads concurrently access a collection and at least one of the threads either adds or deletes an entry into the collection, then the collection must be externally synchronized. This is achieved by: Map myMap = Collections.synchronizedMap (myMap);
  • 22. 22 Java List myList = Collections.synchronizedList (myList); Set the initial capacity of a collection appropriately (e.g. ArrayList, HashMap etc). This is because collection classes like ArrayList, HashMap etc must grow periodically to accommodate new elements. But if you have a very large array, and you know the size in advance then you can speed things up by setting the initial size appropriately. For example: HashMaps/Hashtables need to be created with sufficiently large capacity to minimise rehashing (which happens every time the table grows). HashMap has two parameters initial capacity and load factor that affect its performance and space requirements. Higher load factor values (default load factor of 0.75 provides a good trade off between performance and space) will reduce the space cost but will increase the lookup cost of myMap.get(…) and myMap.put(…) methods. When the number of entries in the HashMap exceeds the current capacity * loadfactor then the capacity of the HasMap is roughly doubled by calling the rehash function. It is also very important not to set the initial capacity too high or load factor too low if iteration performance or reduction in space is important. Program in terms of interface not implementation: For example you might decide a LinkedList is the best choice for some application, but then later decide ArrayList might be a better choice for performance reason. CO Use: List list = new ArrayList(100); //program in terms of interface & set the initial capacity. Instead of: ArrayList list = new ArrayList(); Avoid storing unrelated or different types of objects into same collection: This is analogous to storing items in pigeonholes without any labelling. To store items use value objects or data objects (as oppose to storing every attribute in an ArrayList or HashMap). Provide wrapper classes around your collection API classes like ArrayList, Hashmap etc as shown in better approach column. Also where applicable consider using composite design pattern, where an object may represent a single object or a collection of objects. Refer Q52 in Java section for UML diagram of a composite design pattern. CO Avoid where possible Better approach The code below is hard to maintain and understand by When storing items into a collection define value objects as shown others. Also gets more complicated as the requirements below: (VO is an acronym for Value Object). grow in the future because we are throwing different types of objects like Integer, String etc into a list just public class LineItemVO { based on the indices and it is easy to make mistakes private int itemId; while casting the objects back during retrieval. private String productName; List myOrder = new ArrayList() public int getLineItemId(){return accountId ;} public int getAccountName(){return accountName;} ResultSet rs = … public void setLineItemId(int accountId ){ While (rs.hasNext()) { this.accountId = accountId } List lineItem = new ArrayList(); //implement other getter & setter methods } lineItem.add (new Integer(rs.getInt(“itemId”))); lineItem.add (rs.getString(“description”)); Now let’s define our base wrapper class, which represents an order: …. myOrder.add( lineItem); public abstract class Order { } int orderId; List lineItems = null; return myOrder; public abstract int countLineItems(); Example 2: public abstract boolean add(LineItemVO itemToAdd); public abstract boolean remove(LineItemVO itemToAdd); List myOrder = new ArrayList(10); public abstract Iterator getIterator(); public int getOrderId(){return this.orderId; } //create an order } OrderVO header = new OrderVO(); header.setOrderId(1001); Now a specific implementation of our wrapper class: … //add all the line items public class OverseasOrder extends Order { LineItemVO line1 = new LineItemVO(); public OverseasOrder(int inOrderId) { line1.setLineItemId(1); this.lineItems = new ArrayList(10); LineItemVO line2 = new LineItemVO(); this.orderId = inOrderId; Line2.setLineItemId(2); }
  • 23. Java 23 List lineItems = new ArrayList(); public int countLineItems() { //logic to count } lineItems.add(line1); lineItems.add(line2); public boolean add(LineItemVO itemToAdd){ …//additional logic or checks //to store objects return lineItems.add(itemToAdd); myOrder.add(order);// index 0 is an OrderVO object } myOrder.add(lineItems);//index 1 is a List of line items public boolean remove(LineItemVO itemToAdd){ //to retrieve objects return lineItems.remove(itemToAdd); myOrder.get(0); } myOrder.get(1); public ListIterator getIterator(){ return lineItems.Iterator();} Above approaches are bad because disparate objects } are stored in the lineItem collection in example-1 and example-2 relies on indices to store disparate objects. Now to use: The indices based approach and storing disparate objects are hard to maintain and understand because Order myOrder = new OverseasOrder(1234) ; indices are hardcoded and get scattered across the code. If an index position changes for some reason, then LineItemVO item1 = new LineItemVO(); you will have to change every occurence, otherwise it Item1.setItemId(1); breaks your application. Item1.setProductName(“BBQ”); The above coding approaches are analogous to storing LineItemVO item2 = new LineItemVO(); disparate items in a storage system without proper Item1.setItemId(2); labelling and just relying on its grid position. Item1.setProductName(“Outdoor chair”); //to add line items to order myOrder.add(item1); myOrder.add(item2); …Q 16: When providing a user defined key class for storing objects in the Hashmaps or Hashtables, what methods do you have to provide or override (ie method overriding)? LF PI COA 16: You should override the equals() and hashCode() methods from the Object class. The default implementation of the equals() and hashcode(), which are inherited from the java.lang.Object uses an object instance’s memory location (e.g. MyObject@6c60f2ea). This can cause problems when two instances of the car objects have the same color but the inherited equals() will return false because it uses the memory location, which is different for the two instances. Also the toString() method can be overridden to provide a proper string representation of your object. Points to consider: • If a class overrides equals(), it must override hashCode(). • If 2 objects are equal, then their hashCode values must be equal as well. • If a field is not used in equals(), then it must not be used in hashCode(). • If it is accessed often, hashCode() is a candidate for caching to enhance performance. Note: Java 1.5 introdces enumerated constants, which improves readability and maintainability of your code. Java programming language enums are more powerful than their counterparts in other languages. E.g. A class like Weather can be built on top of simple enum type Season and the class Weather can be made immutable, and only one instance of each Weather can be created, so that your Weather class does not have to override equals() and hashCode() methods. public class Weather { public enum Season {WINTER, SPRING, SUMMER, FALL} private final Season season; private static final List<Weather> listWeather = new ArrayList<Weather> (); private Weather (Season season) { this.season = season;} public Season getSeason () { return season;} static { for (Season season : Season.values()) { listWeather.add(new Weather(season)); } } public static ArrayList<Weather> getWeatherList () { return listWeather; } public String toString(){ return season;} // takes advantage of toString() method of Season. }

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